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  1. 1. The future as if we know…..
  2. 2. Jean Baudrillard  French theorist ( 1929-2007) will form the basis of our study of the future debate concerning collective identity.  In media he is know for the three concepts simulacra and simulation and hyper- reality  Amongst others he was influenced be Barthes and looked at the meaning of signs from a cultural point of view.
  3. 3. Simply put  The signs and symbols of your culture have no basis in reality but have created a new world, one that is a simulation of reality and construct a perceived reality  To simulate – to pretend to have something one does not have  The term simulacrum goes back to Plato who used it to describe a false copying of something
  4. 4.  He believed that in this post modernist world the illusion has gone that media texts can accurately or neutrally reproduce reality or truth.  He introduced the idea of hyperreality, with blurred boundaries between the real and the fictional. EG Disney world, exists in the real world yet is based on a fictional make believe one.
  5. 5. Signs – the four stages  Sacramental order – where the sign is a a faithful copy, ,a ‘reflection of a profound reality’  Maleficence order - Perversion of reality, unfaithful copy which ‘mask and denatures’ reality as an ‘evil appearance’, hinting at another reality  Sorcery order- when the sign masks the absence of a profound reality, where the simulacrum pretends to be a faithful copy, but is a copy with no original  Pure simulation – simulacrum has no relationship to any reality at all. Signs reflect other signs, No longer need even to pretend to be real. Consumers live in such an artificial world even claims to reality are expected to be artificial, a hyperreality.
  6. 6. Distance from reality  Believes that contemporary media are responsible for blurring the line between things that are needed to life and those needed because of commercial images  Urbanization – separating us from the non- human world leads to a form of alienation  Language and ideology –increasingly reflecting the position of power group in relations between social groups.
  7. 7. Representation/Simulation  That a sign represent people or things in increasingly a thing of the past instead replaced with simulations of reality. This creates this hyperreal world  'Simulation', on the other hand, supplants these negotiated relationships between representation and reality, replacing them with relationships that operate only within the media. The theory of simulation is a theory of how our images, our communications and our media have usurped the role of reality, and a history of how reality fades. (Cubitt 2001)
  8. 8.  A defining moment in the development of this approach is Guy Debord's Society of the Spectacle (1967), which argues that the saturation of social space with mass media has generated a society defined by spectacular rather than real relations  We are so surrounded with screens and print, surrounded with these images that have been mediated that we have lost any connection to the real world.
  9. 9. Generated world  And this has led to a spectacular world that reality just cant match. Where things are bigger, more exciting  The nature of simulation over that of representation has been forwarded as being of fundamental importance to questions of the future of the media and culture - a culture, it is claimed, that is increasingly de-realised by the screens of the mass media.
  10. 10.  A world transformed into sheer images of itself and for pseudo-events and 'spectacles'...a society where value has been generalized to the point at which the very memory of value is lost, a society of which Guy Debord has observed, in an extraordinary phrase, that 'the image has become the final form of our desires. (Jameson 1991)
  11. 11. CGI and its impact  CGI heightens the visual, making it more spectacular, leading to the importance of the visual over all other aspects of cinema.  The visual becomes king, Avatar for example, the increase of 3D, a creation of a special effects world that real life just cant live up to.