Cart211 1 the_history_of_the_internet


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CART 211 Section A
Fall 2010

Freida Abtan
Class 1: The History of the Internet

Much of this presentation was culled from Wikipedia and from a few relevant websites including:

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  • 1969- created by a small research team at the head of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of the United States Department of DefensePacket switching is a digital networking communications method that groups all transmitted data – regardless of content, type, or structure – into suitably-sized blocks, called packets. packets are buffered and queued, resulting in variable delay, So requires redundancy and communication for checking whats been received.. contrasts with another principal networking paradigm, circuit switching, a method which sets up a limited number of dedicated connections of constant bit rate and constant delay between nodes for exclusive use..-Thus, not only could the link be shared (much as a single post box can be used to post letters to different destinations), but each packet could be routed independently of other packets.
  • ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), created by a small research team at the head of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of the United States Department of Defense, was the world's first operational packet switching network, and one of the networks that came to compose the global Internet. The packet switching of the ARPANET was based on designs by Lawrence Roberts, of the Lincoln Laboratory.[1]Packet switching, now the dominant basis for data communications worldwide, then was a new and important concept. Data communications had been based on the idea of circuit switching, as in the old, typical telephone circuit, wherein a dedicated circuit is occupied for the duration of the telephone call, and communication is possible only with the single party at the far end of the circuit.With packet switching, a data system could use one communications link to communicate with more than one machine by disassembling data into datagrams, then gather these as packets. Thus, not only could the link be shared (much as a single post box can be used to post letters to different destinations), but each packet could be routed independently of other packets.1970: Arpanet networkAn Arpanet network was established between Harvard, MIT, and BBN (the company that created the "interface message processor" computers used to connect to the network) in 1970.
  • a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs, including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Brian Kernighan, Douglas McIlroy, and Joe Ossanna. Today's Unix systems are split into various branches, developed over time by AT&T as well as various commercial vendors and non-profit organizations.In May 1975 ARPA documented in RFC 681 detailed very specifically why Unix is the operating system of choice for use as an ARPANET "mini-host". The evaluation process was also documented. Unix required a license that was very expensive with US$20,000 for non-university users and US$150 for an educational license. It was noted that for an "ARPA network wide license" Bell "were open to suggestions in that area".
  • Email was first developed in 1971 by Ray Tomlinson, who also made the decision to use the "@" symbol to separate the user name from the computer name (which later on became the domain name).Electronic mail, commonly called email or e-mail, is a method of exchanging digital messages across the Internet or other computer networks. Originally, email was transmitted directly from one user to another computer. This required both computers to be online at the same time, a la instant messenger. Today's email systems are based on a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward, deliver and store messages. Users no longer need be online simultaneously and need only connect briefly, typically to an email server, for as long as it takes to send or receive messages.Network-based email was initially exchanged on the ARPANET in extensions to the File Transfer Protocol (FTP), but is now carried by the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), first published as Internet standard 10 (RFC 821) in 1982.
  • The Internet Protocol Suite is the set of communications protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks. It is commonly also known as TCP/IP, named from two of the most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which were the first two networking protocols defined in this standard. Modern IP networking represents a synthesis of several developments that began to evolve in the 1960s and 1970s, namely the Internet and local area networks, which emerged during the 1980s, together with the advent of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s.The Internet Protocol Suite, like many protocol suites, is constructed as a set of layers. Each layer solves a set of problems involving the transmission of data. In particular, the layers define the operational scope of the protocols within.
  • What is the difference in the user generated content of these sites?What people do they attract?
  • Cart211 1 the_history_of_the_internet

