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Going Against The Grain:

Grains, Distilling & Grain Spirits
                by

           Philip Duff



        25 February, 2012
Going Against The Grain

        What?
Going Against The Grain

          What?



– Grasses (Family Graminae)
Going Against The Grain

           What?



– Grasses (Family Graminae)
– Cereals (Types of Grasses)
Going Against The Grain

           What?



– Grasses (Family Graminae)
– Cereals (Types of Grasses)
- Grains (fruits of Cereals)
Global Grain Production




900
                                    Going Against The Grain      2007




800




700
                                                           What?
600




500                                                                                                                    Metric tons (millions)




400




300




200




100




 0
      Corn (Maize)   Rice   Wheat    Barley   Sorghum               Millet        Oats   Rye   Triticale   Buckwheat
Going Against The Grain

          What?



– Hull / husk (barley, Oats)
– Bran (Pericarp & Aleurone)
- Endosperm
- Germ
Going Against The Grain
          What?
        Corn (Maize)

– Mexico, 7-10,000 years ago
Going Against The Grain
          What?
        Corn (Maize)

– Mexico, 7-10,000 years ago
– Colombus brought to Europe
Going Against The Grain
           What?
         Corn (Maize)

– Mexico, 7-10,000 years ago
– Colombus brought to Europe
- Most widely cultivated grain
Going Against The Grain
             What?
           Corn (Maize)

– Mexico, 7-10,000 years ago
– Colombus brought to Europe
- Most widely cultivated grain
- US Subsidies: Feed, HFCS, Ethanol
Going Against The Grain
             What?
           Corn (Maize)

– Mexico, 7-10,000 years ago
– Colombus brought to Europe
- Most widely cultivated grain
- US Subsidies: Feed, HFCS, Ethanol
- American Whiskey!
Going Against The Grain
             What?
           Corn (Maize)

– Mexico, 7-10,000 years ago
– Colombus brought to Europe
- Most widely cultivated grain
- US Subsidies: Feed, HFCS, Ethanol
- American Whiskey!
- Nixtamalization!
Going Against The Grain
           What?
           Wheat

– Near east, 12-14,000 yrs ago
Going Against The Grain
           What?
           Wheat

– Near east, 12-14,000 yrs ago
– Diploid:     Einkorn
Going Against The Grain
              What?
              Wheat

– Near east, 12-14,000 yrs ago
– Diploid:     Einkorn
- Tetraploid: Emmer (Italian; Farro)
Going Against The Grain
                     What?
                     Wheat

– Near east, 12-14,000 yrs ago
– Diploid:     Einkorn
- Tetraploid: Emmer (Italian; Farro)
               Durum (Pastas, 1 Un-hulled Wheat)
                               st
Going Against The Grain
                     What?
                     Wheat

– Near east, 12-14,000 yrs ago
– Diploid:     Einkorn
- Tetraploid: Emmer (Italian; Farro)
               Durum (Pastas, 1 Un-hulled Wheat)
                               st

- Hexaploid:   Modern Bread Wheats
Going Against The Grain
                     What?
                     Wheat

– Near east, 12-14,000 yrs ago
– Diploid:     Einkorn
- Tetraploid: Emmer (Italian; Farro)
               Durum (Pastas, 1 Un-hulled Wheat)
                               st

- Hexaploid:   Modern Bread Wheats
- Winter Wheat: Less/No Pesticides
Going Against The Grain

           What?
           Wheat

– Near east,12-14,000 yrs ago
Going Against The Grain

        What?
        Barley

       – SW Asia
Going Against The Grain

           What?
           Barley

– SW Asia
– Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich
Going Against The Grain

            What?
            Barley

– SW Asia
– Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich
- 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt
Going Against The Grain

             What?
             Barley

– SW Asia
– Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich
- 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt
- France: Hordeum –
         (barley)
Going Against The Grain

             What?
             Barley

– SW Asia
– Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich
- 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt
- France: Hordeum – Orge -
        (barley)   (barley)
Going Against The Grain

                  What?
                  Barley

– SW Asia
– Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich
- 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt
- France: Hordeum – Orge - Orge mondé –
     (barley)   (barley) (hulled barley)
Going Against The Grain

                      What?
                      Barley

– SW Asia
– Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich
- 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt
- France: Hordeum – Orge - Orge mondé – Orgeat
           (barley)   (barley) (hulled barley)
- Spain:
Going Against The Grain

