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Bridging XAPI into Higher Education: Learning Analytics, Ownership, and Privacy

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This presentation targets privacy aspects organisations need to understand and to consider for implementing XAPI and related learning analytics in complex and heterogeneous learning environments.

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Bridging XAPI into Higher Education: Learning Analytics, Ownership, and Privacy

  1. 1. FHO Fachhochschule Ostschweiz Bridging XAPI into Higher Education Learning Analytics Ownership and Privacy Prof. Dr. Christian Glahn Blended Learning Center (@phish108)
  2. 2. @phish108 Privacy for identifiable actors Not privacy through aggregation or encryption
  3. 3. @phish108 XAPI
  4. 4. @phish108 XAPI aims to be the successor of SCORM (it is already part of CMI5)
  5. 5. @phish108 Learning Analytics Ecosystem (LMS Functions)  LRS " # $% & ' Collaboration Communication Course Management Assessment & Grading Identity Management Resource Provider + Analytics
  6. 6. @phish108 ( ) Activity Consumer  LRS * + ☼ - . / Sensors Activity Provider 0 1 2 3 Actuators Experience API Interoperable Data Tracking and Reporting
  7. 7. @phish108 ( )Activity Consumer  LRS Activity Provider UUID time actor object verb result context 4 Activity Statement Experience API Interoperable Data Tracking and Reporting
  8. 8. @phish108 ( )Activity Consumer  LRS Activity Provider 44444444444 4444444 Activity Stream + Filters Experience API Interoperable Data Tracking and Reporting
  9. 9. @phish108 ( ) Experience API Cascaded Processing Activity Consumer  LRS Activity Provider  LRS  LRS
  10. 10. @phish108 XAPI Characteristics § XAPI allows LRS-level statement completion only for the initial LRS § XAPI declares activity statements as immutable § XAPI leaves privacy to the educational designer/publisher § XAPI allows very detailed statements § XAPI allows linked data
  11. 11. @phish108 ( ) Who controls XAPI Processes? Activity Consumer  LRS Activity Provider
  12. 12. @phish108 Students Peers Lecturers 5 Stakeholder and Ownership Program director Study administration Quality control Department 6 Educational designer Publisher Tool provider Service provider 6 Internal External DirectIndirect
  13. 13. @phish108 ( ) XAPI Privacy by Design? Activity Consumer  LRS Activity Provider
  14. 14. @phish108 Focus on XAPI Privacy UUID time actor object verb result context 4XAPI
  15. 15. @phish108 Remember An XAPI LRS is always part of an educational system!
  16. 16. @phish108 Privacy Framework for XAPI Applications  LRS $% & Course & Context Management Identity Management (App )Activity Consumer Contextualized Unique References 'Assessment & Grading Linked data
  17. 17. @phish108 Privacy Framework for XAPI Applications  LRS $% & Course & Context Management Identity Management (App )Activity Consumer Authorized Access to the Details 'Assessment & Grading Linked data
  18. 18. @phish108 Contextualised Anonymisation Example Course 101 participant ID https://uni.ac/id/ax03cB Course 102 participant ID https://uni.ac/id/7G0qVp Peter Peter existsexists https://uni.ac/id/ax03cB https://uni.ac/id/7G0qVp https://uni.ac/id/ax03cBhttps://uni.ac/id/7G0qVp
  19. 19. @phish108 Conclusions § XAPI does not come with a privacy model § XAPI requires externally reinforced privacy § Reduce exposed and inferable information § Contextualized anonymization does not make up for a missing privacy policy
  20. 20. Christian Glahn Blended Learning Center http://slidesha.re/phish108 @phish108 @htwblc icons by fontawesome http://fontawesome.io

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