Facing the Challenge


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Facing the Challenge is a program developed by the 100% Project to assist senior leaders of Australian organisations to take successful action on the issue of gender balanced leadership. The purpose of Facing the Challenge is to provide senior leaders and CEOs with an opportunity to test their own attitudes and assumptions, gain new insights, exchange ideas and develop action strategies that will lead to real change in the quest to achieving increased gender diversity in Australian organisations.

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Facing the Challenge

  1. 1. Working with senior leaders to build andsustain gender balanced leadership teams
  2. 2. Facing the Challenge is a program developed by the 100% Project to assist senior leaders of Australianorganisations to take successful action on the issue of gender balanced leadership.The purpose of Facing the Challenge is to provide senior leaders and CEOs with an opportunity to testtheir own attitudes and assumptions, gain new insights, exchange ideas and develop action strategiesthat will lead to real change in the quest to achieving increased gender diversity in Australianorganisations.Program outcomesThrough a series of deeply personal experiences, rich conversations with other senior leaders andchallenging facilitation, outcomes for participants will include: Greater awareness about blind spots / rationalisations around gender diversity and strategies to overcome them in self and others Insight into the kind of leadership required in order to be successful as a champion of gender diversity Access to ongoing support, research and strategy development with the 100% Project and a senior peer groupProgram themesFacing the Challenge is an evidence based program. Research sponsored by the 100% project sought toidentify the latest and most relevant evidence on roadblocks to achieving gender goals as well asstrategies for overcoming them. The research methodology included original research via fourteen in-depth senior leader interviews as well as a comprehensive literature and case study reviews. Six coreresearch findings were identified that form the basis for the Facing the Challenge program:1. Women and men do not have innately different leadership capabilities A broad range of leadership capabilities and styles exists across the population and should be utilised Men and women are equally as likely to possess different leadership characteristics Stereotypes of male and female leadership capabilities limit womens progression into executive leadership roles 2
  3. 3. 2. Inaction may lead to a higher cost of talent for organisations Companies who ‘do gender diversity well’ gain greater financial performance The demographic crisis may lead to increased competition for talent, directly impacting the cost of talent Failure to act may impact recruitment and retention competitiveness and risk loss of both female and male talent to competitors/other sectors3. Senior leadership is critical to catalysing change in organisations All successful culture change initiatives have required sustained senior leadership focus and resilience Buy-in from stakeholders is required through all levels of the organisation Behavioural modelling from the top is essential4. Successful and rapid behavioural change is possible Evidence from safety case studies Evidence from gender case studies5. Unconscious bias is a primary driver of discrimination Implicit assumptions affect most of us: we are products of our culture Unconscious bias can be transformed through awareness and action6. Engaging men in gender change initiatives is critical to success Men must be part of the solution Male champions share a strong sense of fair play Strategies can be deployed for engaging menIn the following pages the core research findings are reviewed in more detail, with case studies ofsuccessful culture change programs profiled and extensive references provided.Additional resources and program pre-reading are included in a resources pack provided to participantsof the Facing the Challenge program. The 100% Project - July 2011 3
  4. 4. Research summaries and case studies1. Women and men do not have innately different leadership capabilitiesOne of the most important constraints to moving forward on gender equality and empowermentof women to higher leadership positions in organisations includes deeply innate negative attitudesand stereotypes of how men and women are expected to act, which are institutionalised in societyand reflected in organisations.What differentiates men and women in their perceived leadership capabilities and subsequentperformance in leadership roles are the social stereotypes which cloud our judgment of truecapabilities, and a lack of opportunity for women to develop and showcase their leadershipcapabilities, not only in the workforce, but also in society. Gender stereotypes are embedded inour society and shape the way males and females have been socialised, and therefore how theymay behave and view each-other based on gender norms.Leadership has always been seen as a male dominated field and leadership still continues to bemeasured by masculine gender norms making it difficult for women’s capabilities to berecognised. Pervasive gender stereotypes include: Men are viewed as being more dominating in terms of having attributes like aggressiveness, ambition, self-confidence, and dominance Women, on the other hand, are generally viewed as being friendly, kind, sympathetic, and affectionateHowever, a review of the research has lead the 100% Project to conclude that there is a lack ofscientifically proven evidence to support claims of differences between male and female leadershipcapabilities. Rather, evidence suggests that a broad range of leadership capabilities and styles existsacross the population and should be utilised. Becoming aware of our own implicit assumptions aroundgender stereotypes can lead to changes in attitude and behaviour, making way for women to be givenan equal chance of attaining executive leadership roles. 4
