Luxury flats energy survey report

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Luxury flats energy survey report

  1. 1. Luxury Flats Energy SurveyIdentifying energy waste throughout the Luxury Flats complex Surveyed by: Phil Evans Report Prepared by: Phil Evans Survey Date: 26th March 2012
  2. 2. Executive SummaryThis report has been written following a site survey conducted on the 26 th March 2012. A visualinspection of building fabric and building services has been undertaken and it is clear that theyare operating within their design parameters.There are a number of energy-saving measures that can be implemented, without incurringadditional costs. To realize more energy savings, it is advisable to improve the availability ofusage data and to monitor that data.Although several renewable technologies are technically viable, they would have limited impacton the overall energy performance and would require full cooperation from all stakeholders ofthe development. 1. Reduce time delay function on all lighting movement sensors to minimum setting 2. Ensure leisure centre facilities are not left running out of hours 3. Install electricity sub metering on leisure centre supply for closer monitoring 4. Air Conditioning Inspection Reports are a legal requirement 5. Ensure Energy Performance Certificates are available for any sale or rent of flats 6. Consider installing a Building Management System to control all energy using equipment and systems. 7. Install an insulated pool coverLuxury Flats is a luxury development and the services delivered as part of a residents agreementmeans that the energy consumed is similar to a medium size boutique hotel. The leisure centre isenergy intensive and with its hours of operation there are only a small number of energy savingsinitiatives that would make it more efficient.The age of the development means it would not be cost-effective to replace plant and equipmentfor at least another five to 10 years on the basis of improving energy performance. The measuresrecommended in this report will reduce energy wastage and will prevent further wastagethrough close monitoring, but there would be investment required in retrofitting solutions.The biggest impact to date in reducing the impact of energy consumption has been by EsskayManagement Services, with their work in negotiating an electricity contract that has realized asignificant saving in energy costs. Accurate costings of the various options can be undertaken if the residents and other stakeholders express an interest. Please contact Phil Evans of Green Bridge to discuss the options or for more detailed analysis and costing. 2
  3. 3. ContentsExecutive Summary ............................................................................................................................. 2Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 5 The Scope of Work........................................................................................................................... 5 Pre-Survey Information Requirements ....................................................................................... 5 Scope of work: ............................................................................................................................. 5 Deliverable: .................................................................................................................................. 5 Factors affecting delivery ............................................................................................................ 5 Site Details ....................................................................................................................................... 6 Contacts ....................................................................................................................................... 6 Energy Costs & Consumption .......................................................................................................... 7 Electricity Bills .............................................................................................................................. 7 Electricity Consumption............................................................................................................... 7 Electricity Costs ............................................................................................................................ 8 Legislation ........................................................................................................................................ 9 Energy Performance of Buildings Regulations ........................................................................... 9 Energy Act 2011 ........................................................................................................................... 10 Feed-in Tariff (FIT)....................................................................................................................... 10 Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) ................................................................................................ 10 Green Deal ................................................................................................................................... 