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Unit 4 psychological foundations (2nd ed.)


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WED 466 unit 4

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Unit 4 psychological foundations (2nd ed.)

  1. 1. WED 466: Unit 4 Psychological Foundations of Workforce EducationFall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 1
  2. 2. General Objective Understands the psychological foundations of workforce education.Fall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 2
  3. 3. Career Development“… is a lifelong process involving psychological, sociological, economic, and cultural factors that influence individuals’ selection of, adjustment to, and advancement in the occupations that collectively make up their careers.”Fall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 3
  4. 4. Good vs. Bad Theories• Good theories have well-defined terms and easily interpreted constructs.• Good theories explain the career development process for all groups.• Good theories explain why people choose careers and become dissatisfied with them.• Good theories are parsimonious.Fall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 4
  5. 5. Early Theories• Have limited applicability to special groups – women, European men and women.• Are culturally oppressive because they are rooted in Eurocentric beliefs• Reflect independent, not dependent career decision making.Fall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 5
  6. 6. Theories with Major Impact on Research and Practice• Holland (1997)• Super (1990)• Lofquist & Dawis (1996, 1991)• Lent, Brown, & Hackett (1995, 1996, 2002)• Gottfredson (1981, 1996)Fall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 6
  7. 7. “The Western European worldview is that people should act independently when they make career decisions… Many Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics believe that the welfare of the group should be placed ahead of the concerns of individuals.”Fall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 7
  8. 8. Career Choice and Development Categories• Trait and Factor Theories• Developmental Theories• Theories Based in Learning Theory• Socioeconomic TheoriesFall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 8
  9. 9. Philosophical Assumptions• Positivist (modernist) – Trait-and-factor theories – Developmental theories – Theories rooted in learning theory• Post Modern (phenomenological/ constructivist)Fall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 9
  10. 10. Trait-and-Factor Theories• Holland’s Theory of Vocational Choice• Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)• Brown’s Value-Based TheoryFall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 10
  11. 11. Holland’s Theory of Vocational Choice• Individual personality is the primary factor in vocational choice.• Interest inventories are personality inventories.• Daydreams about occupations are precursors to occupational choice.• Identify is related to a small number of focused vocational goals.• Career success and satisfaction is related to choosing an occupation that is congruent with one’s personality.Fall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 11
  12. 12. Holland’s Six Personality Types• Realistic• Investigative• Artistic• Social• Enterprising• ConventionalFall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 12
  13. 13. Holland’s Six Work Environments• Realistic Environment• Investigative Environment• Artistic Environment• Social Environment• Enterprising Environment• Conventional EnvironmentFall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 13
  14. 14. Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)• People have two types of needs. – Biological (survival) – Psychological (social acceptance)• These needs give rise to drive states.• Work environments have requirements that are analogous to individual needs.• Workers select jobs because of the perception that the job will satisfy their needs.Fall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 14
  15. 15. Predicting Worker Success (i.e., worker adjustment)• Skills – Job-related skills• Aptitudes – Potential to develop job-related skills• Personality – Combination of skills and aptitudesFall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 15
  16. 16. Values-Based Theory of Occupational Choice• Values – Human nature – Person-nature relationship – Time orientation – Activity – Self-control – Social relationships – Collateral – allocentrismFall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 16
  17. 17. How Values Develop – Enculturation is the process by which individuals incorporate the beliefs and values of their cultural group and form a values system – Most individuals are monocultural – Acculturation involves the enculturation of beliefs from a culture different from one’s own.Fall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 17
  18. 18. Propositions of Brown’s Values- Based Theory1. Highly prioritized work values are the most important determinant of career choice from people who value individualism.2. Individuals who hold collective social values and come from families who hold the same values defer to the wishes of the family in occupational decision- making.Fall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 18
  19. 19. Propositions of Brown’s Values- Based Theory (continued)3. When taken individually, cultural values regarding activity do not constrain the occupational decision-making process.4. Males, females, and people from differing cultural groups enter occupations at varying rates.5. The process of choosing an occupation value involves a series of estimates.Fall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 19
  20. 20. Propositions of Brown’s Values- Based Theory (continued)6. Occupational success is related to job-related skills acquired in formal and informal educational settings, job-related aptitudes and skills, SES, preparation in the work role, and the extent to which discrimination is experienced.7. Occupational tenure os partially the result of the match between the cultural and work values of worker, supervisors, and colleagues.Fall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 20
  21. 21. Developmental Theories• Super’s Life Span, Life Space Theory• Gottfredson’s Theory of Circumscription and CompromiseFall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 21
  22. 22. Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory1. People differ in their abilities, personalities, needs, values, interests, traits, and self-concepts.2. People are qualified, by virtue of these characteristics, each for a number of occupations.3. Each occupation requires a characteristic pattern of abilities and personality traits.Fall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 22
  23. 23. Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory (continued)4. Vocational preferences and competencies change with time and experience.5. The process of change is a series of life stages. – Growth Stage – Exploratory Stage – Establishment Stage – Maintenance Stage – Decline StageFall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 23
  24. 24. Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory (continued)6. The nature of the career pattern is determined by the individual’s parental socioeconomic level, mental ability, education, skills, personality characteristics, career maturity, and the opportunity to which he/she is exposed.7. Success in coping with environmental demands depends on the readiness of the individual to cope (career maturity).8. Career maturity is a hypothetical construct.Fall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 24
  25. 25. Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory (continued)9. Life stage development can be guided partly by the maturing of abilities and interests and partly by aiding in reality testing and in the development of self concepts.10. The process of career development is developing and implementing occupational self-concepts.11. Several factors influence the process of synthesis of or compromise between individual and social factors.Fall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 25
  26. 26. Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory (continued)12. Work satisfaction and life satisfactions depend on the extent to which the individuals find adequate outlets for abilities, needs, values, interests, personality traits, and self-concepts.13. The degree of satisfaction people attain from work is proportional to the degree to which they have been able to implement self- concepts.14. Work and occupation provide a focus for personality organization.Fall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 26
  27. 27. Gottfredson’s Theory of Circumscription and Compromise• Four assumptions regarding how career aspirations develop… 1. Begin in childhood 2. Are attempts to implement one’s self- concept 3. Depend on the degree to which the career is congruent with self-perceptions 4. Are guided by occupational stereotypesFall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 27
  28. 28. Cognitive Maps of Occupations• Are organized along the dimensions of – Masculinity/femininity of the occupation – Fields of workFall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 28
  29. 29. Gottfredson’s Developmental Stages• Ages 3-5: Orientation to size and power• Ages 6-8: Orientation to sex roles• Ages 9-13: Orientation to social valuation• Ages 14+: Choices exploredFall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 29
  30. 30. Summary• Theories of career choice and development provide guides to this complex phenomenon.• All theories (except Brown’s) are predicated on the belief that the individual holds an independence social value and will chose his/her own occupation.• Indiscriminate application of a theory is inappropriate and unethical.Fall, 2008 WED 466 – Unit 4 30