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Genever 101

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Seminar originally taught by Philip Duff at Tales of the Cocktail 2019. "Everything you always wanted to know about the national spirit of the Low Countries, the original ingredient of the Collins and the Martinez, and maybe the spirit that makes for the tastiest boilermaker on the planet! Join fluent Dutch speaker (and 17-year Holland resident) Philip Duff, the world's most respected English-language genever expert, to learn the history, rules, high times and low depths of genever, the spirit that is the unchanged ancestor of whisky. (And no, it ain't gin)."

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Genever 101

  1. 1. Genever 101 with Philip Duff This deck: www . slideshare . net / philipduff / genever -101 @philipduff @philipsduff
  2. 2. What Is Genever? The word #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  3. 3. What Is Genever? The word “Genièvre” (French) = juniper #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  4. 4. What Is Genever? The word “Genièvre” (French) = juniper “Genever” (Dutch) = distilled spirit with juniper (word later becomes “jenever” in Holland) #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  5. 5. What Is Genever? The word “Genièvre” (French) = juniper “Genever” (Dutch) = distilled spirit with juniper (word later becomes “jenever” in Holland) “Gin” = English attempt to pronounce “genever” (word later comes to describe a completely different product in English) #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  6. 6. What Is Genever? The Liquid - Typically grain-based distilled spirit #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  7. 7. What Is Genever? The Liquid - Typically grain-based distilled spirit - May contain only maltwine (the pot-still distillate) which is very rare, or both pot-still + column-still distillates (very common) #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  8. 8. #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  9. 9. #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  10. 10. What Is Genever? The Liquid - Typically grain-based distilled spirit - May contain only maltwine (the pot-still distillate) which is very rare, or both pot-still + column-still distillates (very common) - Must contain very small amounts of juniper #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  11. 11. What Is Genever? The Liquid - Typically grain-based distilled spirit - May contain only maltwine (the pot-still distillate) which is very rare, or both pot-still + column-still distillates (very common) - Must contain very small amounts of juniper - May contain small amounts of other botanicals - #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  12. 12. What Is Genever? The Liquid - Typically grain-based distilled spirit - May contain only maltwine (the pot-still distillate) which is very rare, or both pot-still + column-still distillates (very common) - Must contain very small amounts of juniper - May contain small amounts of other botanicals - Typically unaged, but may be aged #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  13. 13. #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  14. 14. What Is Genever? Holland Rest Of The World
  15. 15. What Is Genever? Holland - 98% of sales in Holland are jonge (new-style, yung-uh) genever. Rest Of The World - Virtually all sales outside Holland are oude (old- style, ow-duh) genever.
  16. 16. What Is Genever? Holland - 98% of sales in Holland are jonge (new-style, yung-uh) genever. - Jonge is often based not on grain but on sugarbeet neutral spirit. Rest Of The World - Virtually all sales outside Holland are oude (old- style, ow-duh) genever. - Oude is virtually always grain-based.
  17. 17. What Is Genever? Holland - 98% of sales in Holland are jonge (new-style, yung-uh) genever. - Jonge is often based not on grain but on sugarbeet neutral spirit. - Jonge typically contains 1-3% maltwine, and in any case no more than 15% maltwine. Rest Of The World - Virtually all sales outside Holland are oude (old- style, ow-duh) genever. - Oude is virtually always grain-based. - Oude typically contains 17% maltwine or more, and in any case no less than 15% maltwine.
  18. 18. 1269 "He who wants to be rid of stomach pain Should use juniper cooked in rainwater. He who has cramps Cook juniper in wine It's good against the pain" History #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  19. 19. 1552, Antwerp “Een Constelijck Distilleerboec” , Philippus Hermanni “genever aqua vitae” History #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  20. 20. 1582, Holland A Guide To Distilling, Casper Jansz. Coolhaes. Korenbrandewijn... “in aroma and taste is almost the same as brandy-wine” and is “not only named brandywine but also drunk and paid for as brandywine” History #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  21. 21. 