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Web of Data and its Status on Persian Web Data Space

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Linked Data as a step to realization of Semantic Web vision consists of a set of best practices for publishing and connecting structured data on the Web. These best practices have been adopted by an increasing number of data providers over the past years, leading to the creation of a global data space that contains many billions of assertions – the Web of Linked Data. Recently, Linked Data has received attention in domains such as libraries, e-government, e-commerce, search, news providers, e-learning and other data integration applications. Nonetheless, looking at the current status of Linked Data on Persian Web space, adoption has been very limited and data is trapped in many Persian Websites without allowing the integration and reasoning. One reason for this, is the lack of infrastructure and NLP tools to deal with the specific requirements of Persian data. This talk will introduce the Linked (Open) Data principles, its lifecycle and the required steps towards its realization on Persian Web data space.

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Web of Data and its Status on Persian Web Data Space

  1. 1. Web of Data & its Status on Persian Web Data Space Ali Khalili, PhD Knowledge Representation & Reasoning Group Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
  2. 2. Why do we need the Data Web? Linked Open Data 2Ali Khalili Linked Open Data
  3. 3. Why do we need the Data Web? Linked Open Data 2Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Problem: Try to search for these things on the current Web: ‫هستند‬ ‫تفریحی‬ ‫و‬ ‫ورزشی‬ ،‫فرهنگی‬ ‫مجموعه‬ ‫نزدیک‬ ‫که‬ ‫تهران‬ ۲ ‫منطقه‬ ‫در‬ ‫اجاره‬ ‫برای‬ ‫های‬ ‫آپارتمان‬
  4. 4. Why do we need the Data Web? Linked Open Data 2Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Problem: Try to search for these things on the current Web: ‫هستند‬ ‫تفریحی‬ ‫و‬ ‫ورزشی‬ ،‫فرهنگی‬ ‫مجموعه‬ ‫نزدیک‬ ‫که‬ ‫تهران‬ ۲ ‫منطقه‬ ‫در‬ ‫اجاره‬ ‫برای‬ ‫های‬ ‫آپارتمان‬ Web Server rahnama.com www.avval.ir Has data about sport centres in Tehran. Knows about real estate offers in Tehran. DBDB HTMLHTML Web Server ‫اول‬ ‫کتاب‬‫همشهری‬ ‫های‬ ‫نیازمندی‬
  5. 5. Why do we need the Data Web? Linked Open Data 2Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Problem: Try to search for these things on the current Web: ‫هستند‬ ‫تفریحی‬ ‫و‬ ‫ورزشی‬ ،‫فرهنگی‬ ‫مجموعه‬ ‫نزدیک‬ ‫که‬ ‫تهران‬ ۲ ‫منطقه‬ ‫در‬ ‫اجاره‬ ‫برای‬ ‫های‬ ‫آپارتمان‬ Web Server rahnama.com www.avval.ir Has data about sport centres in Tehran. Knows about real estate offers in Tehran. DBDB HTMLHTML Web Server RDF ‫اول‬ ‫کتاب‬‫همشهری‬ ‫های‬ ‫نیازمندی‬
  6. 6. Why do we need the Data Web? (con.) Linked Open Data 3Ali Khalili Linked Open Data • Researchers working on Semantic Web topics in the Middle East. • Side effects of some drugs with a specific chemical compound prescribed for certain diseases. • Who are mayors of central European towns elevated more than 1000m? • Which movies are starring both Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie? • All soccer players, who played as goalkeeper for a club that has a stadium with more than 40.000 seats and who are born in a country with more than 10 million inhabitants. • …
  7. 7. Why do we need the Data Web? (con.) Linked Open Data 3Ali Khalili Linked Open Data • Researchers working on Semantic Web topics in the Middle East. • Side effects of some drugs with a specific chemical compound prescribed for certain diseases. • Who are mayors of central European towns elevated more than 1000m? • Which movies are starring both Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie? • All soccer players, who played as goalkeeper for a club that has a stadium with more than 40.000 seats and who are born in a country with more than 10 million inhabitants. • … Information is available on the Web, but opaque to current search.
  8. 8. Evolution of the Web Linked Open Data 4Ali Khalili Linked Open Data https://mcgratha.wordpress.com/
  9. 9. Evolution of the Web Linked Open Data 4Ali Khalili Linked Open Data https://mcgratha.wordpress.com/ 1998: Semantic Web Road map
  10. 10. Evolution of the Web Linked Open Data 4Ali Khalili Linked Open Data https://mcgratha.wordpress.com/ 1998: Semantic Web Road map 2006: emergence of Data Web
  11. 11. Semantic Web Linked Open Data 5Ali Khalili Linked Open Data
  12. 12. Linked Data Linked Open Data 6Ali Khalili Linked Open Data • A set of best practices for publishing data on the Web.