  5. 5. 2. Inaction may lead to a higher cost of talent for organisationsGreater gender diversity is becoming an economic phenomenon shown to have many positiveoutcomes for businesses and organisational performance. Retaining talent is vital for anorganisation’s success. An organisation should utilise its total labour pool as widely as possible tomaintain a competitive advantage.As Australian organisations focus on long term strategies to increase profits and maximiseperformance in response to the chronic skills shortage associated with our ageing workforce, thereis increasing support for initiatives to boost the retention of women in the workforce. Researchconducted by McKinsey & Company has found that companies with more women in their topmanagement are reported to have 10% higher return on equity, 36% higher stock price growthand nearly double earnings before interest and tax (EBIT) growth compared to the average.Organisations that identify and promote female talent into leadership roles have cultures thatenable them to recognise talent in any form and make good use of it. Importantly, rather thanfocussing on the question of whether women and men bring innately differing leadershipcapabilities to organisations, research suggests that the superior financial performance ofcompanies with more gender diversity is linked to a culture of diversity which allows for a greaterrange of leadership styles to be exercised, whether by men or women. Differing leadershipabilities and styles are not assumed to belong exclusively to one sex or the other, rather they aretreated equally, utilised and embraced. Losing talent to companies that are already on the missionof creating gender diversity and pushing for female involvement in leadership positions isbecoming an important determinant of an organisation’s competitive advantage.3. Senior leadership is critical to catalysing change in an organisationAny substantial change program is only successful when senior leaders are visibly committed to theprocess over the long term and able to galvanise support within the organisation, particularly frommiddle management. 5
  6. 6. Keys to successful change Getting the vision right: having a clear vision and plan for what you are trying to achieve (three to five year plan) Senior leadership resilience: being willing to challenge others, to risk unpopularity, to learn and recover from failures and to stay the course over the long haul Getting buy-in; senior leadership input as well as other key stakeholders, educating, clarifying and informing through examples and case studies, letting people know what is possible and effective through coaching Research and communications. There needs to be an unrelenting communications program including success stories and research results to enhance the results of coachingExecutive and senior leaders drive change by clearly articulating their expectations, values andassumptions as they relate to the organisation. They must support the alignment of both themechanical (structural) and dynamic (cultural/people) components. Understanding and committing tothe change includes providing resources, skills, knowledge, experience and support to the changeprogram as well as understanding the organisations readiness for change and identifying and acting onpotential roadblocks. Declaring their willingness to change by visibly altering their current behaviours isa powerful symbol of commitment and expectation.The high level of commitment shown by senior leaders and executive management to progress to equalaccess to leadership opportunities should be reflected in workplace policies and plans. If the proposedtargets for increasing the opportunities for women are enforced (either voluntarily or governmentimposed), these strategies need to be embedded into core business practices and mission of theorganisation, including recruitment and hiring, training, promotion and remuneration (Chief ExecutiveWomen, 2009). With solid commitment from leaders and the embedding of diversity into everydaybusiness activities, organisations need to hold their managers at all levels accountable for implementinggender inclusive work practices. 6
