MA Sports Management                                                     Philip Barnes                             Managin...
MA Sports Management                                                    Philip Barnescandidates have a tendency to reject ...
MA Sports Management                                                      Philip Barnesappeared to be friendly, self-confi...
MA Sports Management                                                      Philip Barnesreveal their past experiences; I ha...
MA Sports Management                                                       Philip Barnesorganisations’ recruitment expendi...
MA Sports Management                                                       Philip Barnestennis as a pastime.     This woul...
MA Sports Management                                                       Philip BarnesZwanenberg & Wilkinson 1993).     ...
MA Sports Management                                                          Philip Barnes                               ...
MA Sports Management                                                            Philip BarnesKnippen, J.T., Green, T.B. (1...
MA Sports Management                                                        Philip BarnesTorrington, D., Hall, L., Taylor,...
MA Sports Management                                    Philip Barnes                             Appendix 1Interview Sche...
MA Sports Management                                   Philip Barnes                          LeadershipIf you could have ...
MA Sports Management                                 Philip BarnesWhat was the greatest contribution you have made/helped ...
MA Sports Management                                  Philip Barnes                       Skills and QualitiesWhat is the ...
MA Sports Management                Philip Barnes                       Appendix 2                                     Pag...
MA Sports Management   Philip Barnes                        Page No. 16
MA Sports Management                                               Philip Barnes                                 Appendix ...
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Recruitment, Search and Selection


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Recruitment, Search and Selection

  1. 1. MA Sports Management Philip Barnes Managing People in Sport Post Interview Analysis, Recruitment, Selection & Recommendations“The basic goal for human resource planning is to make sure that you hire the rightnumber of people who not only have the skills and abilities to do the job as itcurrently exists, but who are also able to adapt to the organisation’s changingchallenges and who also fit in with the spirit or culture of the organisation.” Herman (1993, p.3) Herman’s opening statement provides the perfect backdrop for an excellentcritique of current recruitment policy and procedures; potential employees have todisplay proficiency in the specific occupation whilst also showing the adaptability andmotivation required to effectively help stimulate and sustain the growth of anorganisation alongside their own professional ability. Synonymous with the growthand development of an organisation is the achievement and maintenance ofcompetitive advantage. Schuler & MacMillan (1984) suggest that employers shoulddevelop their recruitment process and current staff’s expertise to ensure they have thebest employees, in turn helping increase capacity and productivity thus creating andfirmly establishing a competitive advantage. Chelladurai (2006) believes that themost effective recruitment procedures must be seen from two perspectives; technicaland social interactive. The technical perspective concerns measuring potentialemployees fit against the competencies that the job duly requires. From the socialinteractive perspective, the focus lies with ensuring that an applicant has the socialability and behaviour required to adapt well and positively influence the currentnorms, values and culture of an organisation. When recruiting, it is crucial thatorganisations give consideration to both of these requirements and employ ‘applicantsbased on who they are, not just what they can do (Schneider & Bowen 1992, p.11).’ Undertaking a critical analysis on interviews and the recruitment process is thefinal task assisting my professional development through the module ‘ManagingPeople in Sport.’ Perhaps ironically the key characteristic that has emerged most forme from using interviews as a selection method has been the concept that an interviewtakes the form of an equally weighted two way process (Breaugh & Starke 2000;Holstein & Gubrium 2004; Bunting 2005; Torrington, Hall & Taylor 2005). It can beused as a marketing tool for the organisation to ensure that when they find the rightperson for the job, they want to work there; according to Arthur (2005), top Page No. 1
