Going Against The Grain: Grains, Distilling & Grain Spirit

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Why does rye bite your ass off? Are grain neutral spirits really neutral? What happens when you add botanicals to grain spirits? Or a flavour? Or stick them in a barrel? Join Irishman Philip Duff for a rollicking mega-tasting ride through the history, flavours, laws and practises of grain based spirits, from genever in the Low Countries to English gin to whiskey, liqueurs and the most international spirit around, vodka.

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Going Against The Grain: Grains, Distilling & Grain Spirit

  1. 1. Going Against The Grain:Grains, Distilling & Grain Spirits by Philip Duff 25 February, 2012
  2. 2. Going Against The Grain What?
  3. 3. Going Against The Grain What?– Grasses (Family Graminae)
  4. 4. Going Against The Grain What?– Grasses (Family Graminae)– Cereals (Types of Grasses)
  5. 5. Going Against The Grain What?– Grasses (Family Graminae)– Cereals (Types of Grasses)- Grains (fruits of Cereals)
  6. 6. Global Grain Production900 Going Against The Grain 2007800700 What?600500 Metric tons (millions)400300200100 0 Corn (Maize) Rice Wheat Barley Sorghum Millet Oats Rye Triticale Buckwheat
  7. 7. Going Against The Grain What?– Hull / husk (barley, Oats)– Bran (Pericarp & Aleurone)- Endosperm- Germ
  8. 8. Going Against The Grain What? Corn (Maize)– Mexico, 7-10,000 years ago
  9. 9. Going Against The Grain What? Corn (Maize)– Mexico, 7-10,000 years ago– Colombus brought to Europe
  10. 10. Going Against The Grain What? Corn (Maize)– Mexico, 7-10,000 years ago– Colombus brought to Europe- Most widely cultivated grain
  11. 11. Going Against The Grain What? Corn (Maize)– Mexico, 7-10,000 years ago– Colombus brought to Europe- Most widely cultivated grain- US Subsidies: Feed, HFCS, Ethanol
  12. 12. Going Against The Grain What? Corn (Maize)– Mexico, 7-10,000 years ago– Colombus brought to Europe- Most widely cultivated grain- US Subsidies: Feed, HFCS, Ethanol- American Whiskey!
  13. 13. Going Against The Grain What? Corn (Maize)– Mexico, 7-10,000 years ago– Colombus brought to Europe- Most widely cultivated grain- US Subsidies: Feed, HFCS, Ethanol- American Whiskey!- Nixtamalization!
  14. 14. Going Against The Grain What? Wheat– Near east, 12-14,000 yrs ago
  15. 15. Going Against The Grain What? Wheat– Near east, 12-14,000 yrs ago– Diploid: Einkorn
  16. 16. Going Against The Grain What? Wheat– Near east, 12-14,000 yrs ago– Diploid: Einkorn- Tetraploid: Emmer (Italian; Farro)
  17. 17. Going Against The Grain What? Wheat– Near east, 12-14,000 yrs ago– Diploid: Einkorn- Tetraploid: Emmer (Italian; Farro) Durum (Pastas, 1 Un-hulled Wheat) st
  18. 18. Going Against The Grain What? Wheat– Near east, 12-14,000 yrs ago– Diploid: Einkorn- Tetraploid: Emmer (Italian; Farro) Durum (Pastas, 1 Un-hulled Wheat) st- Hexaploid: Modern Bread Wheats
  19. 19. Going Against The Grain What? Wheat– Near east, 12-14,000 yrs ago– Diploid: Einkorn- Tetraploid: Emmer (Italian; Farro) Durum (Pastas, 1 Un-hulled Wheat) st- Hexaploid: Modern Bread Wheats- Winter Wheat: Less/No Pesticides
  20. 20. Going Against The Grain What? Wheat– Near east,12-14,000 yrs ago
  21. 21. Going Against The Grain What? Barley – SW Asia
  22. 22. Going Against The Grain What? Barley– SW Asia– Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich
  23. 23. Going Against The Grain What? Barley– SW Asia– Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich- 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt
  24. 24. Going Against The Grain What? Barley– SW Asia– Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich- 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt- France: Hordeum – (barley)
  25. 25. Going Against The Grain What? Barley– SW Asia– Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich- 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt- France: Hordeum – Orge - (barley) (barley)
  26. 26. Going Against The Grain What? Barley– SW Asia– Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich- 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt- France: Hordeum – Orge - Orge mondé – (barley) (barley) (hulled barley)
  27. 27. Going Against The Grain What? Barley– SW Asia– Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich- 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt- France: Hordeum – Orge - Orge mondé – Orgeat (barley) (barley) (hulled barley)- Spain:
  28. 28. Going Against The Grain What? Barley– SW Asia– Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich- 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt- France: Hordeum – Orge - Orge mondé – Orgeat (barley) (barley) (hulled barley)- Spain: Orgeat –
  29. 29. Going Against The Grain What? Barley– SW Asia– Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich- 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt- France: Hordeum – Orge - Orge mondé – Orgeat (barley) (barley) (hulled barley)- Spain: Orgeat – Horchata (tiger/chufa nuts)
  30. 30. Going Against The Grain What? Barley– SW Asia– Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich- 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt- France: Hordeum – Orge - Orge mondé – Orgeat (barley) (barley) (hulled barley)- Spain: Orgeat – Horchata (tiger/chufa nuts) - Tisanes, Robinsons Barley water