                       What?
                       Barley

– SW Asia
– Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich
- 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt
- France: Hordeum – Orge - Orge mondé – Orgeat
            (barley)   (barley) (hulled barley)
- Spain:   Orgeat –
Going Against The Grain

                       What?
                       Barley

– SW Asia
– Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich
- 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt
- France: Hordeum – Orge - Orge mondé – Orgeat
            (barley)   (barley) (hulled barley)
- Spain:   Orgeat – Horchata (tiger/chufa nuts)
Going Against The Grain

                     What?
                     Barley

– SW Asia
– Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich
- 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt
- France: Hordeum – Orge - Orge mondé – Orgeat
          (barley)   (barley) (hulled barley)
- Spain: Orgeat – Horchata (tiger/chufa nuts)
 - Tisanes, Robinsons' Barley water
Going Against The Grain

                     What?
                     Barley

– SW Asia
– Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich
- 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt
- France: Hordeum – Orge - Orge mondé – Orgeat
          (barley)   (barley) (hulled barley)
- Spain: Orgeat – Horchata (tiger/chufa nuts)
 - Tisanes, Robinsons' Barley water
Going Against The Grain

                  What?
               Other Grains

– Oats: Irish, Genever, Etc.
– Millet, Fonio, Sorghum
- Triticale: Rye/Wheat cross (1800s)
- Non-Cereals: Amaranth (Herb)
                 Quinoa (Beet/spinach)
                 Buckwheat (Rhubarb/Sorrel)
Going Against The Grain

       What?
     Breakfast!

– The Kelloggs, 1906
Going Against The Grain

       What?
     Breakfast!

– The Kelloggs, 1906
Going Against The Grain

       What?
     Breakfast!

– The Kelloggs, 1906
Going Against The Grain

       What?
     Breakfast!

– The Kelloggs, 1906
Going Against The Grain
                   How?
                  Distilling

Step 1: Ferment Beer - Cereal
                       Yeast
                       Water
                       Optional: Flavourings
                            900AD: Hops
Going Against The Grain
                     How?
                    Distilling

Step 1: Ferment Beer

Step 2: Distill Beer (To Concentrate The Alcohol)
                          Cook It or Freeze It
                          Remove The Flaws
                          Enjoy!
Going Against The Grain
       How?
      Distilling

     The Pot Still
Going Against The Grain
                      How?
                     Distilling

What Affects Flavour? Type Grain(s) & How Malted
                        Type yeast & Length Ferment
                        Duration & Alc.% Distillation
                        Type & Extent Filtering
                        Time (if any) & Type Barrel(s)
Going Against The Grain

          When?
  The Evolution of Spirits
Going Against The Grain

          When?
   589, St. Colombanus,
          Ireland

“serve about the ale which is
  bruised from the juice of
     wheat and barley”
Going Against The Grain

          When?
    1169, The Normans,
          Ireland

         Vintners!
Aqua vite (water of the vine)
             vs
 Aqua Vitae (water of life)
   =uisce beatha (idem)
Going Against The Grain

         When?
1269, Der Naturen Bloeme,
        Holland

    “He who has cramps
    Cook juniper in wine
It's good against the pain"
Going Against The Grain

         When?
         1494,
        Scotland

  “Eight bolls of malt to
      Friar John Cor
    wherewith to make
        aqua vitae"
Going Against The Grain

           When?
1495, The Sloane Manuscripts
          Holland

    “Making Burned Wine”

     Lees-distilled wine
      With Botanicals
Going Against The Grain
            When?
          1556, Ireland

       Act of Parliament:

   “The consumption of graine in
   making of aqua vitae, and that
  it is not Profitable to be daily
drunk and used is now universally
  through the realm of Ireland”
Going Against The Grain

             When?
    1582, A Guide To Distilling,
       Holland (& Europe)

       [distilled grain spirit]...
        “in aroma and taste is
   Almost the same as brandy-wine”
                and is
“not only named brandywine but also
  drunk and paid for as brandywine”
Going Against The Grain

       When?
1640, First Distillery,
         USA
Going Against The Grain

       When?
     1689 - 1751
      England


    The Gin Craze
          &
   The Gin-Ocracy
Going Against The Grain

       When?
     1689 - 1751
      England


    The Gin Craze
          &
   The Gin-Ocracy
Going Against The Grain

       When?
     1689 - 1751
      England


    The Gin Craze
          &
   The Gin-Ocracy
Going Against The Grain

       When?
     1689 - 1751
      England


    The Gin Craze
          &
   The Gin-Ocracy
Going Against The Grain

               When?
                1750
               Ireland

      Dr. Johnson, Lexicographer
              Whiskey is:
“Particularly distinguished for it's
        pleasant and mild spirit...
 It is a compounded, distilled spirit,
      being drawn on aromatiks”.
Going Against The Grain