  2. 2. MA Sports Management Philip Barnescandidates have a tendency to reject job offers, often as they are applying elsewhereto other organisations that could be selling themselves better. Rosseau & Wade-Benzoni (2006) even suggest that the recruitment process has a significant impact onthe potential employees’ performance highlighting areas of motivation, innovationand customer service; thus it is crucial that an organisation places emphasis on theirrecruitment process to ensure competitive advantage, strong productivity, staff moraleand performance. We were recently given the opportunity to gain experience of therecruitment process primarily through the use of interviews; however this report willquestion their effectiveness for recruitment in the specific post, investigate otherprocedures that may complement the interview and subsequently recommend generalpotential improvements to the recruitment process. With any experience comes reflection, with Schön (1983) suggesting when anindividual looks back on previous experiences they engage in a never-ending self-education process. An analysis of the interview I have undertaken will help medevelop my interviewing skills further to help avoid the pitfall concerning Roberts(1997) where interviewers place restraint on successful two-way dialogue due to alack of skills, training, experience or preparation. In preparation for undertaking aninterview with a hypothetical candidate for the role of duty manager of programmingat the Lawn Tennis Association (LTA), I composed a structured interview schedule(Appendix 1) placing emphasis on its ability to extract information from the applicantdemonstrating their competence in a range of skills extracted from the jobspecification (Appendix 2). Situational questions were designed to encourage theapplicant to reflect on past experiences; research suggests situational structuredinterviews have much greater validity than psychological/too job specific/unstructuredquestioning (Wiesner & Cronshaw 1988; McDaniel et al. 1994; Schmidt & Hunter1998). I felt I was well prepared, but was nervous anticipating the actual run throughof the interview, which was evident upon reflection which was assisted through avideo recording of the session. Arthur (2005) suggests participants that show signs of avoiding eye contact,biting lips, tapping feet, wringing hands or shifting on the seat display signs ofnervousness through their non verbal communication (Appendix 3). This wasexpected given it was my first experience orchestrating an interview however I also Page No. 2
  3. 3. MA Sports Management Philip Barnesappeared to be friendly, self-confident, attentive and interested through making directeye contact at times, leaning forward and having erect posture. One element which Ihad to eliminate from the original interview schedule was the appearance evaluation,which I later learnt was a form of discrimination as the organisation would be creatinga unique definition of professional appearance. To further enhance equalopportunities and eradicate discrimination, I used the panel interview technique whereseveral interviewers meet with an applicant (Taylor & Bergmann 1987) alongside thealready mentioned structured schedule, which is designed for use across all candidatesto ease comparison during assessment. Panel interviewing gives greater security to anorganisation with regard to equal opportunities as candidates are less likely tocomplain of discrimination or unfair questioning when subject to several interviewers(Desphande & Golhar 1994; Stredwick 2000; Williams & Curtis 2005). The use of apanel also helped increase reliability (Judge, Cable & Higgins 2000) and ensure mynote taking was kept to a minimum whilst not missing any key points, similar toHerman’s (1993, p.123) view that ‘one of the colleague group should take notes whilethe other listens attentively.’ This allowed me to focus more on building rapport withthe interviewee and ensure I could probe fully upon my open ended questions forsatisfactory answers that demonstrate their ability to meet the specific essential needsfrom the job specification; according to Williams & Curtis (2005, p.65), ‘more of thecandidate’s personality is revealed in a panel interview, especially if most of thequestions are about how accomplishments were achieved.’ On the contrary Bunting(2005, p.76) warns that ‘often with panel interviews, candidates are unaware of towhom they should address their answer and become uncomfortable.’ I ensured thecandidate knew who to address in the introduction however perhaps I should have letmy colleague introduce herself which in future interviews would ensure more of afriendly relaxed atmosphere, which in turn will encourage greater discourse(Campion, Pursell & Brown 1988). Open questioning helped persuade greater discourse from the applicant whodetailed various experiences to demonstrate their abilities through the main body ofthe interview. I tried to ensure that I gave the applicant the opportunity to ‘answer asthey deem appropriate (Hochel & Wilson 2007, p.60).’ On the contrary, openquestioning can occasionally be abused by applicants who may try and divert theanswer from a weak area of theirs, whereas shy or nervous candidates may not fully Page No. 3