  7. 7. 4. Successful and rapid behavioural change is possibleUnderstanding each organisation and matching the unique program to an organisation’s needs is thefirst step in making a change program successful. Beyond that, organisations must recognise thatbringing about organisational change is essentially about changing people’s behaviour, and breakinghabits. Leadership and management skills, such as visioning, dealing with ambiguity, prioritising,planning, providing feedback and rewarding success, are key factors in any successful change initiative.Much can be learned from successful culture change case studies in the area of safety, where rapid,successful and sustained behaviour change has been achieved. The success of safety programsdemonstrates that organisations can effectively challenge and change established paradigms, initially bygiving people permission to behave differently and then by reinforcing and supporting expectations ofnew ways of behaving.Safety case study 1JFE Mechanical Company (Japan): Embracing change as a platform for operating excellenceJFE Mechanical is the leading integrated engineering and steel company in Japan, currently employingover 3000 staff and a further 7000 contract workers. Employees are constantly surrounded by heavymachinery and infrastructure. To reduce the risk to employees the senior leadership team created ashared vision about the direction of the company, including operating culture and taking their safetyculture to the next level to ensure safety performance and business success.The preliminary safety culture assessment revealed: Senior managers were aligned on the need for change and agreed current practices were not acceptable It was necessary to change the organisational mind-set from “safety is number 1 priority” to “safety is a core operating value” Communication across the organisation needed to be interactive and a two way process (not top down). 7
  8. 8. Change managementThe senior leadership group started detailed discussion and a change management program from a viewpoint of safety, gaining input from across their business groups. The discussion resulted in JFEMechanical deciding to include safety as one of their core values. As a result a world-class vision, safetypolicies and principles were developed to change the organisations mind-set and behaviour; having ashared vision and value of safety acted as a common platform to bring employees together.Cascading the visionJFE Mechanical started their “Safety Culture Creation Activities”, whereby their new vision and corevalues were implemented across the entire organisation. A corporate steering committee wasestablished to govern and monitor progress as well as provide guidance. Sub committees were createdto manage specific issues; such as training committees, a progress committee and a rules andprocedures committee. These committees were chaired by senior managers who took ownership toidentify the related activities and implementations were driven by the line manager. At the same time anew and detailed training program was implemented to build the required competencies to drive theorganisation to its desired level of safety. The training was customised to fit different roles andresponsibilities, where leaders learned how to apply new skills in a practical manner.Delivering a new realityThe new and improved culture shift became obvious quickly. The new vision became embedded in theorganisation and both managers and employees were clearly committed to the unwavering safetydemonstrations. The managers were impressed with the employees’ willingness to embrace change andregard safety as a core value. “We have seen a direct impact on our organisational effectiveness as aresult of our safety achievements”; Takusho Nakada, Executive Vice President.Safety case study 2Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL): Leading corporate culture transformation through behaviour safetyHUL had grown substantially over the past few decades. The HUL management team recognised that theorganisation could gain a competitive edge by having a world-class safety record and performance.However HUL leadership realised that their organisational vision and mission statement did not reflectthis. In 2002 HUL laid down specific organisational objectives for improving their safety performance 8
  9. 9. which included a cultural transformation within 3-5 years. The three specific areas of improvement(deliverables) included: Reducing fatalities and serious injuries by 300%. Reviewing internal safety systems and process to be aligned with their transformation Achieving sustained safety culture transformationThe solutionIn order to determine the current HUL safety baseline DuPont carried out a comprehensive managementsystem evaluation and recommended the following: Demonstrate visible “felt leadership” Articulate and implement safety procedures Integrate safety into all business processes Establish safety as a line management responsibilityLinking safety business to performanceLeaders needed to understand and embrace the new safety culture and see it as part of sustainablegrowth. An executive leadership program helped HUL’s senior management recognise they must believeand adopt the new safety values. The new visible leadership built trust and faith within the organisationand this in turn flowed through to personal responsibilities.Once the executive and leadership teams were educated DuPont moved onto the employees. Over fiveyears DuPont changed the culture of 15,000 employees by making them involved (which leads toownership) through their behaviour safety journey which included: SHE (Safety, Health an Environment) organisation goals Engagement and accountability of line managers Safety principles Visible “felt leadership” Behavioural auditing 9
