Adaptation and Personalization


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This slide-set introduces the concepts adaptation and personalisation of ICT systems. It identifies different types of adaptive and personalisable systems.

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  • Hey Beatriz,

    Thank you for your remark.

    Your visual reading is correct - although you suggest extremes, which was not my intention.

    The extremes are (a) purely self-organising systems (all control with the system) and (b) purely user-customisable systems (all control with the user). You see that the blue arrows do not go to both ends of the yellow arrow that was introduced in slide 10. My intention was to indicate that an adaptable system will never leave all control to the system and an adaptive system will leave all control to the user.

    In the original slides of Paul de Bra the two system types were shown on one line. However, I decided to break them into two lines because they are based on very different concepts that do not form a continuum.

    If you look at adaptive systems, you will find that self-organising systems give very little control to the user. These systems create internally and autonomous an adaptation model. This model might be very different for different instances of the adaptive system. Recommender systems are an example. Pre-designed systems give some control to the user because they depend on user-generated adaptation models, while the interpretation of these models is with the system. Such models can be shared by several instances of a system. Examples for such systems are the GRAPPLE runtime and the CopperCore runtime engine (for IMS LD models).

    With adaptable systems in ’user-customised’ systems pretty much all personalisation is based on some user’s control over the customisation. Therefore, most if not all control is with the user. One example for user-customisation is ’skinning’ as offered by firefox or gmail and many other systems. Different system instances can look very different but the central behaviour is unaltered. In User-configured systems the user configures (parametrizes) the adaptation. The parameters are user-controlled, but how they are interpreted is with the system.

    The two concepts can be quite easily merged in any permutation. For example, the GRAPPLE environment is a combination of a predesign-based adaptive system (instructional designers have to create the adaptation models) and a user-configurable adaptable system (learners can set adaptation preferences in their portfolio). This shows the next slide.
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  • Christian (with all my respect)... in slide 15. I think is confusing the end of blue arrows. When I first saw the slide, I thought you want to say that a systems is more Adaptive if the control is in the side of the user and a systems is more Adaptable if the control is in the side of the system, which is wrong. Then I read your comment about the slide and checked that you want to express correctly the concepts.

    In summary, in my visual reading I associate the end of the blue arrows with 'Control toward' and 'more'.
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  • There are many types of learning processes. Some require the learner to be very active and require a lot of experimentation or other activities in order to (re)discover knowledge. Other types of learning involve a teacher telling (or writing) a story to the learner. A textbook is typically a form of story telling (interleaved with activities or exercises). Textbooks are “old school” because they assume that there is a single way of learning (storyline) that will work well for all learners. In “future schools” we expect that teachers will anticipate that different learners will want to read the story in a different order, an order that suits their needs. The story will need to adapt itself to the order in which it is read. Different learners may also have a preference for a different writing style. Authors can also anticipate this by providing different versions of the same story, as if it were told by different characters. In this course we deal with the automatic adaptation of the story to the learner. We do not consider natural language processing that might in the future be part of this process, but consider ways to explicitly author for the different learning paths.
  • Many systems are “automatic” in some way. The automatic transmission in a car for instance automatically changes gears depending on the speed of the car and the demand of power (as per position of the throttle or gas pedal). These systems follow a fixed set of rules. A fixed formula between car and engine speed, and throttle determines which gear is needed (with some hysteresis built in as well). The automatic transmission behaves the same for every driver and it still behaves the same after one year of use. In an adaptive system the automatic behavior does not follow fixed rules, but rather rules that cause changes in the system behavior depending on the environment. An adaptable automatic transmission can be switched between normal and sports mode. An adaptive automatic transmission detects the driver's driving style and changes the formula for deciding when to change gears depending on whether the driver has a sporty style or not. In such a first-order adaptive system the rules for detecting the environment and the needed adaptation are fixed. In a second-order adaptive system the system gradually discovers what the best rules are for performing adaptation. There is no limit in these levels or orders of adaptation. A system may discover the best way to discover the best way to perform adaptation to the rules of an automatic system, etc. In this course we will mainly consider first-order adaptive systems (but we will also look towards the future with second-order adaptive systems). The adaptation to the environment can be interpreted in a broad sense. There is adaptive audio filtering (to cancel noise without affecting the music), adaptive network routing (to optimize throughput), adaptive lighting (in digital cameras, to bring out shadow detail), etc. In this course we concentrate on adaptation to the user or a group of users and we concentrate on adaptation in the context of learning (meaning that a human is trying to learn something).
  • Self organized systems: the system has some kind of “awareness” upon which it selects parameters and conditions of adapting itself. The user has no way to interfere this process. Pre-designed systems: A system follows pre-designed rules upon which it adapts its interaction with the user User configured system: A user specifies preferences that are used by the system to determine the adaptation User customized system: A user is able to customize the system and the system will not do any automatic adaptation. (e.g. changing the background of the desktop)
  • When a system reacts to the user then It is called an adaptive system When a system can be influenced by the user then it is called an adaptable system
  • GRAPPLE SCOPE Pre-designed systems: A system follows pre-designed rules upon which it adapts its interaction with the user automatically. User configured system: A user specifies preferences that are used by the system to determine the adaptation
  • This drawing illustrates how a user-adaptive system works. The system collects data about the user while the user is interacting with the system. These data are processed in order to create and update a user model . The user model is used by the system to perform the adaptation to the interaction, for instance by adapting information that is presented. It is important to note here that the user model is not just a log of the user’s actions. It is not a log of interaction events. There are two reasons for this: There is a technical reason, namely that in order to perform meaningful adaptation the system needs fairly global information about the user. In the case of adaptation to the user’s knowledge for instance, the system will often adapt to the user’s knowledge of major topics, and to fairly global knowledge levels. Occasionally the system may perform small adaptations that depend on whether the user performed one specific action, like reading a specific Web-page, but more often the adaptation will be based on aggregated information. There is also a legal reason, namely that in order to protect the user’s privacy the law in some countries requires adaptive systems to remove the log of actions at the end of a session. The system is only allowed to maintain a user model that contains more global and thus less specific information. Fortunately with user consent almost everything is allowed (as long as consent is not required to deliver a basic version of the same information service as the adaptive one).
  • Adaptation and Personalization