  13. 13. Linked Data Linked Open Data 6Ali Khalili Linked Open Data • A set of best practices for publishing data on the Web. • Follows 4 simple principles: 1. Use URIs as names (identifiers) for conceptual things. 2. Use HTTP URIs so that users can look up (dereference) those names. 3. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the open standards such as RDF, SPARQL, etc. 4. Include links to other URIs, so that users can discover more things.
  14. 14. Linked Data Principles Linked Open Data 7Ali Khalili Linked Open Data WWW World
  15. 15. Linked Data Principles Linked Open Data 7Ali Khalili Linked Open Data WWW World
  16. 16. Linked Data Principles Linked Open Data 7Ali Khalili Linked Open Data WWW World
  17. 17. Linked Data Principles Linked Open Data 7Ali Khalili Linked Open Data WWW World
  18. 18. Linked Data Principles Linked Open Data 7Ali Khalili Linked Open Data WWW World
  19. 19. 5 Open Data Linked Open Data 8Ali Khalili Linked Open Data make your stuff available on the Web (whatever format) under an open license make it available as structured data (e.g., Excel instead of image scan of a table) make it available in a non-proprietary open format (e.g., CSV as well as of Excel) use Linked Data format (URIs to identify things, RDF to represent data) link your data to other people’s data to provide context http://5stardata.info/
  20. 20. 5 Open Data Linked Open Data 9Ali Khalili Linked Open Data
  21. 21. Linked Open Data Cloud Linked Open Data 10Ali Khalili Linked Open Data http://lod-cloud.net/
  22. 22. Linked Open Data Cloud Linked Open Data 10Ali Khalili Linked Open Data http://lod-cloud.net/
  23. 23. Linked Open Data Cloud Linked Open Data 10Ali Khalili Linked Open Data http://lod-cloud.net/
  24. 24. Linked Open Data Cloud Linked Open Data 10Ali Khalili Linked Open Data http://lod-cloud.net/
  25. 25. Linked Open Data Cloud Linked Open Data 10Ali Khalili Linked Open Data http://lod-cloud.net/
  26. 26. Linked Open Data Cloud Linked Open Data 10Ali Khalili Linked Open Data http://lod-cloud.net/
  27. 27. Linked Open Data Cloud Linked Open Data 10Ali Khalili Linked Open Data http://lod-cloud.net/
  28. 28. Linked Open Data Cloud Linked Open Data 10Ali Khalili Linked Open Data http://lod-cloud.net/
  29. 29. Linked Open Data Cloud Linked Open Data 11Ali Khalili Linked Open Data http://lod-cloud.net/
  30. 30. Statistics Linked Open Data 12Ali Khalili Linked Open Data http://lodlaundromat.org/ http://stats.lod2.eu/ more than 3426 datasets
  31. 31. Linked Open Data 13Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Interlinking Enrichment Quality Analysis Evolution Exploration Extraction Storage/ Querying Authoring Linked (Open) Data Lifecycle http://stack.linkeddata.org/
  32. 32. Extraction Linked Open Data 14Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle
  33. 33. from Semi-structured sources Linked Open Data 15Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Extraction
  34. 34. from Semi-structured sources Linked Open Data 15Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Extraction Resource Property Value
  35. 35. Multi-lingual • 38.3m things in 125 languages • 23.8m are localized descriptions of things in the English DBpedia • English DBpedia describes 4.58m things (68,091,260 statements) Multi-domain 1,445,000 persons, 735,000 places (including 478,000 populated places), 411,000 creative works (including 123,000 music albums, 87,000 films and 19,000 video games), 241,000 organizations (including 58,000 companies and 49,000 educational institutions), 251,000 species and 6,000 diseases Linked Open Data 16Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Extraction DBpedia http://dbpedia.org/resource/Tehran
  36. 36. Multi-lingual • 38.3m things in 125 languages • 23.8m are localized descriptions of things in the English DBpedia • English DBpedia describes 4.58m things (68,091,260 statements) Multi-domain 1,445,000 persons, 735,000 places (including 478,000 populated places), 411,000 creative works (including 123,000 music albums, 87,000 films and 19,000 video games), 241,000 organizations (including 58,000 companies and 49,000 educational institutions), 251,000 species and 6,000 diseases Linked Open Data 16Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Extraction DBpedia
  37. 37. Linked Open Data 17Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Extraction DBpedia
  38. 38. Linked Open Data 17Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Extraction DBpedia Persian DBpedia?
