Ten Commandments - The Sabbath


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Should Christians Keep the weekly Sabbath?

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Ten Commandments - The Sabbath

  1. 1. The Ten Commandments Commandment #4 © Philip P Eapen 2009
  2. 2. The Ten Commandments 1 2 3 4 5 6 7  Exodus 20:  8 "Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.  9 "Six days you shall labor and do all your work,  10 but the seventh day is a sabbath of the LORD your  God; in it you shall not do any work, you or your son or  your daughter, your male or your female servant or your  cattle or your sojourner who stays with you.  11 "For in six days the LORD made the heavens and  the earth, the sea and all that is in them, and rested on  the seventh day; therefore the LORD blessed the  sabbath day and made it holy. © Philip P Eapen 2009
  3. 3. The Ten Commandments A Culture of Work The first part of the fourth commandment is as  important as the second; yet we notice just the  second half! “Six days you shall labour and  do all your work” If you do ALL you work in six days,  what else will you do but rest on the 7  th day? © Philip P Eapen 2009
  4. 4. The Ten Commandments The Origin of Sabbath © Philip P Eapen 2009
  5. 5. The Ten Commandments 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The Sabbath was:  The seventh and final day of the week of  creation  “And on the seventh day, God ended His work  which He had done, and He rested on the  seventh day from all His work which He had  done.” (Gen 2:2) © Philip P Eapen 2009
  6. 6. The Ten Commandments 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The Sabbath was:  A day on which   God rested from all His work (Gen 2:2, 3) and   was refreshed (Ex. 31:17) “... for in six days the LORD made the heavens  and the earth, and on the seventh day He  rested and was refreshed.” © Philip P Eapen 2009
  7. 7. The Ten Commandments 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The Sabbath was:  the day that God blessed and  sanctified  “Then  God  blessed  the  seventh  day  and  sanctified it, because in it He rested from all  His work which God had created and made.”  (Gen 2:3) © Philip P Eapen 2009
  8. 8. The Ten Commandments 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The Sabbath was not:  A “type” of better things in New  Covenant  Sabbath was made before the fall; hence it  is not a type; for types were not introduced  till after the fall.  © Philip P Eapen 2009
  9. 9. The Ten Commandments The Sabbath in the  Hebrew Scriptures © Philip P Eapen 2009
  10. 10. The Ten Commandments 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1. The Sabbath is the seventh day of the  h human calender week (Ex. 20:10)  8 "Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.  9 "Six days you shall labor and do all your work,  10 but the seventh day is a Sabbath of the LORD your  God; in it you shall not do any work, you or your son or  your daughter, your male or your female servant or your  cattle or your sojourner who stays with you. © Philip P Eapen 2009
  11. 11. The Ten Commandments 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. A blessed and holy day "For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the  earth, the sea and all that is in them, and rested on the  seventh day; therefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day  and made it holy. Exodus 20:11 “You shall keep the Sabbath ... for it is holy to you. ... Work shall be done for six days, but the seventh is the  Sabbath of rest, holy to the LORD ...” Ex. 31:14­15) 3 © Philip P Eapen 2009
  12. 12. The Ten Commandments 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. Sabbath: The LORD’s Day! It is a Sabbath of the LORD God   9 "Six days you shall labor and do all your work,  10 but the seventh day is a sabbath of the LORD your  God; in it you shall not do any work, you or your son or  your daughter, your male or your female servant or your  cattle or your sojourner who stays with you. Exodus  20:10 © Philip P Eapen 2009