  31. 31. Going Against The Grain What? Barley– SW Asia– Barley = Poor, Wheat = rich- 50% Used as Feed, 33% As Malt- France: Hordeum – Orge - Orge mondé – Orgeat (barley) (barley) (hulled barley)- Spain: Orgeat – Horchata (tiger/chufa nuts) - Tisanes, Robinsons Barley water
  32. 32. Going Against The Grain What? Other Grains– Oats: Irish, Genever, Etc.– Millet, Fonio, Sorghum- Triticale: Rye/Wheat cross (1800s)- Non-Cereals: Amaranth (Herb) Quinoa (Beet/spinach) Buckwheat (Rhubarb/Sorrel)
  33. 33. Going Against The Grain What? Breakfast!– The Kelloggs, 1906
  34. 34. Going Against The Grain What? Breakfast!– The Kelloggs, 1906
  35. 35. Going Against The Grain What? Breakfast!– The Kelloggs, 1906
  36. 36. Going Against The Grain What? Breakfast!– The Kelloggs, 1906
  37. 37. Going Against The Grain How? DistillingStep 1: Ferment Beer - Cereal Yeast Water Optional: Flavourings 900AD: Hops
  38. 38. Going Against The Grain How? DistillingStep 1: Ferment BeerStep 2: Distill Beer (To Concentrate The Alcohol) Cook It or Freeze It Remove The Flaws Enjoy!
  39. 39. Going Against The Grain How? Distilling The Pot Still
  40. 40. Going Against The Grain How? DistillingWhat Affects Flavour? Type Grain(s) & How Malted Type yeast & Length Ferment Duration & Alc.% Distillation Type & Extent Filtering Time (if any) & Type Barrel(s)
  41. 41. Going Against The Grain When? The Evolution of Spirits
  42. 42. Going Against The Grain When? 589, St. Colombanus, Ireland“serve about the ale which is bruised from the juice of wheat and barley”
  43. 43. Going Against The Grain When? 1169, The Normans, Ireland Vintners!Aqua vite (water of the vine) vs Aqua Vitae (water of life) =uisce beatha (idem)
  44. 44. Going Against The Grain When?1269, Der Naturen Bloeme, Holland “He who has cramps Cook juniper in wineIts good against the pain"
  45. 45. Going Against The Grain When? 1494, Scotland “Eight bolls of malt to Friar John Cor wherewith to make aqua vitae"
  46. 46. Going Against The Grain When?1495, The Sloane Manuscripts Holland “Making Burned Wine” Lees-distilled wine With Botanicals
  47. 47. Going Against The Grain When? 1556, Ireland Act of Parliament: “The consumption of graine in making of aqua vitae, and that it is not Profitable to be dailydrunk and used is now universally through the realm of Ireland”
  48. 48. Going Against The Grain When? 1582, A Guide To Distilling, Holland (& Europe) [distilled grain spirit]... “in aroma and taste is Almost the same as brandy-wine” and is“not only named brandywine but also drunk and paid for as brandywine”
  49. 49. Going Against The Grain When?1640, First Distillery, USA
  50. 50. Going Against The Grain When? 1689 - 1751 England The Gin Craze & The Gin-Ocracy
  51. 51. Going Against The Grain When? 1689 - 1751 England The Gin Craze & The Gin-Ocracy
  52. 52. Going Against The Grain When? 1689 - 1751 England The Gin Craze & The Gin-Ocracy
  53. 53. Going Against The Grain When? 1689 - 1751 England The Gin Craze & The Gin-Ocracy
  54. 54. Going Against The Grain When? 1750 Ireland Dr. Johnson, Lexicographer Whiskey is:“Particularly distinguished for its pleasant and mild spirit... It is a compounded, distilled spirit, being drawn on aromatiks”.
  55. 55. Going Against The Grain When? 1779 - 1823 Ireland Shallow-Still Output & The Rectifiers
  56. 56. Going Against The Grain When? 1830 IrelandAenaes Coffey Invents The Continual Still (1848:Corn Laws Repealed)
  57. 57. Going Against The Grain How? DistillingThe Pot Still
  58. 58. Going Against The Grain How? DistillingThe Coffey/Patent/ContinualStill
  59. 59. Going Against The Grain When? 1853 ScotlandAndrew Usher invents Blended Whisky
  60. 60. Going Against The Grain When? 1860 France Phylloxera
  61. 61. Going Against The Grain When? 1877 Scotland The DistillersCompany Limited (DCL)
  62. 62. Going Against The Grain When? 1894 Russia Mendeleev “Pure” Vodka(state subsidised also)
  63. 63. Going Against The Grain When? 1920 America Prohibition
  64. 64. Going Against The Grain When? 1860s Russia & 1940s USA The Smirnovs
  65. 65. Going Against The Grain When?1860s Russia & 1940s USAThe Smirnovs
  66. 66. Going Against The Grain When? 1963 Scotland Single Malt Sold Outside Scotland For the First Time
  67. 67. Going Against The Grain When? 1965 AmericaSingles Bars
  68. 68. Going Against The Grain When? 1967? America Bond, Russia And the Rise of Vodka
  69. 69. Going Against The Grain When? 1979 America Vodka As A Fashion Brand(And Modern Flavoured Vodkas)
  70. 70. Going Against The Grain When? 1997 USA Super Premium Goes Bananas
  71. 71. Going Against The Grain When? 2008 The European Union EU 110 / 2008
  72. 72. Going Against The Grain When? 2008 Scotland, USA The Return Of the White Dog
  73. 73. Going Against The Grain When? 2011 Globally Half The Worlds Best-selling spirits Are grain based
  74. 74. Going Against The Grain When? 2011 Globally Half The Worlds Best-selling spirits Are grain based
  75. 75. Going Against The Grain When?
  76. 76. Going Against The Grain When?
  77. 77. Going Against The GrainThank you for your attention! More? www. slideshare . net philip @ liquidsolutions . org @philipduff

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