  4. 4. MA Sports Management Philip Barnesreveal their past experiences; I had probing questions prepared to combat this asrecommended by Armstrong (2006) to help encourage further information if needed.It is useless if the candidate is divulging completely whilst the interviewer is notlistening effectively. Therefore it is critical to be aware of the concept of activelistening, which involves listening for meaning in applicants’ communication; anability to hear, clarify and understand (Knippin & Green 1994; Helgesen, Brown &Smith 1997; Hoppe 2007). Thompson (2002, p.140) developed an active listeningacronym ‘CHEER’ which encourages interviewers to concentrate, hear (throughvocabulary, tone and body language (Rodgers & Parson 1995)), empathise, elicitinformation and remember. In general, the interview went very well and was successful gaining gooddiscourse from the applicant. I felt this was established through the initial rapportbuilding, atmosphere created and types of questioning used; open ended and probing.I attempted to base the session on Argyle’s (1972) WASP technique where one shouldwelcome the participant, acquire information about them and supply informationabout the role to them before finally parting satisfactorily. I felt I could have placedmore emphasis on the latter two stages as the ending was rather abrupt and I didn’tmarket the organisation as well as I could have; as mentioned before the interview isan excellent marketing opportunity to sell a position and the organisation to theapplicants (Bunting 2005; Mudie & Pirrie 2006). With regard to parting abruptly Ifelt satisfied that the applicant had no questions apart from ‘when will I hear further’however this shouldn’t be the case. Bearing in mind the need to market theorganisation, in future I will prepare an ending structure which would have questionswhich would encourage greater conversation regarding the organisation such as ‘whatwould you expect from a career here at the LTA?’ This would then have encouragedthe applicant to reveal their perceptions whilst giving the interviewer an opportunityto boast what the organisation has to offer. Torrington, Hall & Taylor (2005) introduce the concept of brand image and‘employer branding’ within recruitment and selection, where an organisation gains acompetitive advantage through developing their recruitment system and improvingtheir image as an employer so as to attract and employ the best potential applicants;Taylor (2002) provides even further reason to begin such practice finding Page No. 4
  5. 5. MA Sports Management Philip Barnesorganisations’ recruitment expenditure to decrease as their image enhanced due to thegreater interest and demand from applicants, however Dale (2006, p.11) does identifythat ‘it does take up a lot of manager’s time.’ The marketing potential of theinterview has already been realised, however Goldsmith et al. (1997) warn that thisprocess lasts throughout the candidate’s visit to the organisation, from their entranceto the building to walking down a corridor meeting people. The authors also suggestthat interviews are ineffective when the interview conductor does not have the skillsand experience required; Edenborough (2002) considers the skills most important fora successful interviewer to be their ability to maintain high quality of speech throughtone and rate (including handling pauses), whilst also successfully manage note takingand listening (active identified earlier). Therefore a recommendation for the LTA isto ensure that the interviewer leading the session is well trained and experienced if theinterview is going to be effective in thoroughly assessing applicants’ potential. Oneof the drawbacks of the interview meanwhile is its ability to determine motivationlevels and social skills (Harris 1989); Mornell, Hinrichs & Dunnick (2003, p.120)insist that ‘no hire is better than a bad hire’ and therefore these areas should beanalysed to ensure the LTA are making the right choice. In my view, the best scenario to observe these traits in an honest environmentis through group and team building activities. There is no apparent literatureregarding the use of such an activity in recruitment stages however there is a hostregarding the most desired competencies to include communication, leadership,problem solving, teamwork and analytical thinking (Roberts 1997; Taylor 2002;Bunting 2005); all common qualities that shine through team building exercises.According to Quick (1992, p.40) a team building activity sees ‘members consistentlyperform certain roles,’ including supporting, confronting, gate keeping, mediating,harmonizing, summarizing and process observing; each of these roles candemonstrate group member’s individual personality, attitude and social interaction.This would enable management to observe what kind of person they would like tooccupy their position in a more hands-on role, seeing how they handle pressure, solveproblems, communicate and interact with other group members for example; one ofthe main requirements for the LTA’s open position is the ability of the person tomotivate, lead and develop their team. A real life problem should be posed to thegroup such as designing a marketing plan to encourage more senior people to choose Page No. 5