    1. 1. What is Adaptation and Personalization? By Christian Glahn Open Universiteit Nederland Within the Grapple project Slide
    2. 2. Adaptation <ul><li>Change a system’s look </li></ul><ul><li>Change a system’s behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Based on contextual factors </li></ul>Slide
    3. 3. Personalization Slide Marie Wendy Marie’s profile Wendy’s profile Master Document
    4. 4. Personalisation <ul><li>Change a system’s look </li></ul><ul><li>Change a system’s behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the personal profile of a system user </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User-behaviour </li></ul></ul>Slide
    5. 5. Personalisation is a special form of Adaptation Slide
    6. 6. Automatic  Adaptive <ul><li>Automatic non-adaptive systems </li></ul><ul><li>Independent of environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed rules </li></ul><ul><li>Not aware of history </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive systems </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>learning application </li></ul><ul><li>History aware </li></ul>Slide Both types of systems can “ feel ” personalized
    7. 7. Controlling the Adaptation <ul><li>All adaptive systems are based on two control mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation strategy </li></ul>Slide
    8. 8. Definition: Adaptation Rule <ul><li>Defines the conditions when the adaptation has to take place </li></ul><ul><li>Defines what kind of adaptation will happen </li></ul>Slide
    9. 9. Definition: Adaptation Strategy <ul><li>A collection of adaptation rules that defines </li></ul><ul><li>When and how a system reacts on environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>When and how a system takes the history into account </li></ul><ul><li>Relation between the adaptation rules </li></ul>Slide
    10. 10. Adaptable and Adaptive ICT Environments Slide Self-organizing System User-customized System User-configured System Pre-designed System control
    11. 11. Self-organizing system <ul><li>Detects appropriate adaptation rules </li></ul><ul><li>Develops adaptation strategies dynamically </li></ul><ul><li>Based on empirical analysis and pattern detection of input information </li></ul>Slide
    12. 12. Pre-designed system <ul><li>Based on designed adaptation rules </li></ul><ul><li>Based on designed adaptation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>No automatic improvement of rules and strategies </li></ul>Slide
    13. 13. User configured system <ul><li>User configurations influence the behavior of the system </li></ul><ul><li>User can influence actively the adaptation process </li></ul>Slide Training and formative evaluation sessions 2010
    14. 14. User customized system <ul><li>User can change some parameters of a system (e.g. background color) </li></ul><ul><li>System logic is not influenced by the user </li></ul>Slide
    15. 15. Adaptable and Adaptive ICT Environments adaptive Slide Self-organizing System User-customized System User-configured System Pre-designed System control adaptable
    16. 16. Adaptable and Adaptive ICT Environments Slide control Self-organizing System User-customized System User-configured System Pre-designed System Grapple
    17. 17. Levels of Adaptation <ul><li>First-order adaptation : adaptation strategy defines how a system has to adapt </li></ul><ul><li>Second-order adaptation : the adaptive strategy itself is adaptive </li></ul>Slide
    18. 18. GRAPPLE Scope <ul><li>First-order user-adaptive systems </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental factors are focused towards the person who uses the system </li></ul><ul><li>History reflects how the system has been used by a person </li></ul>Slide
    19. 19. User-Adaptive Systems
    20. 20. Learn more about GRAPPLE on Slide