  10. 10.  Use of leading indicators vs. lagging indicators Safety linkage to performance Periodic checks to maintain targeted improvement scoresSustaining a safety cultureTo ensure sustained change HUL introduced a Central Safety, Health and Environment Committee(CSHEC) headed by the CEO of HUL. All executive directors are members of the CSHEC.Gender case study 1McDonald’s Corporation: Freedom within a framework - Global Women’s InitiativeThe initiative, which started in 2006, is designed to benefit both men and women who work inMcDonald’s restaurants worldwide. Targeting all levels of the company from restaurant staff to seniorleaders, it aims to empower and continually develop and improve employees. The outcomes of theinitiative are to advance women and their leadership capabilities throughout the world.The Global Women’s Initiative takes a broad and varied approach to avoid problematic elements whichare relevant to both local and international markets. The Women’s Leadership Network (WLN), which ispart of the initiative, is the primary program for managing global change through regional steeringcommittees. The steering committees share knowledge and ideas about best practices, communicationmechanisms and business plans. The WLN is supported by regional line leaders which create a ‘super-network’ which aims to develop new training skills. The WLN holds global and regional conferenceswhich aim to empower men and women at all levels, and diversity workshops are tailored to eachregion’s need. McDonald’s also ensures that it develops its internal talent through ‘high potentialprograms’ of which women make up at least 40% of attendees.The results of the initiative have been notable worldwide. Women are now better represented asrestaurant managers, which is an essential stepping-stone when working up to a senior leadershipposition. From the inception of the program in 2006 to 2009 female senior leadership grew by 8% (from27% to 35%) in Asia-Pacific, Middle East and African regions, while in Europe it grew by 7% (45% to 52%)and in the USA a 2% increase was noted. Female managing directors grew from 0% to 36% in the Asia- 10
  11. 11. Pacific, Middle East and African region; 4% in Europe; and from 13% to 36% in the USA. Female boardrepresentation has also increased from 14% to 23%.Gender case study 2Time Warner IncorporatedAfter a merger with AOL in 2000, the Time Warner (TW) organisation was faced with decreasingemployee morale and low levels of trust. To rebuild after the merger the senior leadership teamembarked on an initiative to unify and rebuild the company. Using a comprehensive ‘market-oriented’business case, which involved specific focus on diversity and inclusion, TW implemented a strategicprocess to build a new ‘cohesive culture’ across all business divisions. The new initiative formaliseddevelopment policies for employees, accelerating the development of leaders with a focus on women.This resulted in a critical mass of women in senior positions.The initiative aims to provide a stepping stone for women to develop, share and connect with otherleaders within TW’s consumer base. Employees were also given the opportunity for networking andexposure across different divisions. TW implemented two successful programs: Chairman’s Leadership,which consisted of high potential employees (male and female) for cross divisional managementdevelopment; Breakthrough Leadership, which specifically targeted women at a vice president level orhigher. The program had 1.6% voluntary turnover versus 4.5% of women at a similar level who didn’tparticipate. Since 2005, TW have implemented more than 30 employee driven resources groups, whichspecifically focus on the needs and support of women across the entire organisation.TW broadened its diversity message from within the organisation to the outside world by ensuring thatall media products and services showed positive images of women. These were aided by a ‘diversityaudit’ which assesses how customers, viewers, users, etc., view TW. Accountably for internal programswas driven by the CEO who reports ‘Diversity Action Plans’ at annual meetings, with incentives for othersenior leaders to follow. This resulted in TWs senior leadership and executive team femalerepresentation increasing by 5% between 2003 and 2009, while the number of women in waiting (vicepresident roles, etc.,) increased from 37% to 42% and employee retention also increased to 90% acrossall genders and ethnic groups. 11
  12. 12. Despite the obstacles, there are many positive examples of change programs which have made seriousefforts to involve and benefit both females and males. As the case studies demonstrate with solidleadership and a well-executed change program, it is clear that positive and sustained gender equalitychange can be achieved to the benefit of everyone.5. Unconscious bias is a primary driver for discriminationThe term unconscious bias (also referred to as implicit assumptions) has been used to explain the waystereotypes influence how people process information in relation to other people. An implicitassumption occurs when a person or usually a group of people have a preference for one sort of personover another. When people make these preferences it is usually done without conscious awareness,hence the notion, unconscious or implicit bias and assumption.In organisations there is a tendency to prefer males in leadership positions over females, as there areimplicit assumptions about the inability of women to fulfil such roles as well