  39. 39. Persian DBpedia (mapping Wiki) Linked Open Data 18Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Extraction DBpedia
  40. 40. Linked Open Data 19Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Extraction • Ad-hoc • DBpedia extraction framework • Generic • OpenRefine from Semi-structured sources
  41. 41. from Unstructured sources Linked Open Data 20Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Extraction …After leaving Apple, Jobs took a few of its members with him to found NeXT, a computer platform development company based in Redwood City, specializing in state-of-the-art computers for higher- education and business markets. In addition, Jobs helped to initiate the development of the visual effects industry when he funded the spinout of the computer graphics division of George Lucas's company Lucasfilm in 1986. The new company, Pixar, would eventually produce the first fully computer-animated film, Toy Story… NLP, Text mining, Annotation
  42. 42. from Unstructured sources Linked Open Data 20Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Extraction …After leaving Apple, Jobs took a few of its members with him to found NeXT, a computer platform development company based in Redwood City, specializing in state-of-the-art computers for higher- education and business markets. In addition, Jobs helped to initiate the development of the visual effects industry when he funded the spinout of the computer graphics division of George Lucas's company Lucasfilm in 1986. The new company, Pixar, would eventually produce the first fully computer-animated film, Toy Story… NLP, Text mining, Annotation Named Entity Recognition
  43. 43. from Unstructured sources Linked Open Data 20Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Extraction …After leaving Apple, Jobs took a few of its members with him to found NeXT, a computer platform development company based in Redwood City, specializing in state-of-the-art computers for higher- education and business markets. In addition, Jobs helped to initiate the development of the visual effects industry when he funded the spinout of the computer graphics division of George Lucas's company Lucasfilm in 1986. The new company, Pixar, would eventually produce the first fully computer-animated film, Toy Story… NLP, Text mining, Annotation Named Entity Recognition foundedBy Relation Extraction
  44. 44. Named Entity Recognition Linked Open Data 21Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Extraction http://spotlight.dbpedia.org http://bioportal.bioontology.org/annotator
  45. 45. Visualizing Linked Data Linked Open Data 22Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Exploration Contextual visualizations e.g. Zemanta https://wordpress.org/plugins/zemanta
  46. 46. Text Analytics using Linked Data Linked Open Data 23Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Exploration conTEXT http://context.aksw.org
  47. 47. Linked Open Data 24Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Extraction http://nlp2rdf.org Interoperability between NLP tools, language resources and annotations NLP Interchange Format (NIF) Named Entity Recognition & Disambiguation (NERD) http://nerd.eurecom.fr/
  48. 48. Linked Open Data 25Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Extraction ‫ها‬ ‫داده‬ ‫وب‬ ‫به‬ ‫متصل‬ ‫طبیعی‬ ‫زبان‬ ‫پردازش‬ ‫ابزارهای‬ ‫ایجاد‬ ‫لزوم‬ Tokenizer Stemmer POS tagger Named Entity Recognition Persian WordNet Relation Extraction
  49. 49. from Structured sources Linked Open Data 26Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Extraction
  50. 50. from Structured sources Linked Open Data 26Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Extraction Triplification by Materialization
  51. 51. from Structured sources Linked Open Data 27Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Extraction Triplification by SPARQL-to-SQL-Rewriting
  52. 52. Triplification Linked Open Data 28Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Extraction • Relational Database to RDF R2RML: RDB to RDF Mapping Language http://www.w3.org/TR/r2rml/ • D2R Server: Accessing databases with SPARQL & as Linked Data http://d2rq.org/ • Sparqlify defining RDF views on relational databases http://sparqlify.org/
  53. 53. Storage & Querying Linked Open Data 29Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle
  54. 54. Relational Databases vs. Triple Stores Linked Open Data 30Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Storage/Querying • A relational databases’ (e.g. MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle) natural representation is a collection interlinked tables. • A triple stores’ (e.g. OpenSesame, AllegroGraph, Neo4j) natural representation is a multi-relational network, or graph.
  55. 55. Relational Databases vs. Triple Stores Linked Open Data 31Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Storage/Querying • Relational databases tend to not maintain public access points (some might provide Web APIs). • Triple stores maintain public access points called SPARQL end-points. • Relational database users tend to not publish their schemas. • Triple store users tend to reuse and extend public schemas called ontologies.
