Understanding Location-based Information Sharing in a Mobile Human Computation Game Dion Hoe-Lian Goh, Khasfariyati Raziki...
Mobile Human Computation Games <ul><li>Mobile Human Computations Games (HCGs) are mobile games that harness the element of...
Mobile Human Computation Games <ul><li>Work on mobile HCGs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research on mobile content and gaming app...
Research objectives <ul><li>Extend current research through design and implementation of SPLASH (Seek, Play, Share). </li>...
Outline <ul><li>SPLASH (Seek, Play, Share) </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Discu...
SPLASH (Seek, Play, Share) <ul><li>Media-rich location-based comments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comment encapsulates text, ima...
SPLASH (Seek, Play, Share) <ul><li>Virtual rooms for sharing, playing and social interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establi...
SPLASH (Seek, Play, Share) <ul><li>Mini-games offer fun and entertainment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short games that do not re...
SPLASH (Seek, Play, Share) <ul><li>Socializing with other users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each user is represented by an avata...
SPLASH (Seek, Play, Share) <ul><li>Rewards system to promote further usage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users are able to earn in...
Methodology <ul><li>User study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim: Elicit actual usage and users’ perspective of SPLASH. </li></ul>...
Methodology <ul><li>Online diaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective: Record the usage of SPLASH. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Methodology <ul><li>Post-study questionnaires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective: sought participants’ perceptions of SPLASH ...
Methodology <ul><li>Study structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the start of the study, participants were given a tutorial to...
Participants <ul><li>40 participants took part in the study, of which 25 were male participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Demogra...
Usage activities: Types of activities Activities coincided with commuting hours and free time &quot;before sleeping“ &quot...
Usage activities: Period of activities Evening Lunchtime Commuting hours
Places of usage Application was used either for leisure or during interstitial periods
Situations of usage SPLASH provides participants  with something to do in order to kill time.  &quot;waiting for food&quot...
Types of content contributed &quot;Japanese food here is good&quot; &quot;feeling sleepy:(:( having loads of wrk to do:(:(...
Usability: General features <ul><li>Virtual room:  found the virtual room to be intuitive to use as they were able to inte...
Usability: Information sharing features <ul><li>Information sharing mechanism:  information sharing was easy as they were ...
Usability: Gameplay features <ul><li>Avatar:  enjoyed using the avatar due to its uniqueness. </li></ul><ul><li>In-game cu...
Discussion <ul><li>Games in SPLASH encourage participants to contribute location-based information as the participants’ in...
Design implications <ul><li>Address the twin challenges of overall usability design and game design by consult and adherin...
Future work <ul><li>Studies that involve users with different profiles (e.g. more diverse age groups, and working backgrou...
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Understanding Location-based Information Sharing in a Mobile Human Computation Game - Dion Goh

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CPSCom paper that was presented at PhoneCom 2011

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  • Information sharing: Timings coincide with participants’ commuting hours and free time. (8:00, 13:00, 15:00, 19:00, 22:00) Gameplay: Timings also represents commuting hours and free time. (8:00, 14:00, 20:00)
  • Evening SPLASH provided entertainment for them as they were winding down for the day. Participants remarked playing with SPLASH “ before sleeping ” (Participant 24) or while they were “ resting ” (Participant 33). Lunchtime Participants took the opportunity to make use of the free time after their meals to engage themselves with SPLASH. Participant 27 recalled playing SPLASH during his “ lunch break ”, while Participant 37 was playing “ after lunch while chatting with friends ”. Commuting hours Used the application to possibly combat boredom during their commute. Participant 8 played while “ in the train ” and Participant 2 highlighted playing it while “ on the bus ”.
  • Locations SPLASH was used in decreasing order, home, school, workplace, in transit Results suggest that the application was used for either leisure (e.g. at home) or during interstitial periods (e.g. in transit, at a transport area).
  • Free time: used in situations while they had to wait. used it while in a queue waiting for their turn to be served (“ queuing for dinner ” - Participant 19), or while waiting for their meals (“ waiting for food ” – Participant 9). Waiting: Waiting for a public transport (“ waiting for bus ” – Participant 16, “ waiting for the MRT (a local train system) ” – Participant 26), or in one case, “ waiting for the traffic jam to ease ” (Participant 38). Occupy them while waiting for their friends or family members (“ waiting for friends ” – Participant 26, “ waiting for my mum to finish her grocery shopping ” – Participant 40) or for an appointment (“ waiting for meeting (to start) ” – Participant 16). Commuting: Used SPLASH during their commute (“ travelling on bus ” – Participant 27, “ on train ” – Participant 29). Multitasking: Used SPLASH while doing another task. For example, they were using the application “ while eating ” (Participant 15), “ chatting with friends ” (Participant 36), or “ watching the television ” (Participant 39).