as a man. This becomesproblematic and has adverse effects in an organisational setting as people tend to recruit and promotepeople who are like themselves, or who are a part of the social majority, rather than recruiting andpromoting people based on pure merit. As men are usually the ones who have the “higher ranks” andhold executive leadership positions in organisations, they too make the important decisions aboutwomen’s advancement in leadership. The preconceptions about women’s incompetence orinexperience in leadership capabilities may also become a self-fulfilling prophecy for women, hinderingtheir own advancement into executive leadership roles. This is because many women believe that theycannot hold executive leadership positions because they have been socialised to believe they cannot.An awareness of unconscious bias requires us to rethink the way we feel about the issue of genderdiversity. Our knowledge of unconscious bias makes several things clear: the limiting patterns ofunconscious behaviour are not restricted to any one group; all of us have them, includingdiversity professionals who must focus on their own assumptions and biases in order to have the moralauthority to guide others in acknowledging and confronting theirs.In order to empower staff to move towards gender diversity in the workplace, and seek to divest thecore of implicit assumptions, organisations and their executive leaders must create norms and valuesrelating to gender diversity understanding. The norms of an organisation include things like attitudes, 12
  13. 13. beliefs and values that are particular to that company. When the norms begin to change, that is whenwe will see real workplace cultural change occurring. Changing and reframing these unconsciousstereotypes and biases is the first step in endeavouring to create a culture that reassesses theimportance of women’s roles in organisations and promoting them to senior positions based on merit.6. Engaging men in gender change initiatives is critical to successMen can be especially strong ambassadors for change and play a vital role in getting other men onboard with gender equity goals and missions for change. Women cannot change the status quo bythemselves and therefore it is vital that men are educated about how to drive the change. The USAbased Catalyst organisation believes that to advance the change, organisations need to enlist bothmales and females to change organisational norms.How men come to recognise gender biasAccording to Catalyst, for individuals to first support a change program, they must be convinced thatthere is something wrong or something worth changing. In relation to gender initiatives, men need tobe convinced that there is gender bias in their organisation.Significantly, one consistent factor predicts men becoming champions of gender diversity: this factor isa strong sense of fair play. Catalyst suggests that one way to achieve this is to get men to think criticallyabout gender norms and the impact they have in their lives. Providing men with opportunities todiscuss these issues around gender with other men (only men) is important, and providing men withcross gender mentoring is critical in promoting men to think critically about gender issues. Exposingmen to the costs of gender bias, both from a male and a female perspective will aid in gaining men’scommitment to gender initiatives.Once convinced that inequality exists, men with a strong sense of fair play tend to have the motivationand the courage to challenge gender norms and other men on this issue.Crafting a vision of different partnershipsThe first step towards engaging men as equal opportunity (EO) partners is to determine yourorganisation’s vision of the different EO partnerships with men that could potentially be achieved. 13
  14. 14. According to EOWA, one way to examine whether the partnerships are patronising or genuine is toquestion the diversity of gender and age within the EEO Committee, Diversity Council, or EquityStrategic Group within your organisation. Most men included in EO partnerships, being older and moreexperienced, are often engaged in a structural rather than an emotional or strategic way. Partneringwith men representative of a diverse age group could mitigate this issue.The business case for establishing EO partnerships with menThe thing to do here is to position gender diversity initiatives in a way that shows all employees, bothmale and female, how they result in improved policies and practices that tackle the needs of allemployees. This is critical to obtaining support from men and for ensuring sustainable changes inorganisations will positively impact gender equity outcomes.Further, the high percentage of buy-in from men for flexible work hours indicates that a focus on work-life balance could be the key driver of achieving EO outcomes for women. Deloitte and Touche in theUnited States observed that addressing work-life issues for both their male and female employees wasa key enabler of culture change and, in turn, improved outcomes for women (McCraken, 2000, as citedin EOWA, 2003).Actively involving men in being a solution to the gender inequity problem will ensure their contributionand in turn ensure desired outcomes such as (1) greater commitment to the goal of reaching genderequality, (2) integration of employment issues for women into core business activities, (3) changes insystems e.g., recruitment processes, pay equity, training opportunities, and (4) changes in workpractices and expectations e.g., greater flexibility. Younger, highly talented women and men areespecially at risk of leaving an organisation if they believe that there is an unfair application of policiesand practices in their workplace. This is one more reason to focus on the risks and opportunities forboth men and women when designing and promoting workplace systems and policies.ConclusionThe six themes reviewed in this summary paper represent a sample of the most current research intothe barriers, opportunities and strategies involved in achieving gender equity in organisations. 14
