Experiential, problem-basedand simulated learning :    The role(s) of adult facilitators                     Philip Viana ...
Experiential Approach / Problem-Based / Simulation Approach to           InstructionAGENDAANDOVERVIEW       –   Methods an...
EXPERIENTIAL APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION                How is this approach different?          Learner’s experiences are par...
EXPERIENTIAL APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION   UNIVERSAL METHOD                      AND    PRINCIPLES   Framing the              ...
EXPERIENTIAL APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION            John Dewey                “child learns how to fly a kite not because     ...
EXPERIENTIAL APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION                       John Dewey “Experience and education cannot be directly equated...
EXPERIENTIAL APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION            Jean Piaget          … assimilation and accommodation is at          work ...
EXPERIENTIAL APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION                          David KolbCyclical model of the experiential process        ...
EXPERIENTIAL APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION                     DRAWBACKS “…Many people have learned to probe the underlying mean...
EXPERIENTIAL APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION                     DRAWBACKS “not all experience leads to the growth of ever-widenin...
Soldiers hold live-fire exercise in GagetownREAL WORLDEXPERIENTIALLEARNING                    http://goo.gl/cE9ks
Soldiers hold live-fire exercise in GagetownREAL WORLDEXPERIENTIALLEARNING               “Learning is promoted when learne...
PROBLEM-BASED APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION
PROBLEM-BASED APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION How is this approach different?     • facilitated problem solving• organized around ...
PROBLEM-BASED APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION     Universal Principles or Methods for PBI1.    Select an authentic problem2.    Fi...
PROBLEM-BASED APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION           Howard Barrows              One of the innovators of PBI in medical educat...
PROBLEM-BASED APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION               TYPICAL PROCESS                 THE PRESENTATION OF THE PROBLEM       ...
PROBLEM-BASED APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION    DIFFERENCE FROM A CASE STUDY?• With most case studies there  is one right answer ...
PROBLEM-BASED APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION         PROBLEM SHOULD BE …   1.   Grounded in by the curriculum   2.   Engaging   3...
PROBLEM-BASED APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION         POSSIBLE HURDLES            • Lack of Prior Experience with PBI            •...
SIMULATION APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION
SIMULATION APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION             How is this approach different?    •      Dynamic models of physical or con...
SIMULATION APPROACH TO INSTRUCTIONINSTRUCTIONAL SIMULATIONS AND MICROWORLDS  Simulations and Microworlds include:  1.   Se...
FIRSTINTERACTIONWITH THIS TYPEOF LEARNING … AREOBIZ / SNES (1992)
SPANS MANYFIELDS OFSTUDY…IN THE FIRST DEGREE / PC(1993)
EARLYMEDICALSIMULATIONEXPERIENCES…
Video        http://goo.gl/r1Z2a
SIMULATION APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION             MICROWORLDS       Includes:       1.   Set of primitive model-building elem...
SIMULATION APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION               MICROWORLDS   Includes:   1. Nonlinear interactions in constructing model...
MICROWORLDEXAMPLE             Alice 3.x © 2008-2013,             Carnegie Mellon University
SIMULATION APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION                   MICROWORLDS Elements that are needed in a Microworld: •    Content fu...
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Simulated learning v3