  56. 56. Existing Triple Stores Linked Open Data 32Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Storage/Querying • Native triple stores 4Store, AllegroGraph, BigData, Jena TDB, Sesame, Stardog, OWLIM and uRiKa • RDBMS-backed triple stores Jena SDB, IBM DB2 and OpenLink Virtuoso • NoSQL triplestores CumulusRDF
  57. 57. HDT - Your binary format for RDF Linked Open Data 33Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Storage/Querying • HDT (Header, Dictionary, Triples) • a compact data structure and binary serialization format for RDF • keeps big datasets compressed to save space while maintaining search and browse operations without prior decompression. • Linked Data Fragments • Streaming approach • Query the web of data on Web-scale http://www.rdfhdt.org http://linkeddatafragments.org/
  58. 58. SPARQL – SQL for the Linked Data Linked Open Data 34Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Storage/Querying What can be done with SPARQL that can't be done with SQL?
  59. 59. SPARQL – SQL for the Linked Data Linked Open Data 34Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Storage/Querying What can be done with SPARQL that can't be done with SQL? • SPARQL queries are considerably better aligned with users’ mental models of a domain.
  60. 60. SPARQL – SQL for the Linked Data Linked Open Data 34Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Storage/Querying What can be done with SPARQL that can't be done with SQL? • SPARQL queries are considerably better aligned with users’ mental models of a domain.
  61. 61. SPARQL – SQL for the Linked Data Linked Open Data 35Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Storage/Querying • SPARQL allows the conceptual data model to be fully explored through queries.
  62. 62. SPARQL – SQL for the Linked Data Linked Open Data 35Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Storage/Querying • SPARQL allows the conceptual data model to be fully explored through queries. - example:workPhone rdfs:subPropertyOf example:phone - example:cellPhone rdfs:subPropertyOf example:phone - example:homePhone rdfs:subPropertyOf example:phone
  63. 63. SPARQL – SQL for the Linked Data Linked Open Data 36Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Storage/Querying • Queries that have to traverse a chain of connections are particularly complex in SQL while very simple in SPARQL.
  64. 64. SPARQL – SQL for the Linked Data Linked Open Data 36Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Storage/Querying • Queries that have to traverse a chain of connections are particularly complex in SQL while very simple in SPARQL.
  65. 65. SPARQL – SQL for the Linked Data Linked Open Data 37Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Storage/Querying • In addition to SELECT, INSERT and DELETE, SPARQL supports ASK queries. • SPARQL includes syntax (i.e. SERVICE) to call two or more data sources within a single query. • …
  66. 66. Hands-on Linked Open Data 38Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Storage/Querying Write a SPARQL query to return a list of all universities in Iran sorted by name. DBpedia Endpoints: http://dbpedia.org/sparql http://live.dbpedia.org/sparql http://dbpedia-live.openlinksw.com/sparql http://lod.openlinksw.com/sparql
  67. 67. SPARQL Query Interface Linked Open Data 39Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Storage/Querying http://yasgui.org/
  68. 68. Authoring Linked Open Data 40Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle
  69. 69. Semantic Wikis Linked Open Data 41Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Authoring • Semantic (Text) Wikis Authoring of semantically annotated text • Semantic Data Wikis Direct authoring of structured information (i.e. RDF, RDF-Schema, OWL) http://semantic-mediawiki.org/ http://aksw.org/Projects/OntoWiki
  70. 70. OntoWiki use case: Catalogus Professorum Linked Open Data 42Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Authoring Semantic Data Wiki The Catalogus Professorum Lipsiensis – Semantics-based Collaboration and Exploration for Historians
  71. 71. OntoWiki use case: Catalogus Professorum Linked Open Data 42Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Authoring Semantic Data Wiki The Catalogus Professorum Lipsiensis – Semantics-based Collaboration and Exploration for Historians
  72. 72. Semantic Content Annotation Linked Open Data 43Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Authoring WYSIWY - What You See Is What You GetG
  73. 73. Semantic Content Annotation Linked Open Data 43Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Authoring WYSIWY - What You See Is What You GetG
  74. 74. Semantic Content Annotation Linked Open Data 43Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Authoring WYSIWY - What You See Is What You Mean http://rdface.aksw.org M
  75. 75. LD-R Framework Linked Open Data 44Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Authoring http://ld-r.org
  76. 76. Interlinking Linked Open Data 45Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle
  77. 77. Interlinking Linked Open Data 46Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle • The degree to which entities that represent the same concepts are linked to each other. • “Connecting things that are somehow related” • Methods • Automatic, Semi-automatic, Manual • Universal, Domain-specific <http://dbpedia.org/resource/VU_University_Amsterdam> <https://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q1065414> SameAs
  78. 78. Interlinking Methods Linked Open Data 47Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle • Ontology Matching • establish links between ontologies underlying two data sources. • Instance Matching (Link Discovery) • discover links between instances contained in two data sources.
