For this part of your exam there are some key terms that if you understand
will make your life easier!!
You will need an understanding of the film industry, the way its organised
and the way it operates within todays world.
You will need to have some detailed case studies so you can use them in
Who produces the
Who the media text
is produced for
The film industry can be broken down into THREE main areas, each having
a vital role
Production is everything involved with making the media product, and
involves pre-production, production and post-production
Distribution involves both marketing and getting a copy of the film to the
company who is going to show it, and may be physical or digital
Exhibition is showing the film to the audience, and maybe home or
cinema, and in each case the distributor is paid by the exhibitor who is
using the film
Before the creation of the product ( production) there has to be finance for
the film, and this is usually from one or more (in which case it’s a coproduction) production companies.
Involves raising audience awareness and interest of the new release, finding
exhibitors and retailers for the film, as well as making and distributing any
physical copies that might be needed in cinemas for them to show.
Marketing is split into three sections, advertising, publicity and promotion.
A distributor may be part of same parent company that own production
company, have an arrangement with production, help finance film, or buy
rights to distribute film out right
A film is likely to have different distributors to cover
Home – DVD releases
A films success is often assessed on the box office takings, and sometimes
the first weekend. Most films are released on Fridays to allow for
maximum impact on the first weekend.
However increasingly home exhibition is playing an important part in the
success of a film, and income might come form DVD and Blu Ray sales,
or the many varies online opportunities such as Net Flix and Love Film.
TYPES OF OWNERSHIP
There are two types of ownership
This is where the same
company owns multiple
companies at same
stage of the industry, for
example able to produce,
tv, film, magazines, video
This is where the parent
company owns multiple
companies that cover the
different stages of the
Synergy means working together, a way of getting different people or
organisations to work together to achieve something that could not be
accomplished independently. It is a strategy of bringing things together
and to make connections across different areas.
For example a film might exploit new technologies, and sell dvd, video
Convergent technology such as smart phones, tablets, computers and
games consoles also support this of synergy.
Cross media convergence is the development of products across different
medium can also help with synergy.
Disney is an good example of a synergist approach. They have the film
production companies, they have a Kids TV channel, and the Disney
store which is both on the high street and online to purchase products
They will all promote each other and the products that each other sell.
However Disney also use SYMBIOSIS marketing which is where different
companies work together to promote a range of related products. For
example SHREK might be used on Happy Meals, Easter Eggs, Pencil
cases, toy characters. It is the distributor that arranges ( sells) such
licensing deals and will also take a % of the profit. These help promote
the film itself by an almost saturated 360°approach.
Is a UK film company owned by Universal which is is part of Vivendi
Vivendi is a massive organisation and owns water companies, phone
companies, publishing houses, cinema chains. Mp3.com, TV channels,
Working Title films are many and include Four Wedding and a Funeral,
Notting Hill. Billy Elliot. Bridget Jones’s Diary, Nanny McPhee,
Atonement, Paul, Trash.
Using Working Title as your subject complete the Working Title assignment
on the blog.
There are two important types of convergence that you have to know about
CROSS MEDIA CONVERGENCE – the development of products across
different media, such as a TV programme, also being shown through
internet on a catch up site, story lines covered in magazines, and
production company reporting on it on their website. This can be an
example of SYNERGY, companies working together to produce, market
TECHNOLOGICAL CONVERGENCE – is the development of devices that are
capable of a multitude of task, such as a smart phone being used to
watch video, listen to music, share photos etc.
To put it a different way, different requirements of technology are met
by a single device to handle different media types
. The effect that
this has is to change how we create, consume, interact with each other
and learn about the world.
It is the movement of new technology towards a single platform delivering
multile media outputs that can be used to reach audiences.
EG the new smart TVs allows you to watch TV, access the internet and
therefore the on demand services, make skype calls, listen to radio,
look at photographs, watch home video.
iPhone Allows us to
Use as phone, browse internet, mp3 player, camera
Video camera, computer, games FM radio
Allows us to browse internet, play dvd, games console
Convergence is the process where different media platforms are contained
within a single piece of media technology