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Simulated learning v3

  1. 1. Experiential, problem-basedand simulated learning : The role(s) of adult facilitators Philip Viana 4F32 Facilitating Adult Learning Session 6
  2. 2. Experiential Approach / Problem-Based / Simulation Approach to InstructionAGENDAANDOVERVIEW – Methods and principles – Examine the theorists – Applications – Drawbacks – See examples of these approaches
  3. 3. EXPERIENTIAL APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION How is this approach different? Learner’s experiences are part of learning goals Real World feedback Social Constructivist approach
  4. 4. EXPERIENTIAL APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION UNIVERSAL METHOD AND PRINCIPLES Framing the Activate Reflect on the Experience Experience Experience • Objectives/goals • Authenticity • Reflect on • Assessment • Work with learner challenging methods to create authentic assumptions • Establish a outcomes • Build community Community • Create a Problem • Help Students • Expected behaviour • Use optimal • Understand of participants difficulty • Assessment of goals • Application of results
  5. 5. EXPERIENTIAL APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION John Dewey “child learns how to fly a kite not because external facts are conveyed to his brain, but because of the direct experience of flying the kite” … a cycle of Primary experience Flying the kite And secondary experience How people process the primary experience
  6. 6. EXPERIENTIAL APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION John Dewey “Experience and education cannot be directly equated, because in fact some experiences are “miseducative” in that they arrest or distort the growth of future experience (Dewey, 1938)" What is your interpretation of this statement?
  7. 7. EXPERIENTIAL APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION Jean Piaget … assimilation and accommodation is at work in humans as they interact with their world impacts experiential learning • Complexity • Problem-orientation • Self-directedness
  8. 8. EXPERIENTIAL APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION David KolbCyclical model of the experiential process Four stages: 1. Concrete experience 2. Reflective observation 3. Abstract conceptualization 4. Active experimentation
  9. 9. EXPERIENTIAL APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION DRAWBACKS “…Many people have learned to probe the underlying meaning of their experiences, but such cognitive ability is not characteristic of all learners” David Kolb (1984)
  10. 10. EXPERIENTIAL APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION DRAWBACKS “not all experience leads to the growth of ever-widening and deeper experiences” “… even for those experiences that offer the potential to be good learning opportunities, the individual’s interpretation of the experience may be misguided.“ Merriam (1994)
  11. 11. Soldiers hold live-fire exercise in GagetownREAL WORLDEXPERIENTIALLEARNING http://goo.gl/cE9ks
  12. 12. Soldiers hold live-fire exercise in GagetownREAL WORLDEXPERIENTIALLEARNING “Learning is promoted when learners activate relevant cognitive structures by being directed to recall, relate, describe, or demonstrate relevant prior knowledge or experience“ Merrill (1984)
  13. 13. PROBLEM-BASED APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION
  14. 14. PROBLEM-BASED APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION How is this approach different? • facilitated problem solving• organized around a complex problem• does not have a single correct answer
  15. 15. PROBLEM-BASED APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION Universal Principles or Methods for PBI1. Select an authentic problem2. Fit within the discipline but encourage cross-discipline thinking3. Tutors role is to support student’s metacognitive processing and problem solving skills4. Authentic assessment practices to validate the learning goals5. Consistent and thorough debriefing activities to consolidate key concepts
  16. 16. PROBLEM-BASED APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION Howard Barrows One of the innovators of PBI in medical education …suggested that the conventional methods of teaching probably inhibit, if not destroy, any clinical reasoning … And that students had forgotten their freshman [course content] by the time they reached their clinical course as juniors…. [This] led to my design of a method stressing development of the clinical reasoning or problem-solving process.
  17. 17. PROBLEM-BASED APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION TYPICAL PROCESS THE PRESENTATION OF THE PROBLEM STUDENTS ENGAGE WITH THE PROBLEM GENERATE IDEAS AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS DETERMINE WHAT THEY CURRENTLY KNOW AND DO NOT KNOW ESTABLISH LEARNING GOALS ACQUIRE THE KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS TO DEVELOP A VIABLE SOLUTION REFLECT ON THE PROBLEM UTILIZING THE NEW INFORMATION REFLECT ON THEIR PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS
  18. 18. PROBLEM-BASED APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION DIFFERENCE FROM A CASE STUDY?• With most case studies there is one right answer (and some close answers)• The learning task for the student is to pick up on all the clues that are important (and avoid the red herrings)
  19. 19. PROBLEM-BASED APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION PROBLEM SHOULD BE … 1. Grounded in by the curriculum 2. Engaging 3. Relevant 4. Using same knowledge, skills, and attitudes as a real-world 5. Challenging enough to require contributions from all learners 6. Misleading and loose framework 7. Prepared to offer learners supplies and content to start the activity
  20. 20. PROBLEM-BASED APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION POSSIBLE HURDLES • Lack of Prior Experience with PBI • Large Class Sizes • Commitment of the instructor and the organization • Commitment to the complete PBI process • Shift of teachers’ pedagogical beliefs
  21. 21. SIMULATION APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION
  22. 22. SIMULATION APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION How is this approach different? • Dynamic models of physical or conceptual systems…• Engaging interactions with effecting state changes to models • Nonlinear logic• One or more designed augmenting instructional functions… • One or more instructional goals.
  23. 23. SIMULATION APPROACH TO INSTRUCTIONINSTRUCTIONAL SIMULATIONS AND MICROWORLDS Simulations and Microworlds include: 1. Self-directed learning 2. Complex tasks 3. Testing of knowledge base and skills 4. Multiple judgement decision 5. Changing circumstances 6. Adaptive 7. Coaching and feedback available
  24. 24. FIRSTINTERACTIONWITH THIS TYPEOF LEARNING … AREOBIZ / SNES (1992)
  25. 25. SPANS MANYFIELDS OFSTUDY…IN THE FIRST DEGREE / PC(1993)
  26. 26. EARLYMEDICALSIMULATIONEXPERIENCES…
  27. 27. Video http://goo.gl/r1Z2a
  28. 28. SIMULATION APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION MICROWORLDS Includes: 1. Set of primitive model-building elements joined to illustrate cause–effect model relationships 2. Tools in virtual plane may be provided by the designer to support learning activities. 3. Construction elements is often themed 4. Ability to build a narrative through character models
  29. 29. SIMULATION APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION MICROWORLDS Includes: 1. Nonlinear interactions in constructing models and carrying out interactions within a specific range 2. Actions are constrained by operational commands created by designer. 3. Guided Exploration
  30. 30. MICROWORLDEXAMPLE Alice 3.x © 2008-2013, Carnegie Mellon University
  31. 31. SIMULATION APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION MICROWORLDS Elements that are needed in a Microworld: • Content function : MODEL CONTENT • Strategy function: INSTRUCTIONS • Control function: USER CONTROLS • Messaging function: COMMUNICATION • Representation function: ELEMENTS • Media-logic function: EXECUTE REPRESENTATIONS AND COMPUTATIONS • Data management function: MANAGE DATA RESULTING FROM INTERACTIONS • Fidelity

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