  13. 13. The Ten Commandments 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. Sabbath is a day of rest "Six days you shall labor and do all your work, but the  seventh day is a sabbath of the LORD your God;  in it you shall not do any work,   you or your son or your daughter,   your male or your female servant or   your cattle or   your sojourner who stays with you.  Exodus 16:26­30; 20:10­11; 23:12; 31:15; 35:2,3; Deut. 5:13­15; © Philip P Eapen 2009
  14. 14. The Ten Commandments God wanted his people  to rest and get refreshed Rest from cooking (and cleaning...) "You shall not kindle a fire in any of your  dwellings on the Sabbath day.” Exodus 35:3     Rest for  Wives,   maids, servants or slaves © Philip P Eapen 2009
  15. 15. The Ten Commandments God wanted his people to:  Remember and set aside Sabbath as holy  (Ex. 20:8);  Consider it as a delight (Isa. 58:13);  Observe it even if they are in the middle of some  critical activities such as plowing and harvesting!  (Ex. 34:21);    Refrain  from  seeking  their  own  pleasure  or  from  speaking idly on a Sabbath. Isa. 58:13.   Look  forward  to  and  prepare  for  each  Sabbath.  Ex. 16:22­23; Mk. 15:42; Lk. 23:54; Jn 19:31. © Philip P Eapen 2009
  16. 16. The Ten Commandments Why were God’s people asked to  Observe the Sabbath? © Philip P Eapen 2009
  17. 17. The Ten Commandments Why Observe the Sabbath?   Because  God created the heavens and  the earth and all that is in them and rested  on the seventh day. “For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day …” Ex 20:11; 31:17 © Philip P Eapen 2009
  18. 18. The Ten Commandments Why Observe the Sabbath?   Because the sabbath is holy to God’s  people 'Therefore you are to observe the sabbath, for it is holy to you.’ (Ex. 31:14a) © Philip P Eapen 2009
  19. 19. The Ten Commandments Why Observe the Sabbath?   Because the Sabbath is a sign between God  and his people (Ex. 31:13, 17) a perpetual  covenant (Ex. 31:16) 'You shall surely observe My Sabbaths; for this is a sign between Me and you throughout your generations, Ex 31:13 So the sons of Israel shall observe the sabbath, to celebrate the sabbath throughout their generations as a perpetual covenant. v. 16 © Philip P Eapen 2009
  20. 20. The Ten Commandments Why Observe the Sabbath?   Because the Lord brought Israel out of  Egyptian slavery with his might hand  “You shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and the LORD your God brought you out of there by a mighty hand and by an outstretched arm; therefore the LORD your God commanded you to observe the sabbath day.” Deut 5:15 © Philip P Eapen 2009
  21. 21. The Ten Commandments Why Observe the Sabbath?   So that Israel should know that it is God  who sanctifies them (Ex. 31:13) You shall surely observe My sabbaths; for this is a sign between Me and you throughout your generations, that you may know that I am the LORD who sanctifies you. Ex. 31:13 © Philip P Eapen 2009
  22. 22. The Ten Commandments Promises and Punishments © Philip P Eapen 2009
  23. 23. The Ten Commandments Divine Provision On the seventh day some of the people went out to gather [Manna], and they found none. The LORD said to Moses, “How long will you refuse to keep my commandments and instructions? See! The LORD has given you the sabbath, therefore on the sixth day he gives you food for two days; each of you stay where you are; do not leave your place on the seventh day.” So, the people rested on the seventh day. Exodus 16:27-30 © Philip P Eapen 2009
  24. 24. The Ten Commandments Warnings to Kings in Jerusalem 'Thus says the LORD, "Take heed for yourselves, and do not carry any load on the sabbath day or bring anything in through the gates of Jerusalem. You shall not bring a load out of your houses on the sabbath day nor do any work, but keep the sabbath day holy, as I commanded your forefathers. ... if you listen attentively to Me, ... then there will come in through the gates of this city kings and princes sitting on the throne of David, riding in chariots and on horses, they and their princes, the men of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and this city will be inhabited forever. .... But if you do not listen to Me ... then I will kindle a fire in its gates and it will devour the palaces of Jerusalem and not be quenched."' Jer 17:21-27 © Philip P Eapen 2009
