Life with an Electric Car

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  • Volt $44k+Leaf $25k+Tesla $100k+White Zombie $15k (+sponsor donated LiIon)VoltsRabbit $10kE318ti $15k
  • Wiresize, Color, and label
  • Fleets
  • Mj/kg Gas, Diesel,40 Fat Metabolism!
  • The shortest route takes me across a ridge, both up and down. I spend a bunch of energy going up, and get none back going down. And the way battery chemistry works, you pay a high price for heavy current loads.The most efficent route takes me around the end of the ridge, and allows me to expend my stored energy at a more reasonable pace…and that means I can make it to my destination and back home again okay. The neat side effect of this learning is that now I apply the same reasoning when I drive my big v8 Ford pickup truck. Instead of burning all that gas to get up and over the hill, and then losing the energy to heat in the brakes, I take the same route that I would in the BMW, and save that gas.
  • Regulatory environment Infrastructure readiness Consumer readiness Operating environment
  • If the group doesn’t have any more questions, may be I’ll turn things around and ask you some questions.
  • DC: Wire Loop 2 part commutator and if 2 is good then more is better
  • DC: Wire Loop 2 part commutator and if 2 is good then more is better
  • Life with an Electric Car

    1. 1. A Quick Look at the Road Aheadand Life with an Electric CarPhillip Crippen
    2. 2. Agenda Welcome & Introduction Buy vs. Build Options Common Myths and Misconceptions Learning to Live with Range Anxiety Potential Roadblocks to mass Adoption 1
    3. 3. Buy vs. Build $44k $25k $100k+ Volt (early 2011) Leaf (early 2011) Tesla (2008-11)White Zombie (born 1994) VoltsRabbit (born 1991) e318ti (born 2010) $15k $10k $15k
    4. 4. Build: e318tiDonor: 1997 BMW 318ti, 207k miles, purchased Oct 2008 Factory Converted Engine 4cyl 1.9l 9inch DC Max HP 103 HP @ 100HP 6000RPM Max Torque 133 ft-lb @ 115 @ 500A , 0- 4300RPM 5000RPM Max RPM 6500 5000 Top Speed 140mph 80mph Curb Weight 2950 lbs 3100 lbs
    5. 5. DC vs AC DC ACTorque ~Current ~1/SpeedSpeed ~Voltage ~FrequencyMotor Brushes & Commutator Rotor cast, no rotatingComplexity for Wound Rotor wiringController Simple (PWM) Voltage Complex, chopping DCComplexity Control. into AC waves. Regen Complex Default RegenEV Setup Cost Low High (2x)Typical EV Voltage 144VDC 360VACBattery Pack 12x12V 30x12V
    6. 6. Build: What Comes Out?Lots of Greasy, Dirty Stuff Radiator Engine (!) Exhaust Gas Tank Heater Core Power Steering Brake Boost
    7. 7. Build: What Goes In?Cleaner, Drier Stuff Motor Controller Batteries Electric Heater Elect. PS Pump Vacuum Pump
    8. 8. Build: What’s Going on Under the Hood? Two Layers under the Hood: Controls and ActionControllerBatteries“Gas Pedal” Motor Elect. PS Pump Vacuum Pump
    9. 9. Build: What About the Other End? Batteries and On-Board ChargerChargerBatteries
    10. 10. Schematic 12V 115VAC From <10> 144 VDC <10> PS1 R BK R C3+C3+ BC1 C3-C3- <2/0> <10> <10> R R R BK<2/0> C1+ CR+ CR- C1- Aux Batt Rear Battery Box <10> <10> PF1 R BK CF1 Donor 12V 300A K4 20A <12> <12> <12> Bus Y Y Y IS1<2/0> <2/0> <14> <14> <14> <14> Heater R R R + K1 BK <12> V <12> Y Y Donor Key <14> <14> K3 R R R 85 86 BK KLK <12> <12> Wh To Y + - Y Com Drive R Bk + - PS1 <14> <14> NO + K2 R BK 12V To NC Controls Potbox <14> <14> R + BK Controller Fan <12> K3 <12> R <14> <14> <14> +RK4 87 30 Y BK Donor Heat From Potbox <14> <14> <14> L2 T2 K2 <2/0> K1 R BK Vacuum + B+ 1 2 3 B- + Controller Pump <14> Gnd A2 M- BK Vacuum Switch <2/0> <2/0> <14> C1 A2 <10> R BK <14> A1 S1 R + K5 B5 <12> <10> K5 C2+ C2- Y Y A1 A2 S2 CF2 R R <12> 2A PS Pump A Y <12> Main Drive Crippen Created on Date Page 1 of 1 318ti Conversion 8/15/09 Schematic Revision 3 Date Power and Control 9/21/09