        When?
      1779 - 1823
        Ireland

 Shallow-Still Output
          &
    The Rectifiers
Going Against The Grain

        When?
        1830
       Ireland

Aenaes Coffey Invents
 The Continual Still

      (1848:
Corn Laws Repealed)
Going Against The Grain

  How?
 Distilling

The Pot Still
Going Against The Grain

  How?
 Distilling

The Coffey/
Patent/
Continual
Still
Going Against The Grain

       When?
        1853
      Scotland

Andrew Usher invents
  Blended Whisky
Going Against The Grain

       When?
        1860
       France

     Phylloxera
Going Against The Grain

       When?
        1877
      Scotland

  The Distiller's
Company Limited (DCL)
Going Against The Grain

       When?
       1894
       Russia

      Mendeleev
     “Pure” Vodka
(state subsidised also)
Going Against The Grain

       When?
        1920
       America

     Prohibition
Going Against The Grain

       When?
    1860s Russia
         &
     1940s USA

    The Smirnovs
Going Against The Grain

   When?
1860s Russia
     &
 1940s USA

The Smirnovs
Going Against The Grain

                           When?
                           1963
                          Scotland

                   Single Malt Sold
                   Outside Scotland
                   For the First Time
Going Against The Grain

  When?
   1965
  America

Singles Bars
Going Against The Grain

       When?
        1967?
       America

       Bond,
      Russia
    And the Rise
         of
      Vodka
Going Against The Grain

           When?
            1979
           America

            Vodka
             As A
           Fashion
            Brand
(And Modern Flavoured Vodkas)
Going Against The Grain

       When?
       1997
        USA

    Super Premium
    Goes Bananas
Going Against The Grain

                       When?
                        2008
                 The European Union

                    EU 110 / 2008
Going Against The Grain

      When?
       2008
   Scotland, USA

      The Return
       Of the
      White Dog
Going Against The Grain

        When?
        2011
       Globally

   Half The World's
  Best-selling spirits
    Are grain based
Going Against The Grain

        When?
        2011
       Globally

   Half The World's
  Best-selling spirits
    Are grain based
Going Against The Grain

        When?
Going Against The Grain

        When?
Going Against The Grain


Thank you for your attention!
              More?
       www. slideshare . net


    philip @ liquidsolutions . org

             @philipduff

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Going Against The Grain: Grains, Distilling & Grain Spirit