  15. 15. Through its research arm, the 100% Project will continue to commission original research, as well asreview and provide access to the most up to date literature via its resources hub. For additionalinformation please go to www.the100percentproject.com.au.Referenceshttp://www.asx.com.au/Brenner, O.C , Tomkiewicz, J., & Schein, V. E. (1989). The relationship between sex role stereotypes andrequisite management characteristics revisited. Academy of Management Journal 32, 662-669.Eagly, A. H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., & van Engen, M. (2003). Transformational, transactional, andlaissez-faire: A meta-analysis comparing men and women. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 569–591.Eagly, A. H., & Johnson, B. T. (1990). Gender and leadership style: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin,108, 233–256.Eagly, A. H., & Carli, L. L. (2007). Through the labyrinth: The truth about how women become leaders.Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Eagly, A. H., & Carli, L. L. (2004). Women and men as leaders. In J. Antonakis, R. J. Sternberg, & A. T.Cianciolo (Eds.), The nature of leadership (pp. 279-301). Thousand Oaks, CA: SageEagly, A. H., Makhijani, M. G., & Klonsky, B. G. (1992). Gender and the evaluation of leaders: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 3-22.Fine, C. Delusions of Gender: How Our Minds, Society and Neurosexism Create Difference. Icon Books2010.Gardiner, M., & Tiggemann, M. (1999). Gender differences in leadership style, job stress, and mentalhealth in male- and female-dominated industries. Journal of Occupational and OrganizationalPsychology, 72, 301–315.Judge TA, Piccolo RF. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: A metaanalytic test of theirrelative validity. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 755– 768.Lowe, K., & Galen, K. (1996). Effectiveness correlates of transformational and transactional leadership: Ameta-analytic review of the MLQ literature. Leadership Quarterly, 7(3), 385-426Powell, G. N., Butterfield, D. A., Alves, J. C., & Bartol, K. M. (2004). Sex effects in evaluations oftransformational and transactional leaders. Academy of Management Proceedings, pp. E1-E6.Schein, V. E. (2001). A global look at psychological barriers to women’s progress in management. Journalof Social Issues, 57, 675-688. 15
  16. 16. http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-03-08/empowering-women-helps-world-growth-hillary-rodham- clinton.htmlhttp://www.miningaustralia.com.au/news/bhp-awarded-for-commitment-to-diversityChief Executive Women, 2009EOWA, EOWA Australian Census of Women in Leadership, 2008Ground Breakers Ernst and Young ReportGoldman Sachs, Gender Inequality, Growth and Global Ageing, Global Economics Paper, 2007McKinsey & Company, Making Talent a Strategic Priority, McKinsey Quarterly, 2008McKinsey & Company, McKinsey & Company analysis, 1994McKinsey & Company, A Business Case for Women, McKinsey Quarterly, September 2008Collins. J (2000), The Timeless Physics of Great Companies,http://www.jimcollins.com/article_topics/articles/the-timeless-physics.htmlPomeroy. E & Foust-Cummings, H, 2009. Catalyst Member Benchmarking Report. New York: Catalyst.Du Pont Case Study (JFE Mechanical)http://www2.dupont.com/Sustainable_Solutions/en_US/assets/downloads/case_studies/JFEMechanicalOperatingExcellence_CaseStudy.pdfDu Pont Case Study (Hindustran Unilever Limited)http://www2.dupont.com/Sustainable_Solutions/en_US/assets/downloads/case_studies/HindustanUnileverLimited_CaseStudy.pdfCatalyst Case Study (McDonalds)http://www.catalyst.org/publication/465/mcdonalds-corporationfreedom-within-a-framework-global-womens-initiativeCatalyst Case Study (Time Warner)http://www.catalyst.org/publication/466/time-warner-inccreating-a-unified-culture-investing-in-our-women-leaders 16
  17. 17. Proven Strategies for Addressing Unconscious Bias in the Workplace, CDO Insights, 2008Babcock, P. Detecting Hidden Bias. HR Magazine, February 2006, Vol. 51, No 2.Banaji, M.R., Bazerman, M. H., Chugh, D. (2003). How (Un) Ethical Are You? Harvard Business Review,December 2003, Vol 81, Issue 12, p56-63.Catalyst ResearchEngaging Men in Gender initiatives: What change Agents Need to Know. Catalyst.http://www.catalyst.org/publication/323/engaging-men-in-gender-initiatives-what-change-agents-need-to-knowEOWA. (2003). Strategies to engage men as EO partners. Retrieved from:http://www.eowa.gov.au/Developing_a_Workplace_Program/Six_Steps_to_a_Workplace_Program/Step_4/Women_in_Management_Tools/Strategies_To_Engage_Men_As_EO_Partners.aspCoutou, Diane L. How Resilience Works, Harvard Business Review, May 2002Seligman, M. Building Resilience, Harvard Business Review, April 2011 17