    11. 11. Project Phasing Life Imitates WorkPhase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3Functional EV Reliable EV Wired EVStarted Jan 09 Started May 10 ETA June 13Complete Mar 10 Complete Aug 10 OngoingDrivetrain & Safety Power Steering, Interior, Complete Data Logging, WiFiSystems complete Clutch, Heater, Detail job, dump to web, EV sensitive Basic Data Logging navigation, Touchscreen dash “Der Weg is das Ziel”
    12. 12. Agenda Welcome & Introduction Buy vs. Build Options Common Myths and Misconceptions Learning to Live with Range Anxiety Potential Roadblocks to mass Adoption 1
    13. 13. TerminologyHybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Prius, Insight, Escalade(?)Plug-in Hybrid (PHEV) Chevy Volt, Modified PriusElectric Vehicle (EV) Nissan Leaf, BMW ActiveEPlug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV)Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)
    14. 14. Common EV Myths “EVs don’t have enough range”Source: BMW Group EVProgram Tech Review, Nov 2010
    15. 15. Common EV Myths “EVs create more pollution by using electricity from coal-fired generation plants”• It’s easier to put scrubbers on power plant smoke stacks than to control millions of tailpipes (Only 52% of US electricity is generated using coal)• EVs are inherently more efficient at converting stored energy to motion. Electric motors have efficiencies of up to 98% while an average Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) is only 18-20% efficient
    16. 16. Common EV Myths “The charging infrastructure must be built before people will adopt EVs”• Most charging will be done at home, so a public charging infrastructure isn’t a prerequisite. • Public Charging would definitely help: offices, airports, malls• EV ecosystem is rapidly ramping up infrastructure in targeted markets
    17. 17. Common EV Myths “The grid will crash if millions of EVs charge at once”• Current Off-Peak grid capacity could fuel the daily commutes of 73% of all cars on the road today.…however…• Some studies indicate that the modern suburban neighborhood transformers are purposefully undersized…• Ongoing updates to the grid metering will allow management of charging patterns to suit local infrastructure needs• “Rolling UPS” concept for EVs actually uses a charged EV to help stabilize the grid through momentary disruptions!
    18. 18. Common EV Myths “Battery packs don’t last long enough and are expensive to replace”• Advanced Battery Management Systems minimize damage from extreme use events• Improvements in Li-Ion production techniques and chemistry increase production yield and reliability• Today’s Lead-Acid battery ecosystem recycles 97% of material in the automotive fleet’s batteries. Similar reprocessing techniques are in development for advanced chemistries• EVs place extreme performance demands on batteries. A secondary market is developing for “retired” battery packs with less severe requirements (UPS, Grid Stabilization)
    19. 19. Agenda Welcome & Introduction Buy vs. Build Options Common Myths and Misconceptions Learning to Live with Range Anxiety Potential Roadblocks to mass Adoption 1
    20. 20. Where do they use PEVs? Indoor GoKart track Rogers AR LAX
    21. 21. What about daily life? • My Range: • Max: 37mi • Target: 20mi • My Routes: • Home-School-Stores 15mi Not a problem • Home-Airport 26mi One way, Charger Needed • Home-Customer 25mi One way, Charger Needed • Road Trip to Red Sox Game? Forget it!