10 Building Fabric..................................................................................................................................11 Roof ..............................................................................................................................................11 Walls .............................................................................................................................................11 Floor .............................................................................................................................................11 Glazing ..........................................................................................................................................11 Passive Design ..............................................................................................................................11 Insulation......................................................................................................................................11 Air Leakage and Draughts .......................................................................................................... 12 Building Services ............................................................................................................................. 13 Lighting ....................................................................................................................................... 13 Heating ........................................................................................................................................ 13 Air Conditioning .......................................................................................................................... 13 3
  4. 4. Domestic Hot Water ................................................................................................................... 14 Small Power/Office Equipment .................................................................................................. 14 Car Park Lighting ......................................................................................................................... 14 Leisure Centre ............................................................................................................................. 14 Metering...................................................................................................................................... 15 Sub Metering............................................................................................................................... 15 Building Management Systems .................................................................................................. 16Sustainability ................................................................................................................................... 17 Renewable & Low Carbon Technologies ................................................................................... 17 Biodiversity.................................................................................................................................. 18Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................... 19 4
  5. 5. IntroductionFollowing telephone conversations with Mr X, a resident at Luxury Flats and staff of YYYManagement Services, I submitted a proposal to conduct an Energy Survey. Mr. X, representingthe Residents Committee expressed concern over the amount of energy being consumed (andsubsequent expense) in the communal areas.I was formally issued with an instruction to proceed by Mr. Y of YYY Management Services on 2ndMarch 2012 and agreed to conduct the survey on 26th March 2012.The Scope of WorkI requested the following information prior to the survey, but it was not available. It meant thatthe required information had to be gathered during the survey.Pre-Survey Information Requirements 1. Floor plans (CAD or pdf) 2. Confirmation of floor areas (sqm or sqft) 3. Copies of electricity and gas bills for minimum of 12 months 4. A letter of authority allowing me to contact utility providers on your behalf (to request half hourly data) 5. List of meters and sub meters 6. Engineering maintenance service provider contact informationScope of work: 1. One day site survey to include: a. Walkthrough of communal areas, leisure complex, all associated plant rooms and rooftop to basement areas. b. Metering cupboards c. Assessment of energy performance of ‘typical’ flat 2. One day desk-top study of: a. Half-hour data b. Utility bills c. Design drawings d. Engineering maintenance recordsDeliverable: 1. Energy Performance Summary Report to include: a. Standard benchmarking exercise b. Analysis of HH data c. Prioritized list of energy saving opportunitiesFactors affecting delivery Access to all areas on day of survey. Availability/accuracy of on-site information Cooperation of utility service providers Availability of engineering maintenance service provider 5
  6. 6. Site DetailsFlats 1 - 21Luxury FlatsHampstead LaneN6 4RUBlock A: Flats 1-7Block B: Flats 8-15Block C: Flats 16-21 Block A Block B Block C BasementContactsMr. Z in the Concierge Team made himself available during the day and proved to be very helpfulwith a good working knowledge of Luxury Flats.Mr. Y of YYY Management ServicesThe address and phone numberGreen BridgePhil EvansMobile: 0784791829Telephone: 02082579451Email: phil.evans@greenbridgeservices.com 6
  7. 7. Energy Costs & ConsumptionElectricity BillsThe Landlord electricity supply for Luxury Flats has been provided by EDF Energy since January2012, an action undertaken by Esskay Management Services. Prior to this, Eon supplied thedevelopment and judging by the high unit rates,there had been no action taken to negotiate a more Electricity Cost Improvementcompetitive contract arrangement, since the supply Day Rate/kWh Night Rate/kWhwas first connected to the site. £0.250 £0.229 Cost/kWh £0.200 £0.147Unit Rates £0.150 £0.100 £0.093 £0.061There is a day/night tariff for the supply, which £0.050 £-means that the charge for every kWh of energy Eon pre-2012 EDF 2012consumed between midnight and 07:00 costs 6pand for every other hour of day the cost is 9.2p. I canconfirm that these rates are competitive and there is little benefit to be had in looking tonegotiate a better contract rate at this time. A 50% improvement in electricity unit cost