    1. 1. What is the Internet?<br />
    2. 2. Arpanet -<br />Advanced Research Projects Agency Network<br />MIT and DARPA joint initiative<br />First network to run on packet switching<br />One link can communicate with more than one machine<br />Each packet can be routed independently<br />On the October 29, 1969, computers at Stanford and UCLA connected for the first time. In effect, they were the first hosts on what would one day become the Internet.<br />The first message sent across the network was supposed to be "Login", but reportedly, the link between the two colleges crashed on the letter "g".<br />
    3. 3. Arpanet-<br />Advanced Research Projects Agency Network<br />
    4. 4. The history of the Internet<br />
    5. 5. UNIX<br /><ul><li>Local processing facilities.
    6. 6. Efficient file system and access control.
    7. 7. Mountable and de-mountable volumes.
    8. 8. The network control program (NCP), is integrated within the Unix file system.
    9. 9. Network connections treated as special files which can be accessed through standard Unix I/O calls.
    10. 10. The system closes all files on program exit.
    11. 11. Compilers.
    12. 12. Document preparation system.
    13. 13. Editor.
    14. 14. Unified treatment of peripherals as special files.</li></li></ul><li>E-mail (electronic mail)<br />Mail spool readers: Pine, Elm, TRN, <br />Pop3 Clients: Outlook, Eudora <br />Web Based: Gmail, Hotmail<br />Header: To, Sender, Reply-To<br />Subject, Date, etc.<br />Message Body: Encrypted or not<br />Originally, text only!<br />
    15. 15. The early 70s<br />1972: CYCLADES<br />France began its own Arpanet-like project in 1972, called CYCLADES. While Cyclades was eventually shut down, it did pioneer a key idea: the host computer should be responsible for data transmission rather than the network itself.<br />1973: The first trans-Atlantic connection and the popularity of emailing<br />Arpanet made its first trans-Atlantic connection in 1973, with the University College of London. During the same year, email accounted for 75% of all Arpanet network activity.<br />1974: The beginning of TCP/IP<br />1974 was a breakthrough year. A proposal was published to link Arpa-like networks together into a so-called "inter-network", which would have no central control and would work around a transmission control protocol (which eventually became TCP/IP).<br />
    16. 16. The late 70s<br />1977: The PC modem<br />1977 was a big year for the development of the Internet as we know it today. It’s the year the first PC modem, developed by Dennis Hayes and Dale Heatherington, was introduced and initially sold to computer hobbyists.<br />1978: The Bulletin Board System (BBS)<br />The first bulletin board system (BBS) was developed during a blizzard in Chicago in 1978.<br />1979: MUD – The earliest form of multiplayer games<br />The precursor to World of Warcraft and Second Life was developed in 1979, and was called MUD (short for MultiUser Dungeon). MUDs were entirely text-based virtual worlds, combining elements of role-playing games, interactive, fiction, and online chat. <br />
    17. 17. The late 70s<br />1979: Usenet<br />1979 also ushered into the scene: Usenet, created by two graduate students. Usenet was an internet-based discussion system, allowing people from around the globe to converse about the same topics by posting public messages categorized by newsgroups.<br />
    18. 18. TCP/IP<br />1983: Arpanet computers switch over to TCP/IP<br />January 1, 1983 was the deadline for Arpanet computers to switch over to the TCP/IP protocols developed by Vinton Cerf. A few hundred computers were affected by the switch. The name server was also developed in ‘83.<br />
    19. 19. Domain Name System (DNS)<br />The domain name system was created in 1984 along with the first Domain Name Servers (DNS). The domain name system was important in that it made addresses on the Internet more human-friendly compared to its numerical IP address counterparts. DNS servers allowed Internet users to type in an easy-to-remember domain name and then converted it to the IP address automatically.<br />
    20. 20. The 80s<br />1985: Virtual communities<br />1985 brought the development of The WELL (short for Whole Earth ‘Lectronic Link), one of the oldest virtual communities still in operation. It was developed by Stewart Brand and Larry Brilliant in February of ‘85. It started out as a community of the readers and writers of the Whole Earth Review and was an open but "remarkably literate and uninhibited intellectual gathering". Wired Magazine once called The Well "The most influential online community in the world."<br />1986: Protocol wars<br />The so-called Protocol wars began in 1986. European countries at that time were pursuing the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), while the United States was using the Internet/Arpanet protocol, which eventually won out.<br />1987: The Internet grows<br />By 1987, there were nearly 30,000 hosts on the Internet. The original Arpanet protocol had been limited to 1,000 hosts, but the adoption of the TCP/IP standard made larger numbers of hosts possible.<br />1988: IRC – Internet Relay Chat<br />Also in 1988, Internet Relay Chat (IRC) was first deployed, paving the way for real-time chat and the instant messaging programs we use today.<br />
    21. 21. 1989: The proposal for the World Wide Web<br />1989 also brought about the proposal for the World Wide Web, written by Tim Berners-Lee. It was originally published in the March issue of MacWorld, and then redistributed in May 1990. It was written to persuade CERN that a global hypertext system was in CERN’s best interest. It was originally called "Mesh"; the term "World Wide Web" was coined while Berners-Lee was writing the code in 1990.<br />
    22. 22. 1990-1991<br />1990: First commercial dial-up ISP<br />1990 also brought about the first commercial dial-up Internet provider, The World. The same year, Arpanet ceased to exist.<br />1990: World Wide Web protocols finished<br />The code for the World Wide Web was written by Tim Berners-Lee, based on his proposal from the year before, along with the standards for HTML, HTTP, and URLs.<br />1991: First web page created<br />1991 brought some major innovations to the world of the Internet. The first web page was created and, much like the first email explained what email was, its purpose was to explain what the World Wide Web was.<br />
    23. 23. The 90s<br />Browser Wars!<br />1996: First web-based (webmail) service<br />In 1996, HoTMaiL (the capitalized letters are an homage to HTML), the first webmail service, was launched.<br />1997: The term "weblog" is coined<br />While the first blogs had been around for a few years in one form or another, 1997 was the first year the term "weblog" was used. <br />1998: First new story to be broken online instead of traditional media<br />In 1998, the first major news story to be broken online was the Bill Clinton/Monica Lewinsky scandal (also referred to as "Monicagate" among other nicknames), which was posted on The Drudge Report after Newsweek killed the story.<br />1998: Google!<br />Google went live in 1998, revolutionizing the way in which people find information online.<br />1998: Internet-based file-sharing gets its roots<br />In 1998 as well, Napster launched, opening up the gates to mainstream file-sharing of audio files over the internet.<br />
    24. 24. No longer in Use<br />Irc – Inter Relay Chat, ICQ<br />Usenet News and NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol)<br />Bulletin Board Systems<br />MUD – Multi User Dungeon<br />
    25. 25. User generated content<br />