• Immunization, or immunisation, is the
process by which an individual's immune
system becomes fortified against an agent
(known as the immunogen).
• Immunization is a way of protecting the
human body against infectious diseases
• Immunization prepares our bodies to fight
against diseases in case we come into
contact with them in the future.
• Babies are born with some natural
immunity which they get from their
mother and through breast-feeding.
• This gradually wears off as the
baby's own immune system starts to
develop. Having your child
immunized gives extra protection
against illnesses which can kill.
• Immunisation can be done through
various techniques, most commonly
• Immunization forms one of the most
important and cost effective
strategies for the prevention of
childhood sicknesses and disabilities
and is thus a basic need for all
Birth 6 weeks 10 weeks
Oral polio X X X X
DPT X X X
Hepatitis B* X X X
DPT + Oral polio 16 to 24 months
DT 5 years
Tetanus toxoid (TT) At 10 years and again at 16 years
Vitamin A 9, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months
Tetanus toxoid (PW): 1st dose As early as possible during pregnancy (first contact)
2nd dose 1 month after 1st dose
Booster If previously vaccinated, within 3 years
DTP Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis (Whooping Cough)
OPV Oral Polio Vaccine
MMR Measles, Mumps, Rubella (German Measles)
BCG Tuberculosis Vaccine
HIB Hemophilus Influenza B Vaccine (Meningitis Vaccine)
HEP B Hepatitis B Vaccine
Varicella Vaccine Chicken Pox Vaccine
A baby was given the B.C.G. injection about two months
ago, has developed a small blister at the site of injection.
Is this a cause of worry?
Please reassure your friend that there is no
cause for worry. This is a normal reaction after
the B.C.G. injection. About 4 to 6 weeks after
B.C.G. injection a small lump called a papule
appears at a of the injection which may later
break, giving out a whitish discharge. This will
heal in about 10 to 12 weeks after the injection
has been given and will leave a scar. Only if the
discharge continues without the wound drying
up, should the doctor be consulted
Side effects of the B.C.G.
• After the D.P.T. injection, the infant may have
pain at the site of the injection and may even
develop fever. In that case the baby may be
given 1/2 a table or 1/2 a tsp. of paracetamol
• After the measles injection, measles like rashes
may appear. These are normal. Very rarely,
children can have allergic reactions straight after
immunization. Also if the baby develops high
fever or loses consciousness, a doctor should be
consulted immediately. People giving
immunizations are trained to deal with allergic
reactions and if the child is treated quickly, he or
she will recover fully.
Are there any reasons why my child
should not be immunized?
• There are very few reasons why a
child should not be immunized.
Ordinarily common illnesses like a
cold or a diarrhea are not
impediments against getting your
• The child has a high fever;
• He has had a bad reaction to another immunization;
• He has had a severe reaction after eating eggs; or
• Has had convulsions (fits) in the past. (With the right
advice, children who have had fits in the past can be
• He has had, or is having, treatment for cancer;
• He has any illness which affects the immune system, for
example, HIV or AIDS.
• He is taking any medicine which affects the immune
system, for example, immunosuppressants (given after
organ transplant or for malignant disease) or high-dose