has been achieved with the new EDF contract in 2012Power FactorThe power factor of a supply is an indication of energy waste. As confirmed from the electricitybills, the power factor is 0.99 which means that there are virtually no energy losses in the supplyand therefore no wastage.Electricity ConsumptionWith limited availability of historic billing information, it is not possible to make any firmconclusions about the Landlord supply consumption pattern. However, the following points havebeen drawn: Since the start of 2012 there has been on average a 50% increase in electricity usage, in both day and night units. The reason for the increase cannot be determined and might actually be Electricity Used 40000 considered normal for this time of year. 35000 30000 Day Crucially, the missing data for November and 25000 Units used December could indicate if the increase is kWh 20000 15000 Night seasonal and the subsequent need for more 10000 Units used heating (electric) in the winter months. 5000 0 There have been no changes to plant and equipment during this period and so it is reasonable to assume that the improved level of service provided by Esskay has required more electricity to be used. 7
  8. 8. Sub metering of energy intensive services (i.e. leisure centre) would help to pinpoint the source of the increase and once found, the reasons could be established. There are many factors influencing electricity use over a 12 month period; these include occupancy patterns, seasonality, temperature and other weather conditions, plant and equipment performance, maintenance regimes, operating requirements etc.Electricity CostsSince YYY Management Services changedsupplier at the start of the year it is clear Electricity Costs £7,000.00that the cost for the electricity used has £6,000.00decreased significantly. The average cost £5,000.00 Night Costper unit is now more than half the rate paid £4,000.00 £3,000.00with the previous Eon supply. The full Day £2,000.00impact of this saving will be fully Cost £1,000.00appreciated after 12 months when a £-comparison can be made between 2011 and2012. 8
  9. 9. LegislationThe owner of the building has a duty under the requirements of the Building Regulations to keepfull plans, approval notice and any completion certificates for the work that has been carried out.These are as important as the original deeds of the property and lack of availability may causedifficulties if the development was to be sold. This is unlikely to affect individual flat transactions,but it would be advantageous for a set of documents to be held on site.The development was completed in 2009 and although it cannot be confirmed which version ofthe Building Regulations was complied with, it is reasonable to assume that a good level ofenergy efficiency was required for the building material and construction process. There wouldhave been no requirement at this time to produce Energy Performance Certificates.Energy Performance of Buildings RegulationsEnergy Performance Certificates (EPC) There are no EnergyIt is a legal requirement for any property owner who intends to Performance Certificatessell or lease a property to have an EPC produced. Recent registered for Luxury Flatschanges to the Regulations mean that it is now essential thatthe EPC is ready and available for any prospective purchaser.The theory being that energy performance is a factor in makinga decision about purchasing a property.Although there are flats beingadvertised for sale, there are noofficial records of EPCs existing forany one of the 21 flats on theLandmark Register. Any flat that iscurrently being advertised for saleneeds to have an EPC preparedwithout delay. It is the responsibilityof the vendor to provide an EPC to a prospective purchaser.Air Conditioning Inspections (ACI)Another component of the Regulations relevant to LuxuryFlats is the need for an ACI. Each flat and parts of the The Leisure Centre and each flatcommunal area are air conditioned and as all units have more than 12kW of airsurveyed are well over 12kW output an ACI is needed. The conditioning. It is a legal requirement for this to betrigger for an ACI is not linked to sale or lease of property, inspected.it is purely if you have it or not. However, as it is a legalrequirement, there is the possibility that a transactionmay be delayed until an ACI can be provided.
  10. 10. Energy Act 2011On Tuesday, 18th October 2011, the Energy Bill received Royal Assent and became the Energy Act2011. The Act provides for a step change in the provision of energy efficiency measures to homesand businesses, and makes improvements to the framework to enable and secure low-carbonenergy supplies and fair competition in the energy marketsFeed-in Tariff (FIT)The Feed-in Tariffs (FITs) scheme was introduced on 1st April 2010, following successful lobbyingefforts by the REA, Friends of the Earth and others.The purpose of the FITs, is to encourage deployment of small-scale (less than 5MW) renewableelectricity generation. The technologies currently covered by the FITs are: solar photovoltaics(PV), hydro, anaerobic digestion (AD), wind and domestic scale microCHP.The goal of the FITs is to encourage the increased uptake of investment in small-scale renewableelectricity by providing financial incentives for each kWh generated. Following the installationand commissioning of the installation, generators receive a guaranteed payment from theelectricity supplier of their choice for the electricity they generate and use, as well as aguaranteed payment for unused surplus electricity they export back to the grid.Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI)The RHI is a tariff scheme similar to the FITs, payable to energy users generating their ownrenewable heat.The first phase of the scheme is targeted at the non-domestic sectors and at the big heat users inthe industrial, business and public sector and came in to force at the end of November 2011. Arange of technologies are supported including: air source heat pumps, biomass boilers, solarthermal, and ground and water source heat pumps.The second phase of the RHI scheme should see it expanded to include more technologies andinclude support for households. No consultation has as yet been published but this transition isaimed to be timed to align with the Green Deal, which is due to be introduced in the autumn of2012.Green DealThe Energy Act 2011 creates a new financing framework to enable the provision of fixedimprovements to the energy efficiency of households and non-domestic properties, funded by acharge on energy bills that avoids the need for consumers to pay upfront costs 10