  6. 6. MA Sports Management Philip Barnestennis as a pastime. This would then create an artificial yet realistic workingenvironment that can be monitored by management to see who suits the role of dutymanager, programming team and the LTA as an organisation the best. The LTAshould complement the interview with this method of selection to increase the validityaffecting their final choice; after all, the Duty Manager of Programming is responsiblefor two other members of staff, and if a poor applicant is employed, three people inthe organisation will be underperforming. It is argued here that a group building activity would be the perfectcompliment to help management make the perfect decision, however a range of othermethods exist and could be considered. Tanke (2000) suggests secondaryinterviewing is a key process as potential applicants can be further questionedregarding areas of interest or ambiguity. This method could prove successful forsome organisations, however I feel it may be quite tedious and time consuming forboth the LTA and its potential candidates, whilst it also asks questions of the initialinterview’s effectiveness. Another method that hasn’t quite the potential to improvethe LTA’s recruitment process is graphology, the analysis of handwriting, which ishighly regarded by Dale (2003) and Edenborough (2007). The practice isn’t relevantto the post which lists ‘advanced IT, Microsoft Office and internet skills’ in its personspecification, therefore perhaps an analogous test would be more significant, onewhich analyses job specific skills (Billsberry 2007), which could be given in the formof a computer literacy task. Reference checks are very common and should definitelybe undertaken by the LTA to supplement the primary recruitment techniquesemployed. A variety of examinations are used worldwide to measure applicantspotential, achievement and character; a wide array of literature encourages the use ofaptitude, attainment and personality tests (McTague 2001; Taylor 2002; Torrington,Hall & Taylor 2005). Despite their ability to obtain such information, the fact thatthey are quite intricate whilst also consuming a lot of time and resources makes theminappropriate for this position in the LTA. Dale (2003, p.224) considers the essence of recruitment and selection asfinding a ‘team of people able and willing to contribute to the achievement of yourcollective objectives and shared ambitions.’ Historically the recruitment process hasbeen synonymous with matching a job with the most suitable person (Van Page No. 6
  7. 7. MA Sports Management Philip BarnesZwanenberg & Wilkinson 1993). However, recruitment procedures have sinceevolved to also consider the person-group (Werbel & Johnson 2001; Scroggins 2007)and person-organisation (Torrington, Hall & Taylor 2005) relationships. To assesswhether or not potential applicants meet the job/group/organisation fit the interview isvery effective although must be complemented by additional processes to increasevalidity. In the case of the LTA, it is recommended that a team building task wouldimprove the recruitment process for the post of duty manager to assess potentialcandidates’ leadership ability, social interaction and creative flair; all characteristicsthat are extremely difficult to judge in an interview, relying on impressions and biasedrecollections from applicants. With an improved recruitment process, the LTA willundoubtedly advance with the right team delivering excellence throughout theorganisation. Page No. 7
  8. 8. MA Sports Management Philip Barnes ReferencesArmstrong, M. (2006) A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. London:Kogan Page.Arthur, D. (2005) Recruiting, Interviewing, Selecting & Orienting New Employees. NewYork: Amacom.Billsberry, J. (2007) Experiencing Recruitment and Selection. London: John Wiley and Sons.Breaugh, J.A., Starke, M. (2000) Research on Employee Recruitment: So Many Studies, SoMany Remaining Questions. Journal of Management, 26(3):405-434Bunting, S. (2005) The Interviewers Handbook: Successful Interviewing Techniques for theWorkplace. London: Kogan Page.Campion, M.A., Pursell, E.D., Brown, B.K. (1988) Structured Interviewing: Raising thePsychometric Properties of the Employment Interview. Personnel Psychology, 41(1):25-42Chelladurai, P. (2006) Human Resource Management in Sport and Recreation. Leeds: HumanKinetics.Dale, M. (2006) The Essential Guide to Recruitment. London: Kogan Page.Desphande, S., Golhar, D. (1994) HRM Practices in Large and Small Manufacturing Firms: AComparative Study. Journal of Small Business Management, 32(2):49-56Edenborough, R. (2002) Effective Interviewing: A Handbook of Skills and Techniques.London: Kogan Page.Edenborough, R. (2007) Assessment Methods in Recruitment, Selection and Performance.London: Kogan Page.Goldsmith, A.L., Nickson, D., Wood, R.C., Sloan, D. (1997) Human Resource Managementfor Hospitality Services. London: Cengage Learning.Harris, M.M. (1989) Reconsidering the Employment Interview: A Review of RecentLiterature and Suggestions for Future Research. Personnel Psychology, 42(1):691-726Helgesen, M., Brown, S., Smith, D. (1997) Active Listening. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press.Herman, S.J. (1993) Hiring Right: A Practical Guide. London: Sage.Hochel, S., Wilson, C.E. (2007) Hiring Right. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Holstein, J.A., Gubrium, J.F. (2004) The Active Interview. In Silverman, D. QualitativeResearch: Theory, Method and Practice. London: SAGE, p.140-162Hoppe, M.H. (2007) Active Listening. Brussels: Centre for Creative Leadership.Judge, T.A., Cable, D.M., Higgins, C.A. (2000) The Employment Interview: A Review ofRecent Research and Recommendations for Future Research. Human Resource ManagementReview, 10(4):383-406 Page No. 8