  25. 25. The Ten Commandments Forced rest for missed rest The people of Judah were exiled for 70 years to that their land would get 70 years of rest! “Those who had escaped from the sword he carried away to Babylon; and they were servants to him and to his sons until the rule of the kingdom of Persia, to fulfill the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah, until the land had enjoyed its sabbaths. All the days of its desolation it kept sabbath until seventy years were complete. 2Chr. 36:20-21; Lev 26:34-35, 43 © Philip P Eapen 2009
  26. 26. The Ten Commandments Sabbaths in the New Testament © Philip P Eapen 2009
  27. 27. The Ten Commandments Jewish Sabbath in NT  Jews were very strict in their observance of  Sabbath  Many Jews went beyond the divine requirements  of Sabbath and imposed man­made rules on  people to make life difficult for them. © Philip P Eapen 2009
  28. 28. The Ten Commandments Jesus and the Sabbath  Jesus kept the Sabbath  Jesus visited synagogues on Sabbaths (Mtt.  12:9; Mark 1:21; 6:2; Luke 4:16; 4:31,33;  6:6; 13:10)  Jesus was accused of breaking the  Sabbath © Philip P Eapen 2009
  29. 29. The Ten Commandments Jesus and the Sabbath  Jesus broke man­made oppressive rules.  Jesus taught that it was okay to do good  (acts of mercy) on a Sabbath.  Mtt. 12:12; Luke 6:9; 13:15­16; 14:3, 5­6; John 7:22­24;   Jesus exposed the hypocrisy of the Jews  who criticised him.   They used to circumcise their infants on Sabbaths.   They wouldn’t hesitate to water their ox or donkey or  even to pull out their ox or their children from a well on  a Sabbath day. © Philip P Eapen 2009
  30. 30. The Ten Commandments Jesus healed these people:  a man with a withered hand on a Sabbath day in a  synagogue. Luke 6:6­11; Mk 3:1­6  a bent woman on a Sabbath day in a synagogue. Luke  13:10­16  a man with dropsy on a Sabbath day—in a Pharisee’s  house! Luke 14:1­4.  a paralytic on a Sabbath day – John 5:9. The Jews took note  of this and began to persecute Jesus on this count – John  5:16. Jesus however rejected their charge, asking them not to  judge by appearance  a blind man on that day ­ John 9:14­16 © Philip P Eapen 2009
  31. 31. The Ten Commandments Jesus and the Sabbath  Jesus taught the real purpose of Sabbath  “The Sabbath was made for man, and not man for the Sabbath.” Mark 2:27 In other words, Sabbath was not given  to oppress or inconvenience man;  to incapacitate him from doing good;  Instead, Sabbath was made for man (all humanity) as an essential gift for rest and restoration © Philip P Eapen 2009
  32. 32. The Ten Commandments Jesus and the Sabbath  Jesus is the Lord of the Sabbath (Matt 12:8; Mark 2:28; Luke 6:5) In other words, Sabbath is the “Lord’s Day” There is no other day about which Jesus ever said this! “I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day …”  Rev 1:10 © Philip P Eapen 2009
  33. 33. The Ten Commandments Sabbath Observances in NT  The women disciples of Jesus rested on the  Sabbath day after he was buried. Lk 23:56;  Mk.16:1; Mtt 28:1  In Pisidian Antioch, Paul and Barnabbas went to a  synagogue on the Sabbath­ (Acts 13:14)  The people there were in the habit of gathering on  the Sabbaths – Acts 13:42, 44  In Philippi, Paul went in search of a place of prayer  on a Sabbath – Acts 16:13  In Corinth, Paul went to the synagogue each  Sabbath to convince Jews and Greeks alike – Acts  18:4 © Philip P Eapen 2009
  34. 34. The Ten Commandments A Christian Sabbath?  Since when did the Church observe Sunday as  her Sabbath?  Why does the Church observe Sunday as a  Christian Sabbath?  Is a change of day justified?  Can we abolish the Sabbath? © Philip P Eapen 2009
  35. 35. The Ten Commandments Confusion and Contradiction “In the New Testament, the Sabbath commandment is the  only one of the Ten Commandments that is not  mentioned as binding upon Christians.”*  “While we are not commanded to observe Sunday as the  specific day of rest and worship, the principle of the  Sabbath is that one day in seven should be set aside for  physical and spiritual renewal.” The New Testament indicates the early Christians gathered  for worship on Sunday, the first day of the week (Acts  20:7). Jesus’ disciple John called it  *Commission on Doctrinal  "the Lord’s Day" (Revelation 1:10) Purity and the Executive  Presbytery, Assemblies of  © Philip P Eapen 2009 God.