  11. 11. Building FabricAs the property is relatively new, there is little scope for making improvements to the overallstructure as the cost implications would not justify it at this time. Consideration should be givento enhancing the thermal efficiency of the building envelope during major refurbishment.RoofFlat roofs are used on each block and the main consideration is to ensure that rainwaterpenetration is prevented by removing any weed/uncontrolled plant growth. The roof area isrelatively small in comparison with the overall floor area of the three blocks.WallsThe walls will be of cavity wall construction with a stone cladding finish. It is assumed that thematerials used and the thermal transmittance will meet at least 2006 building regulations,meaning that a good standard of thermal comfort will be realized.FloorEach flat has underfloor heating. It is assumed that the communal areas do not have underfloorheating as electric panel radiators are installed in corridors, foyers and lift lobbies.GlazingDouble-glazing is fitted throughout and is one area that could beconsidered for improving energy performance with a retro-fitsolution. The leisure centre has a large amount of glazing and hasmore than 30kW of air conditioning installed to control theinternal environment. The air conditioning has to counteract theeffects of high levels of solar gain as well as the heat generatedby equipment and gym users.It would be possible to consider an external solar shading systemin this area that would stop excessive solar gain, withoutimpacting on natural light levels. Alternatively, the windows couldbe fitted with solar reflective film, but this would tint the glass,which may not be acceptable to residents.External shading solutions are unlikely to be a feasible option for the flats, but if south facingfacades would benefit from solar shading film.Passive DesignEach flat and some parts of the communal area are air conditioned. Natural ventilation isavailable from open-able windows within each flat. There are no other sources of naturalventilation within the development.InsulationIt is assumed that building regulations-compliant levels of insulation have been installed. Toconfirm this would require access to design and construction information. However, the option 11
  12. 12. for retrofitting higher specification insulation is not considered an option, due to the high levelsof disruption involved and the relatively low impact it would have.Air Leakage and DraughtsEvidence of a building pressure test was not available, but with the extensive use of airconditioning it would be beneficial to undertake such a test to reduce the loss of conditioned air,thereby reducing the use of the system and associated cost.Doors and windows should be checked for signs of wear on integrated draughtproofing toensure that conditioned air is not lost and external air is only brought into the blocks in acontrolled manner. 12
  13. 13. Building ServicesLightingThe lighting in the communal areas is provided via a numberof low energy fittings. The low level corridor lighting has one11W compact fluorescent lamp per fitting. These are notcontrolled by the movement sensors fitted in the ceilings.The movement sensors have been identified by theMaintenance and Concierge teams as being an opportunityfor energy saving. During the survey, I observed that therewas infrequent use of the communal corridors and the timedelay could be reduced to the minimum available time.An adjustment in the time delay function will require re-setting on each individual unit by the Maintenance team. Theenergy savings will not have a significant effect on reducingenergy waste as low energy lighting is used throughout.The existing lighting could be replaced with more efficientLED technology, but considering the already high efficiency ofthe existing system, any slight improvement would not bejustifiable in terms of cost.HeatingThe communal corridors, lift lobbies and foyers have electric panel heaters; controlled by the Concierge team, although they do have an in-built timer option. None of the heaters were in operation on the day of the survey and the Concierge team confirmed that they were manually controlled with best practice and energy efficiency in mind.Air ConditioningEvery flat has an air conditioning system, as does the leisurecentre with three units in the gym and one wall mountedunit in each of the changing rooms. The standard capacityof each unit is 22.4kw, which means that an air conditioninginspection it required. 13