    22. 22. Battery Alternatives Type Advantage DisadvantageLead Acid Cheap, Available Heavy, Lowest Energy Density Flooded Cheapest Frequent Maintenance Sealed Flooded Lower Maintenance Sensitive to abuse Gel or AGM No Maintenance, Safe, Pricey, Shorter lifecycle if abused Flexible PositioningNickel Cadmium Longer Lifecycle, Somewhat Significantly more expensive, Battery higher energy density Management system requiredLithium Polymer Highest energy density, quick Most expensive, battery management charging, flexible packaging system required
    23. 23. Creative Routing
    24. 24. Speed & Aerodynamic Drag• Slower driving leads to extended range• Drag increases at the cube of velocity
    25. 25. Agenda Welcome & Introduction Buy vs. Build Options Common Myths and Misconceptions Learning to Live with Range Anxiety Potential Roadblocks to mass Adoption 1
    26. 26. Which Cities Have What it Takes?Source: Rocky Mountain Institute, Project Get Ready
    27. 27. Charging Options• Level 1: Home, Public • 120V, 15A • 8-12 hrs • Opportunity Charge• Level 2: Home, Public • 240V, 30A • 4-6 hrs• Level 3: Station • 240 or 480V 3Ph, 80A • 30 min
    28. 28. Charging Options, A Different Approach• Better Place • Partnered with Renault• Company owns Battery• Traditional “Station” paradigm• Trials in “Economic Islands” • Hawaii • Israel • Denmark
    29. 29. Other Potential Hurdles• Not enough demand for OEMs to support • Huge transition in Mfg Asset base• Low Consumer Awareness of benefits and ease of transition• Lack of Charging Infrastructure (assumed)• Consumer focus on Upfront costs• “Spaghetti Regulation”• Highway taxes collected via gasoline purchase• First-Responder concerns
    30. 30. Key MessagesDo EVs make sense for many Americans Will EVs be the only thing in our Garage? Does it feel good to drive by gas stations  20
    31. 31. For Additional Information• Mass Produced Vehicles • www.Chevrolet.com/Volt • www.nissanusa.com/leaf-electric-car/index • www.ford.com/technology/electric/ • http://www.greencar.com/• Conversion Projects • www.evalbum.com • www.diyelectriccar.com• Conversion Equipment Suppliers • www.evamerica.com • www.electroauto.com• Infrastructure • www.projectgetready.com • www.coulombtech.com/• My Conversion Blog • mpkwh.blogspot.com/ 25
    32. 32. Q&A 26
    33. 33. 6
    34. 34. What’s next for Personal Transport? + +Battery Tech Problem? Prime Mover Problem? Vehicle Format Problem?
    35. 35. What’s next for Personal Transport? + +• Rethink the System? • Compressed Air Engine • Nitrogen with Sterling Engine • Mass Transit • Whatever this thing is ->?
    36. 36. Thanks!
    37. 37. Return
    38. 38. Making Waves! Using DC Pulses to vary Voltage - ReturnPulse Width Modulation (PWM) uses full voltage pulses at a fixed switching frequency to create avariable voltage in a machine (light bulb, DC motor, AC motor). The natural characteristics of theload create a lag in reaching the pulse voltage, leading to a ramping effect. Therefore, by varyingthe count of off & on pulses of fixed time, PWM changes the average voltage at the load. For DCmotors, PWM creates a specific voltage (e.g. half speed is 50% rated voltage).
    39. 39. Making Waves! Using DC Pulses to make AC WavesFor AC motors, PWM creates asine wave at rated voltage andchanges the frequency to Returncontrol speed (e.g. half speed is50% rated frequency). But,PWM also has to manage thethree phases and keep them ~ Mseparated by 120 . Note theadditional complexity of theinverter bridge
    40. 40. Where does the Torque come from? Max Torque 133 ft-lb @ 115 @ 500A , 0- 4300RPM 5000RPMDCMotor
    41. 41. Where does the Torque come from? AC Induction Motor

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