  • 1. Going Against The Grain: Grains, Distilling & Grain Spirits by Philip Duff 25 February, 2012
  • 2. Going Against The Grain What?
  • 3. Going Against The Grain What? – Grasses (Family Graminae)
  • 4. Going Against The Grain What? – Grasses (Family Graminae) – Cereals (Types of Grasses)
  • 5. Going Against The Grain What? – Grasses (Family Graminae) – Cereals (Types of Grasses) - Grains (fruits of Cereals)
  • 6. Global Grain Production 900 Going Against The Grain 2007 800 700 What? 600 500 Metric tons (millions) 400 300 200 100 0 Corn (Maize) Rice Wheat Barley Sorghum Millet Oats Rye Triticale Buckwheat
  • 7. Going Against The Grain What? – Hull / husk (barley, Oats) – Bran (Pericarp & Aleurone) - Endosperm - Germ
  • 8. Going Against The Grain What? Corn (Maize) – Mexico, 7-10,000 years ago
  • 9. Going Against The Grain What? Corn (Maize) – Mexico, 7-10,000 years ago – Colombus brought to Europe
  • 10. Going Against The Grain What? Corn (Maize) – Mexico, 7-10,000 years ago – Colombus brought to Europe - Most widely cultivated grain
  • 11. Going Against The Grain What? Corn (Maize) – Mexico, 7-10,000 years ago – Colombus brought to Europe - Most widely cultivated grain - US Subsidies: Feed, HFCS, Ethanol
  • 12. Going Against The Grain What? Corn (Maize) – Mexico, 7-10,000 years ago – Colombus brought to Europe - Most widely cultivated grain - US Subsidies: Feed, HFCS, Ethanol - American Whiskey!
  • 13. Going Against The Grain What? Corn (Maize) – Mexico, 7-10,000 years ago – Colombus brought to Europe - Most widely cultivated grain - US Subsidies: Feed, HFCS, Ethanol - American Whiskey! - Nixtamalization!
  • 14. Going Against The Grain What? Wheat – Near east, 12-14,000 yrs ago
  • 15. Going Against The Grain What? Wheat – Near east, 12-14,000 yrs ago – Diploid: Einkorn
  • 16. Going Against The Grain What? Wheat – Near east, 12-14,000 yrs ago – Diploid: Einkorn - Tetraploid: Emmer (Italian; Farro)
  • 17. Going Against The Grain What? Wheat – Near east, 12-14,000 yrs ago – Diploid: Einkorn - Tetraploid: Emmer (Italian; Farro) Durum (Pastas, 1 Un-hulled Wheat) st
  • 18. Going Against The Grain What? Wheat – Near east, 12-14,000 yrs ago – Diploid: Einkorn - Tetraploid: Emmer (Italian; Farro) Durum (Pastas, 1 Un-hulled Wheat) st - Hexaploid: Modern Bread Wheats
  • 19. Going Against The Grain What? Wheat – Near east, 12-14,000 yrs ago – Diploid: Einkorn - Tetraploid: Emmer (Italian; Farro) Durum (Pastas, 1 Un-hulled Wheat) st - Hexaploid: Modern Bread Wheats - Winter Wheat: Less/No Pesticides
  • 20. Going Against The Grain What? Wheat – Near east,12-14,000 yrs ago
  • 21. Going Against The Grain What? Barley – SW Asia
  • 22. Going Against The Grain What? Barley – SW Asia – Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich
  • 23. Going Against The Grain What? Barley – SW Asia – Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich - 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt
  • 24. Going Against The Grain What? Barley – SW Asia – Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich - 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt - France: Hordeum – (barley)
  • 25. Going Against The Grain What? Barley – SW Asia – Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich - 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt - France: Hordeum – Orge - (barley) (barley)
  • 26. Going Against The Grain What? Barley – SW Asia – Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich - 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt - France: Hordeum – Orge - Orge mondé – (barley) (barley) (hulled barley)
  • 27. Going Against The Grain What? Barley – SW Asia – Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich - 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt - France: Hordeum – Orge - Orge mondé – Orgeat (barley) (barley) (hulled barley) - Spain:
  • 28. Going Against The Grain What? Barley – SW Asia – Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich - 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt - France: Hordeum – Orge - Orge mondé – Orgeat (barley) (barley) (hulled barley) - Spain: Orgeat –
  • 29. Going Against The Grain What? Barley – SW Asia – Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich - 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt - France: Hordeum – Orge - Orge mondé – Orgeat (barley) (barley) (hulled barley) - Spain: Orgeat – Horchata (tiger/chufa nuts)
  • 30. Going Against The Grain What? Barley – SW Asia – Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich - 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt - France: Hordeum – Orge - Orge mondé – Orgeat (barley) (barley) (hulled barley) - Spain: Orgeat – Horchata (tiger/chufa nuts) - Tisanes, Robinsons' Barley water
  • 31. Going Against The Grain What? Barley – SW Asia – Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich - 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt - France: Hordeum – Orge - Orge mondé – Orgeat (barley) (barley) (hulled barley) - Spain: Orgeat – Horchata (tiger/chufa nuts) - Tisanes, Robinsons' Barley water