  14. 14. Domestic Hot WaterThe leisure centre has its own sub metered gas supply with a boiler providing pool heating andhot water for the changing rooms.Small Power/Office EquipmentThe Concierge team has a small staff room/kitchen with standard kitchen equipment. There arealso toilet and shower room facilities. The Concierge team has computers and a small amount ofoffice equipment for their daily duties. The energy consumed by this equipment is relatively smalland is not considered to be a major contributor to energy wastage.Car Park LightingThe Maintenance team has confirmed thatthe movement sensor controls could beadjusted to ensure that lights were not inuse for long periods of time. The lights wereon for the duration of the survey withinfrequent use of the car park during theday.There are ~56No. twin 58watt fluorescent tubes which is a lighting load of 6.5kW. With the timedelay set as it is; the lights could be on for as much as 20 hours a day. The annual expenditure forthe car park lighting is in the region of £4,200.Car Park MaintenanceWhilst surveying the lighting levels in the car park, I noted a staff member using a pressurewasher to clean the floor of the car park. The equipment being was a standard pressure washinglance and as the area being cleaned was a large area, it is not fit for purpose. As a result, moreelectricity, water, time and effort are required to maintain an acceptable level of cleanliness. Theuse of a suitable attachment for cleaning large flat areas will significantly improve theeffectiveness and efficiency of this service.http://www.jet-wash-direct.co.uk/pressurewashers/rotary-cleaners.htmlLeisure CentreThese facilities are considered to be energy-intensive, which is why corporate gym/leisure clubsare considering alternative, energy efficient methods for controlling energy consumption. Theequipment performance is acceptable, but with the pool and other facilities needing to bemaintained at temperature, it is inherently wasteful if the facilities are onlyused infrequently.Pool HeatingThe Ideal Evomax 60 has been specified to work in conjunction with theCalorex unit. There is a separate gas meter for the leisure centre and theequipment and systems are in good order. 14
  15. 15. Pool CoverOne of the major contributors to heat loss from a pool is the lack of an insulation layer, when notin use. Insulated pool covers are one of the most cost effective investments available toswimming pool managers. Typical savings can be 10 -30% of total pool energy use with a paybackperiod of 18 months to three years. An effective pool cover will reduce the need fordehumidification out of hours and therefore substantially reduce energy consumption.Heat Recovery and DehumidificationThe Calorex Delta unit recirculates pool air, removing excess moisturecontent and reclaiming the latent heat it contains. All the driving energyis added to the reclaimed energy and automatically routed into the poolwater and air. A controlled quantity of fresh air is added continuously tomaintain the pool air qualityMeteringElectricityEvery flat has its own electricity meter as does the Landlordssupply. There are several different types of meter used i.e. digitalor analogue, but none have any form of pulsed output andtherefore need to be manually read to ensure accurate bills aregenerated. As each of the main utility suppliers hasa Government incentive to replace existingmeters with ‘Smart’ meters it would be beneficialfor each flat to have this technology installed. Itwould enable energy consumption profiles to beaccessed and reviewed by each resident andthose monitoring energy performance of thecommunal areas.With sizeable overall energy consumption it would be sensible to consider a single supplier for allsupplies into Luxury Flats. There are several different analogue and digitalmeters installed and they have to be manually read on a monthly basis by theConcierge team.GasEvery flat is individually metered and the leisure centre has its own gas meter.WaterThere are water meters for each flatSub MeteringThere is no sub metering within Luxury Flats, which makes identification ofenergy waste very difficult. The installation of an electricity sub meter on the 15
  16. 16. leisure centre supply would allow closer monitoring of usage and identification of waste. Thiswould allow a business case to be produced to support the need for spending money onimprovements such as a pool cover.Building Management SystemsNone of the existing meters have pulsed output capability, which means they cannot be readremotely and require manual reading. This is inefficient and can lead to inaccurate billing; it alsomeans that monitoring of energy usage cannot be undertaken and identification of energy wasteis very difficult.A building management system (BMS) is a computerized system that would enable remotecontrol and monitoring of all energy using equipment. A simple system could be sited with theConcierge team, who could make any required adjustments as per the requirements of theresidents. Following an upgrade in meters to those with a pulsed output, it could also be thefocal point for monitoring of energy use and would mean accurate billing and a saving in time forConcierge staff who at present, have to read the meters.The investment required for a simple BMS would be £3000.00 but could pay for itself within 12 to24 months if sufficient time was given to monitoring and controlling energy. 16
  17. 17. SustainabilityRenewable & Low Carbon TechnologiesThere are no renewable technologies in use at Luxury Flats. Solar Photovoltaics (PV) commonly known as solar panels capture the suns energy using photovoltaic cells. The cells convert the sunlight into electricity, which can be used to run household appliances and lighting. This is not a viable option for Luxury Flats as there is limited space available on rooftops. If an area of the grounds was made available an array could be installed, but this would be dependent on orientation and shading constraints and the cooperation of all residents and stakeholders. Solar Water Heating systems use free heat from the sun to warm domestic hot water, with a conventional boiler or immersion heater as backup, to make the water hotter or provide hot water when solar energy is unavailable. There is insufficient space on rooftops of each block to site photovoltaic