  • Food: Largest number of comment in the form of reviews and recommendations of meals that they had. For instance, A participant shared that the “ Japanese food here is good ” after having a meal at a popular Japanese restaurant. Emotional state: Comments that described the emotional state of the participants were also found. The comments varied from the verbose (e.g. “ feeling sleepy:(:( having loads of wrk to do:(:( god pls help me.... ”) to the succinct (e.g. “ sad ”, “ emo ”). Places of interest: Contained descriptions of places that included tourist attractions, stores and shopping malls. Some plainly described a place (e.g. “ there is a hdb office on level 2 ”) to notify others of its existence. Other comments had emotions attached to the description (e.g. “ nice and romantic place ”) indicating that perhaps SPLASH was seen as a platform to preserve a fond memory of the place. Random comments: short, nonsensical comments such as “ tg ”, “ abc ”, which did not have any meanings attached. Closer inspection revealed that these comments were created consecutively within a short span of time. One possibility is that the participants contributed these comments when they had just started using SPLASH and were trying out the functionalities. Another reason could be that they might be contributing such comments just to earn in-game currency. School: Corroborates with our earlier finding on the places that SPLASH was used. This could also be due to the fact that most the participants were students and spent most of their time on the campus. Status: Reflected their current state (e.g. “ waiting for meeting ”, “ super surprise to bump into my old classmate from poly at can a bus-stop...going to take a nap now hehe :S ”). Commuting: Contained laments from the participants during their journey on the public transport (e.g. “ very crowded train ”). SPLASH: How the participants felt about SPLASH. For instance, a participant gave feedback about the map in the application (“ the map seems good ”). Another participant expressed delight after enjoying a game (“ I just won balloon shooter ”).
  • Understanding Location-based Information Sharing in a Mobile Human Computation Game - Dion Goh

    1. 1. Understanding Location-based Information Sharing in a Mobile Human Computation Game Dion Hoe-Lian Goh, Khasfariyati Razikin, Alton Y. K. Chua, Chei Sian Lee, Keng-Tiong Tan Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information
    2. 2. Mobile Human Computation Games <ul><li>Mobile Human Computations Games (HCGs) are mobile games that harness the element of fun from games and information is generated as a byproduct of gameplay. </li></ul><ul><li>HCGs draw upon the need for generating useful information that cannot be easily automated. </li></ul><ul><li>Contributing location-based information is a labor intensive process. </li></ul><ul><li>However, games offer entertainment that could serve as a motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>By exploiting the entertainment value in games, players are able to have fun while performing computations. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Mobile Human Computation Games <ul><li>Work on mobile HCGs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research on mobile content and gaming applications have focused on design and motivations of usage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding actual usage and usability issues are also crucial. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcome translates to better designed application that benefit users and sustain usage. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Research objectives <ul><li>Extend current research through design and implementation of SPLASH (Seek, Play, Share). </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate SPLASH to shed light on actual usage and perspectives of the application. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Outline <ul><li>SPLASH (Seek, Play, Share) </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    6. 6. SPLASH (Seek, Play, Share) <ul><li>Media-rich location-based comments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comment encapsulates text, images and ratings in addition to author, date and location. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comments could be related to a place or a unit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Places are arbitrary geographic areas while units are smaller division of places. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. SPLASH (Seek, Play, Share) <ul><li>Virtual rooms for sharing, playing and social interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes a sense of community among users. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as a community-owned space where users are able to decorate with items purchased from a virtual store. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comments are accessed from the rooms through the comment boards. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. SPLASH (Seek, Play, Share) <ul><li>Mini-games offer fun and entertainment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short games that do not require players to be engaged for a significant length of time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An information mini-game uses nearby content to help users learn about their location. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A casual mini-game offers pure entertainment for users. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. SPLASH (Seek, Play, Share) <ul><li>Socializing with other users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each user is represented by an avatar. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual rooms provide a space for users to socialize. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An alternative way is by adding other users as friends and posting comments on friends’ profile page. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. SPLASH (Seek, Play, Share) <ul><li>Rewards system to promote further usage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users are able to earn in-game currency, called gold, when contributing information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Badges are awarded to users when various milestones are achieved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public scoreboards rank users based on different accomplishments. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Methodology <ul><li>User study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim: Elicit actual usage and users’ perspective of SPLASH. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used diaries and questionnaires to draw out relevant information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants were asked to accomplish information creation and seeking tasks using SPLASH for six days. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Methodology <ul><li>Online diaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective: Record the usage of SPLASH. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions drew out the conditions that the participants were in while doing their tasks, such as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time the task was executed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Location where the task took place. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Situation the participants were in. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Issues encountered. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants completed their diaries at the end of each day. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Methodology <ul><li>Post-study questionnaires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective: sought participants’ perceptions of SPLASH features and functionality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Items in the questionnaire were related to usability of eight main categories of SPLASH’s functionality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The participants rated the questionnaire at a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative comments about SPLASH were also elicited to determine the participants’ likes and dislikes. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Methodology <ul><li>Study structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the start of the study, participants were given a tutorial to familiarize themselves with SPLASH. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During the tutorial, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks that they had to do were made known. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile devices that were preloaded with SPLASH were loaned out to the participants. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web-based diary application was introduced. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Participants <ul><li>40 participants took part in the study, of which 25 were male participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between 20-45 years old ( M = 26.3 years old, SD = 5). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix of undergraduate and graduate students. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Half had Computer Science background and rest were from diverse backgrounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular mobile phone users. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often use their mobile phones to play games and navigate using map applications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rarely used mobile Internet access and mobile social networking applications. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Usage activities: Types of activities Activities coincided with commuting hours and free time &quot;before sleeping“ &quot;resting&quot; &quot;after lunch while chatting with friends&quot; &quot;in the train&quot; &quot;on the bus“
    17. 17. Usage activities: Period of activities Evening Lunchtime Commuting hours
    18. 18. Places of usage Application was used either for leisure or during interstitial periods
    19. 19. Situations of usage SPLASH provides participants with something to do in order to kill time. &quot;waiting for food&quot; &quot;waiting for the bus&quot; &quot;on the train&quot; &quot;stuck in traffic jam&quot; &quot;watching television“
    20. 20. Types of content contributed &quot;Japanese food here is good&quot; &quot;feeling sleepy:(:( having loads of wrk to do:(:( god pls help me....&quot; &quot;nice and romantic place&quot; &quot;tg&quot;, &quot;abc&quot; &quot;waiting for meeting&quot; &quot;very crowded train&quot; &quot;I just won balloon shooter“
    21. 21. Usability: General features <ul><li>Virtual room: found the virtual room to be intuitive to use as they were able to interact with the items. </li></ul><ul><li>General navigation: While many found it to be easy to do so, some felt that the features could be further improved as they had problems with the response of the device touch screen display. </li></ul><ul><li>Map navigation: found SPLASH’s map to be easy to navigate as they were familiar with maps on other applications. </li></ul>&quot;The virtual room is interesting with items that I am able to interact with“ &quot;Hard to navigate... problem with the display's responsiveness“ General Mean SD Virtual room 3.21 0.86 General navigation 3.04 0.68 Map navigation 3.03 0.78
    22. 22. Usability: Information sharing features <ul><li>Information sharing mechanism: information sharing was easy as they were able to communicate with friends. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments: liked the idea that it was related to a real location. </li></ul>&quot;... easy to communicate with friends“ &quot;People can post their comments with location information... that's fun&quot; Information sharing Mean SD Sharing mechanism 3.58 0.77 Comments 3.38 0.63
    23. 23. Usability: Gameplay features <ul><li>Avatar: enjoyed using the avatar due to its uniqueness. </li></ul><ul><li>In-game currency: easy to understand concept and knew the various ways to earned. </li></ul><ul><li>Mini-games: did not find it favorable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Felt that there was a lack of variety and challenge in the games. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There were issues with the responsiveness of the mobile device touch screen that caused the less tolerant participants to feel frustrated . </li></ul></ul>&quot;I like the avatar best as it is different from other social applications&quot; &quot;Can earn gold through playing games and sharing information&quot; &quot;... mini-games not challenging enough“ Gameplay Mean SD Avatar 4.23 0.57 In-game currency 4.08 0.74 Mini-games 2.71 0.50
    24. 24. Discussion <ul><li>Games in SPLASH encourage participants to contribute location-based information as the participants’ interest continued to be sustained. </li></ul><ul><li>Used during leisure time and pockets of free time and information sharing activities occurred more consistently throughout the day than gameplay activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Usability findings indicated that SPLASH was able to support the objectives of information sharing with gameplay on mobile device. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of content shared goes beyond sharing comments about food and shopping and included comments that contained the participants’ current emotional state. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Design implications <ul><li>Address the twin challenges of overall usability design and game design by consult and adhering to establish game design guidelines. </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of games could be included to accommodate varying interests of users. </li></ul><ul><li>Implement a mechanism that scopes viewing of shared content to users’ social network as they may be more valuable. </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks may not be completed due to interruptions and measures should be put in place in order to accommodate them. </li></ul><ul><li>Users should be informed that while they are playing games in SPLASH, they are also contributing to content that could be beneficial to others to persuade them to contribute more. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Future work <ul><li>Studies that involve users with different profiles (e.g. more diverse age groups, and working backgrounds) or in specific domains (e.g. tourism) could understand more on users’ behavior and perception of SPLASH. </li></ul><ul><li>More could be done with other methodologies such as observations, fieldwork or data logs to elicit the actual usage and perceptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare between SPLASH and other non-gaming mobile application to understand users’ attitudes and behaviors. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Thank You

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