  36. 36. The Ten Commandments AG’s Claims and Premises  “Sabbath is not binding on Christians”  The “principle” of Sabbath is binding on  Christians!  AG observance of Sunday is based on the  “principle” of Sabbath – to set aside “one day in  seven” for physical and spiritual renewal  AG claims that early Christians gathered for  worship on Sundays  AG claims that Sunday is the “Lord’s Day” © Philip P Eapen 2009
  37. 37. The Ten Commandments Questions that beg answers  If Sabbath is not binding on us, why should its  “principle” be binding?  If the “principle” is binding, do we have the  freedom to choose any day as rest day?  On whose authority are we choosing the  “principle” and discarding the details?  Where does the Bible say that Sunday is the  Lord’s Day?  Where does the Bible say early church had a  weekly church service on Sunday? © Philip P Eapen 2009
  38. 38. The Ten Commandments A new Christian Sabbath? On the first day of the week, when we were gathered  together to break bread, Paul began talking to them,  intending to leave the next day, and he prolonged his  message until midnight. There were many lamps in the  upper room where we were gathered together. Acts 20:7­8 Are these conclusions valid? Christians were in the habit of breaking bread once a  week – on Sunday mornings! Therefore, Sunday is the Lord’s Day – a new Christian  Sabbath for rest and worship! © Philip P Eapen 2009
  39. 39. The Ten Commandments A new Christian Sabbath? On the first day of the week, when we were gathered  together to break bread, Paul began talking to them,  intending to leave the next day, and he prolonged his  message until midnight. There were many lamps in the  upper room where we were gathered together. Acts 20:7­8 Valid Conclusions  This is about a unique incident – a late night farewell  meeting, a death and a resurrection.  No attempt to show that Eucharist was observed  only once a week. (See Acts 2:42, 46)  No basis here to call Sunday the “Lord’s Day”;  They  gathered on a Saturday evening! (Bible’s ‘day’ begins  at sunset and ends at the following sunset) © Philip P Eapen 2009
  40. 40. The Ten Commandments A new Christian Sabbath? Valid Conclusions  Take it or leave it!  We should either  accept the 4th commandment in its entirety  or discard it entirely.   The Church has no right to modify the  fourth commandment and choose Sunday  as the Christian Sabbath (the Lord’s Day)  © Philip P Eapen 2009
  41. 41. The Ten Commandments How to keep Sabbath? Avoid work! Don’t make others work • Work related to livelihood and income generation • All buying and spending; all commercial activity • Domestic work:  • Cooking, cleaning, laundry, renovation, repair • Speaking vain words • Seeking one’s own pleasure © Philip P Eapen 2009
  42. 42. The Ten Commandments How to keep the Sabbath? • Work hard for six days and finish ALL your work • Prepare for Sabbath and eagerly welcome it • Worship and pray;  • Creation: Celebrate God’s creation • Redemption: Celebrate God’s salvation & liberation • Bible Study, discussions • Intercession  • Evangelism – personal evangelism © Philip P Eapen 2009
  43. 43. The Ten Commandments How to keep the Sabbath? • Relax with family  • eat (out),  • walk,  • play and  • relax with family;  • listen to music • Visit a beach • Visit friends, sick people © Philip P Eapen 2009
  44. 44. The Ten Commandments Sabbath Quotes Although it was in primitive times and differently called the Lord's day or Sunday, yet it [Sunday] was never denominated the Sabbath; a name constantly appropriate to Saturday, or the Seventh day both by sacred and ecclesiastical writers. Charles Buck © Philip P Eapen 2009
  45. 45. The Ten Commandments Sabbath Quotes “Anybody can observe the Sabbath, but making it holy surely takes the rest of the week.“ Alice Walker “I believe the Sabbath; I keep the Sabbath.” John Harvey Kellogg © Philip P Eapen 2009
  46. 46. The Ten Commandments “Some say the Sabbath was changed to Sunday in honour of the resurrection and some say it was nailed to the cross. Others will tell you any day can be kept as the Sabbath day as long as you keep one. And still others will say as long as you do everything to the glory of God you don’t have to keep God’s true Holy Sabbath day and yet still others call it legalism. Still even worse, others say that all Ten Commandments are abolished but when you ask if you can break the Commandments it seems that you still have to obey all but one so the law ending apparently is really once again only that one law. This should tell you truth seekers that something is seriously wrong here.” http://www.sabbathseventhday.net © Philip P Eapen 2009
  47. 47. The Ten Commandments Sabbath Quotes “Most Christians assume that Sunday is the biblically approved day of worship. The Catholic Church protests that it transferred Christian worship from the biblical Sabbath (Saturday) to Sunday, and that to try to argue that the change was made in the Bible is both dishonest and a denial of Catholic authority. If Protestantism wants to base its teachings only on the Bible, it should worship on Saturday.” Rome's Challenge www.immaculateheart.com/maryonline Dec 2003 © Philip P Eapen 2009