arrays and the façade of each block does not attract sufficient sunlight to justify a vertical array. This is not a viable option Luxury Flats. Wind turbines harness the power of the wind and use it to generate electricity. Small systems known as microwind or small-wind turbines can produce electricity to help power the lights and electrical appliances in a typical home. Although planning restrictions have been eased to allow the installation of technologies such as this; it is not a viable option as there is insufficient roof space to mount an adequately sized unit. There are noise and aesthetics issues with wind turbines which add to the assertion that it is not a viable option in this case. Ground source heat pumps use pipes buried to extract heat from the ground. This is usually used to heat radiators or underfloor heating systems and hot water. This is a technically viable option due to the large footprint of the entire site, but it would be expensive and would require full cooperation from all residents and Management Teams to realize. It would have to be a communal heating project, with a centralized plant and suitable heat sub meters to ensure the correct billing for usage. Air source heat pumps absorb heat from the outside air. This heat is usually used to heat radiators, underfloor heating systems, or warm air convectors and hot water in your home. This is also a viable option and would be cheaper to install, but the impact of the noise generated by the units would have to be taken into consideration. Rainwater Harvesting is a storage system for trapping rainwater that could be used to supplement irrigation of the grounds. There is ample space to position storage vessels above or below ground. The solution would have a significant impact on reducing watering costs. Energy and water cost information would have to be analyzed to ensure the right size system was installed. Micro-CHP (micro combined heat and power) This refers to a heating technology which generates heat and electricity simultaneously, from the same energy source, in individual homes or buildings. The units can be the same size as conventional domestic boilers and can be retrofitted. This is a technology that could be considered for replacing boilers in flats, but should only be considered at the end of the efficient life of the existing boilers. Wood-fuelled heating Wood-fuelled or biomass heating systems burn wood pellets, chips or logs to power central heating and hot water boilers or to provide warmth in a single room. This is not an option for the flats, but could be part of a solution for the leisure centre Combined Heat and Power is the simultaneous generation of heat and power in a single process. Heat outputs can include steam, hot water, space heating and absorption chilling. This is technically viable but not economically feasible. There is a need for constant hot water and steam for the leisure centre, air conditioning and a high electricity demand. It would be expensive to install as a retrofit solution, but would have a dramatic effect on the energy performance of Luxury Flats. 17
  18. 18. BiodiversityLiving Walls/Green RoofsThere is limited space available on rooftops, so the possibilities for a green roof are limited;however, with large areas of perimeter walls and hard surfaces available across the developmentLiving Walls are an option. Converting these hard surfaces will encourage butterflies andpollinators and also act as a simple rainwater management system as well as providing noisereduction.http://www.cityroofs.comhttp://www.greenroofguide.co.uk/benefits/Wildlife Friendly SpacesThe grounds of Luxury Flats are well maintained and provide a pleasant outdoor environment forresidents. The existing planting and lawns require significant volumes of water to maintain, whichis supplied through a recently installedirrigation system. The water is supplied A site plan showingfrom the mains and is therefore the extent ofpotable. It also requires electricity for planting and lawns.pumps, which impacts on thecommunal bill.Converting a percentage of thegrounds into a wildlife friendlymeadow and replacing ornate plantswith lower maintenance options thatare more attractive to pollinatorswould increase the species diversityand make the area more attractive andprovide a more natural environment forresidents to enjoy.Pollution PreventionThe extensive amount of planting throughout the development could have a reducedenvironmental impact if a more sustainable approach was taken to the use of herbicides andpesticides. One possible option could be to use an organic weed barrier that would also reducewater evaporation. This would reduce gardening maintenance and reduce the requirement forwatering. Systems such as those supplied by Sonairte (or suitable other) should be considered.http://www.sonairte.co.uk 18
  19. 19. ConclusionLuxury Flats is a luxury development and the services delivered as part of a residents agreementmeans that the energy consumed is similar to a medium size boutique hotel. The leisure centre isenergy intensive and with its hours of operation there are only a small number of energy savingsinitiatives that would make it more efficient.The age of the development means it would not be cost-effective to replace plant and equipmentfor at least another five to 10 years on the basis of improving energy performance. The measuresrecommended in this report will reduce energy wastage and will prevent further wastagethrough close monitoring, but there would be investment required in retrofitting solutions.The biggest impact to date in reducing the impact of energy consumption has been by YYYManagement Services, with their work in negotiating an electricity contract that has realized asignificant saving in energy costs. 19

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