  79. 79. SILK Framework Linked Open Data 48Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle http://silk-framework.com/ Interlinking Semi-automatic
  80. 80. LIMES Framework Linked Open Data 49Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle http://aksw.org/Projects/LIMES Interlinking Semi-automatic
  81. 81. Linked Open Data 50Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Exploration
  82. 82. Linked Open Data 50Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle • Search • Browse • Visualize Exploration
  83. 83. Search for Linked Data Linked Open Data 51Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Exploration
  84. 84. Search for Linked Data Linked Open Data 51Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Exploration http://swoogle.umbc.edu/
  85. 85. Search for Linked Data Linked Open Data 52Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Exploration
  86. 86. Search for Linked Data Linked Open Data 53Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Exploration http://lov.okfn.org/
  87. 87. Search for Linked Data Linked Open Data 54Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Exploration http://lotus.lodlaundromat.org
  88. 88. Search for Linked Data Linked Open Data 55Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Exploration http://demo.ld-r.org/lotus
  89. 89. Search for Linked Data Linked Open Data 56Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Data hub http://datahub.io search for data, register published datasets, create and manage groups of datasets… Exploration
  90. 90. Search in Linked Data Linked Open Data 57Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Exploration http://www.wolframalpha.com/ Question Answering Systems
  91. 91. Search for/in Linked Data Linked Open Data 58Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Exploration
  92. 92. Search for/in Linked Data Linked Open Data 58Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Exploration
  93. 93. Search for/in Linked Data Linked Open Data 59Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Exploration https://www.google.com/cse/
  94. 94. Search for/in Linked Data Linked Open Data 60Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Exploration http://schema.org/ http://bl.ocks.org/danbri/1c121ea8bd2189cf411c
  95. 95. Browsing Linked Data Linked Open Data 61Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Loupe http://loupe.linkeddata.es/ discovering the type of data contained in a dataset, its structure, and the vocabularies used… Exploration
  96. 96. Browsing Linked Data Linked Open Data 62Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Linked Data Reactor http://ld-r.org a component-based framework to view, browse and edit Linked Data Exploration
  97. 97. Browsing Linked Data Linked Open Data 63Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Exhibit http://www.simile-widgets.org/exhibit/ Exploration
  98. 98. Visualizing Linked Data Linked Open Data 64Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Exploration Using existing visualisations for structured data e.g. Sgvizler http://dev.data2000.no/sgvizler/
  99. 99. Visualizing Linked Data Linked Open Data 65Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Exploration Using graph-based visualizations e.g. RelFinder http://www.visualdataweb.org/relfinder/relfinder.php
  100. 100. Enrichment Linked Open Data 66Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle
  101. 101. ORE (Ontology Repair and Enrichment) Linked Open Data 67Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Enrichment http://ore.aksw.org/
  102. 102. Quality Analysis Linked Open Data 68Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle
  103. 103. Linked Data Quality Dimensions Linked Open Data 69Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Quality Assessment for Linked Data: A Survey
  104. 104. Luzzu Linked Open Data 70Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle http://eis.iai.uni-bonn.de/Projects/Luzzu Quality Analysis Tools
  105. 105. RDFUnit Linked Open Data 71Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle http://aksw.org/Projects/RDFUnit Quality Analysis Tools
  106. 106. Evolution Linked Open Data 72Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle
  107. 107. EvoPat – Pattern based KB Evolution Linked Open Data 73Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Lifecycle Evolution • Inspired by Software Refactoring • Agile Knowledge Engineering • Basic & compound evolution patterns http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642-17746-0_41
  108. 108. Linked Open Data 74Ali Khalili Linked Open Data Interlinking Enrichment Quality Analysis Evolution Exploration Extraction Storage/ Querying Authoring Linked (Open) Data Lifecycle http://stack.linkeddata.org/ Life Cycle
  109. 109. Linked Open Data 75Ali Khalili Linked Open Data
  110. 110. Linked Open Data 75Ali Khalili Linked Open Data
  111. 111. References Linked Open Data 77Ali Khalili Linked Open Data • http://slidewiki.org/deck/11936_semantic-data-web-lecture-series • Introduction to linked data and its lifecycle on the web • http://euclid-project.eu/ • http://videolectures.net/wims2011_auer_interlinked/ • https://vimeo.com/76257120 • http://www.slideshare.net/slidarko/evolving-the-web-into-a-giant-global- database-3880018 • http://www.dataversity.net/introduction-to-triplestores/ • http://www.topquadrant.com/2014/05/05/comparing-sparql-with-sql/

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