  9. 9. MA Sports Management Philip BarnesKnippen, J.T., Green, T.B. (1994) How the Manager can use Active Listening. PublicPersonnel Management, 23(1):357-359McDaniel, M.A., Whetzel, D.L., Schmidt, F.L., Maurer, S.D. (1994) The Validity ofEmployment Interviews: A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of AppliedPsychology, 79(4):599-616McTague, S.T. (2001) Hiring in Good Times and Bad. Santa Barbara: Greenwood PublishingGroup.Mornell, P., Hinrichs, K., Dunnick, R. (2003) Forty Five Effective Ways for Hiring Smart!Berkeley: Ten Speed Press.Mudie, P., Pirrie, A. (2006) Services Marketing Management. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.Roberts, G. (1997) Recruitment and Selection. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel andDevelopment.Rogers, C. R., & Parson, R. E. (1995). Active listening. In Kolb, D.A., Osland, J.S., Rubin,I.M. (6th Edition) The Organizational Behaviour Reader. New York: Wiley. (p.203-214).Rosseau, D.M., Wade-Benzoni, K.A. (2006) Linking Strategy and Human ResourcePractices: How Employee and Customer Contracts are Created. Human ResourceManagement, 33(3):463-489Schmidt, F.L., Hunter, J.E. (1998) The Validity and Utility of Selection Methods in PersonnelPsychology. Psychological Bulletin, 124(2):262-274Schneider, B., Bowen, D.E. (1992) Personnel/Human Resources Management in the ServiceSector. Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, 10(1):1-30Schon, D.A. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action.Aldershot: Ashgate.Schuler, R.S., MacMillan, I.C. (1984) Gaining Competitive Advantage Through HumanResource Practices. Human Resource Management, 23(3):241-255Scroggins, W.A. An Examination of the Additive Versus Convergent Effects of EmployeePerceptions of Fit. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(7):1649-1665Stredwick, J. (2000) An Introduction to Human Resource Management. Oxford: Elsevier.Tanke, M. (2000) Human Resources Management for the Hospitality Industry. London:Cengage Learning.Taylor, M.S., Bergmann, T.J. (1987) Organizational Recruitment Activities and Applicants’Reactions at Different Stages of the Recruitment Process. Personnel Psychology,40(1):261-285Taylor, S. (2002) People Resourcing. Wimbledon: Chartered Institute of Personnel andDevelopment. Page No. 9
  10. 10. MA Sports Management Philip BarnesTorrington, D., Hall, L., Taylor, S. (2005) Human Resource Management. London: PearsonEducation.Van Zwanenberg, N., Wilkinson, L.J. (1993) The Person Specification – A ProblemMasquerading as a Solution? Personnel Review, 22(7):54-65Werbel, J.D., Johnson, D.J. (2001) The Use of Person-Group Fit for Employment Selection:A Missing Link in Person-Environment Fit. Human Resource Management, 40(3):227-240Wiesner, W.H., Cronshaw, S.F. (1988) The Moderating Impact of Interview Format andDegree of Structure on the Validity of the Employment Interview. Journal of OccupationalPsychology, 61(1):275-290Williams, J., Curtis, A. (2005) Marketing Management in Practice. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Page No. 10
  11. 11. MA Sports Management Philip Barnes Appendix 1Interview ScheduleDuty Manager ProgrammingCandidate Name: ………………………………………………Date of Interview: ….. / …... / ……….Welcome Candidate and Explain the Interview Process Aspiration and GoalsCould you please describe your ideal role?What is your short and long term career aims? Dealing with ConflictReflecting on a difficult situation in your past work experience,how did you handle it and why?How do you think you handled the situation? Put in the samesituation again, would you do anything differently? Page No. 11
  12. 12. MA Sports Management Philip Barnes LeadershipIf you could have changed one thing in your previousorganisation, what would it have been and why?The Duty Manager of Programming is responsible for otheremployees. How would you motivate your staff to perform attheir best? Decision MakingDescribe a time when you have had to quickly make a harddecision recently. How did you make it, and looking back on it,was it the right decision to make? Delivering ResultsTaking a time you had been assigned a number of tasks, how didyou prioritise in your approach and was this met with success? Page No. 12
  13. 13. MA Sports Management Philip BarnesWhat was the greatest contribution you have made/helped maketowards your previous organisation’s success? TeamworkWhat would you say is your favoured atmosphere within ateam? How could you help create this?What kind of character do you find it challenging to work with? Role AwarenessWhat made you apply for this role?What do you enjoy most about being a managerial position? Page No. 13
  14. 14. MA Sports Management Philip Barnes Skills and QualitiesWhat is the major strength you will bring to our organisationand how will we benefit?With regard to the concept of Continuous ProfessionalDevelopment, what areas would you like to improve on in thefuture? Ending Questions and CommentThank Candidate and Explain the Future Selection Process Page No. 14
  15. 15. MA Sports Management Philip Barnes Appendix 2 Page No. 15
  16. 16. MA Sports Management Philip Barnes Page No. 16
  17. 17. MA Sports Management Philip Barnes Appendix 3 Non Verbal Communication (Arthur 2005 , p.176) Page No. 17