  • 32. Going Against The Grain What? Other Grains – Oats: Irish, Genever, Etc. – Millet, Fonio, Sorghum - Triticale: Rye/Wheat cross (1800s) - Non-Cereals: Amaranth (Herb) Quinoa (Beet/spinach) Buckwheat (Rhubarb/Sorrel)
  • 33. Going Against The Grain What? Breakfast! – The Kelloggs, 1906
  • 34. Going Against The Grain What? Breakfast! – The Kelloggs, 1906
  • 35. Going Against The Grain What? Breakfast! – The Kelloggs, 1906
  • 36. Going Against The Grain What? Breakfast! – The Kelloggs, 1906
  • 37. Going Against The Grain How? Distilling Step 1: Ferment Beer - Cereal Yeast Water Optional: Flavourings 900AD: Hops
  • 38. Going Against The Grain How? Distilling Step 1: Ferment Beer Step 2: Distill Beer (To Concentrate The Alcohol) Cook It or Freeze It Remove The Flaws Enjoy!
  • 39. Going Against The Grain How? Distilling The Pot Still
  • 40. Going Against The Grain How? Distilling What Affects Flavour? Type Grain(s) & How Malted Type yeast & Length Ferment Duration & Alc.% Distillation Type & Extent Filtering Time (if any) & Type Barrel(s)
  • 41. Going Against The Grain When? The Evolution of Spirits
  • 42. Going Against The Grain When? 589, St. Colombanus, Ireland “serve about the ale which is bruised from the juice of wheat and barley”
  • 43. Going Against The Grain When? 1169, The Normans, Ireland Vintners! Aqua vite (water of the vine) vs Aqua Vitae (water of life) =uisce beatha (idem)
  • 44. Going Against The Grain When? 1269, Der Naturen Bloeme, Holland “He who has cramps Cook juniper in wine It's good against the pain"
  • 45. Going Against The Grain When? 1494, Scotland “Eight bolls of malt to Friar John Cor wherewith to make aqua vitae"
  • 46. Going Against The Grain When? 1495, The Sloane Manuscripts Holland “Making Burned Wine” Lees-distilled wine With Botanicals
  • 47. Going Against The Grain When? 1556, Ireland Act of Parliament: “The consumption of graine in making of aqua vitae, and that it is not Profitable to be daily drunk and used is now universally through the realm of Ireland”
  • 48. Going Against The Grain When? 1582, A Guide To Distilling, Holland (& Europe) [distilled grain spirit]... “in aroma and taste is Almost the same as brandy-wine” and is “not only named brandywine but also drunk and paid for as brandywine”
  • 49. Going Against The Grain When? 1640, First Distillery, USA
  • 50. Going Against The Grain When? 1689 - 1751 England The Gin Craze & The Gin-Ocracy
  • 51. Going Against The Grain When? 1689 - 1751 England The Gin Craze & The Gin-Ocracy
  • 52. Going Against The Grain When? 1689 - 1751 England The Gin Craze & The Gin-Ocracy
  • 53. Going Against The Grain When? 1689 - 1751 England The Gin Craze & The Gin-Ocracy
  • 54. Going Against The Grain When? 1750 Ireland Dr. Johnson, Lexicographer Whiskey is: “Particularly distinguished for it's pleasant and mild spirit... It is a compounded, distilled spirit, being drawn on aromatiks”.
  • 55. Going Against The Grain When? 1779 - 1823 Ireland Shallow-Still Output & The Rectifiers
  • 56. Going Against The Grain When? 1830 Ireland Aenaes Coffey Invents The Continual Still (1848: Corn Laws Repealed)
  • 57. Going Against The Grain How? Distilling The Pot Still
  • 58. Going Against The Grain How? Distilling The Coffey/ Patent/ Continual Still
  • 59. Going Against The Grain When? 1853 Scotland Andrew Usher invents Blended Whisky
  • 60. Going Against The Grain When? 1860 France Phylloxera
  • 61. Going Against The Grain When? 1877 Scotland The Distiller's Company Limited (DCL)
  • 62. Going Against The Grain When? 1894 Russia Mendeleev “Pure” Vodka (state subsidised also)
  • 63. Going Against The Grain When? 1920 America Prohibition
  • 64. Going Against The Grain When? 1860s Russia & 1940s USA The Smirnovs
  • 65. Going Against The Grain When? 1860s Russia & 1940s USA The Smirnovs
  • 66. Going Against The Grain When? 1963 Scotland Single Malt Sold Outside Scotland For the First Time
  • 67. Going Against The Grain When? 1965 America Singles Bars
  • 68. Going Against The Grain When? 1967? America Bond, Russia And the Rise of Vodka
  • 69. Going Against The Grain When? 1979 America Vodka As A Fashion Brand (And Modern Flavoured Vodkas)
  • 70. Going Against The Grain When? 1997 USA Super Premium Goes Bananas
  • 71. Going Against The Grain When? 2008 The European Union EU 110 / 2008
  • 72. Going Against The Grain When? 2008 Scotland, USA The Return Of the White Dog
  • 73. Going Against The Grain When? 2011 Globally Half The World's Best-selling spirits Are grain based
  • 74. Going Against The Grain When? 2011 Globally Half The World's Best-selling spirits Are grain based
  • 75. Going Against The Grain When?
  • 76. Going Against The Grain When?
  • 77. Going Against The Grain Thank you for your attention! More? www. slideshare . net philip @ liquidsolutions . org @philipduff