1611, Plat’s Delights for Ladies [To make] Usquebath (whiskey), or Irish aqua vitae: To every gallon of good aqua composita, put two ounces of chosen liquorice bruised and cut into small pieces, but first cleansed of his filth, and two ounces of aniseeds that are cleaned and bruised… Whiskey #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  22. 22. Franciscus “Dr. Sylvius” de le Boe 1606: “Distilled wine, genever water, fennel & anise water” taxed in Amsterdam 1614: Sylvius born (Hanover) 1623: “Genever” (the spirit) first mentioned in print in English as “Geneva” 1658: Sylvius becomes a professor (Leiden) famed as an iatrochemist 1672: Word “genever” commonplace in Dutch History #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  23. 23. 1623: Philip Massinger The Duke of Milan (London play) “An officer preaching of sobriety, lo unlesse he read it in Genevaprint, lay him by the heels” History #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  24. 24. 1623: Philip Massinger Geneva History #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  25. 25. 1688: King William (England) - Banned French import spirits - Lowered distilling license fees History #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  26. 26. History #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever Whiskey (originally) Flavorful grain base Tiny amount of botanicals Small number of botanicals Sometimes lightly sweetened Unaged Genever Flavorful grain base Tiny amount of botanicals Small number of botanicals Sometimes lightly sweetened Unaged
  27. 27. History #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever (English) Gin Neutral base HUGE amount of botanicals Large number of botanicals Heavily sweetened (Old Tom gin) until end of 1800s and birth of “London Dry” gin style Unaged Genever Flavorful grain base Tiny amount of botanicals Small number of botanicals Sometimes lightly sweetened Unaged
  28. 28. History: Ceramics until 1600s… #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  29. 29. History: 1630 onwards, Glass Bottles #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  30. 30. History: The Bottle(s)… #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  31. 31. History: World’s oldest message in a bottle – dropped 1886 in Fiji, found 2018 in Perth, Australia! #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  32. 32. History: rise… #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  33. 33. History: rise… #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  34. 34. History: rise… #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  35. 35. History: rise… #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  36. 36. History: rise… #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  37. 37. Udolpho Wolfe Aromatic Schiedam Schnapps 1818: Founded, Hamburg 1832: HQ in NY Mid-1800s: $1m ad budget 1911: Also sold bourbon in same bottles 1918: Sold to Blankenheym & Nolet 1970: B&N bought by Bols History: rise…
  38. 38. History: rise… #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  39. 39. History: rise… #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever 1862: First cocktail book All 15 “gin” cocktail recipes = genever
  40. 40. History: rise… #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  41. 41. Genever 101 History: rise… Argentina, 1858 onwards #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  42. 42. Genever 101 1830: Aeneas Coffey History: …and fall #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  43. 43. Genever 101 1900: Dry Vermouth History: …and fall #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  44. 44. Genever 101 1902: The Seal of Schiedam – too little, too late? #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  45. 45. Genever 101 1914:World War 1 History: …and fall #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  46. 46. Genever 101 1919: US Prohibition History: …and fall #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  47. 47. Genever 101 1939: World War 2 History: …and fall #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  48. 48. Genever 101 Survival Jonge (“young”, i.e. new-style) genever 1952 (Bols) #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  49. 49. Genever 101 Survival 1966 -1986 No 100% maltwine genever with the Seal of Schiedam produced at all. #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  50. 50. Genever 101 Price Wars of the 1970s & 1980s Filliers, Belgium (near Ghent, and, indeed, near Nazareth) Survival #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  51. 51. Genever 101 Rebirth of 100% Maltwine Genevers with the Seal of Schiedam #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever 1986 1998 2017
  52. 52. Genever 101 How To Make It: Step 1 Maltwine (i) Ferment a multi-grain mash (ii) Distill 3-4 times in pot still (a) 1st distillation “Ruwnat”, c. 12% abv (b) 2nd distillation “Enkelnat”, c. 24% abv (c) 3rd distillation “Bestnat”/Moutwijn”, 46 – 48% abv. (d) Optional 4th distillation “korenwijn” #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  53. 53. Genever 101 How To Make It, Step 2 Maltwine Genever 2. (i) Redistill some of the moutwijn (maltwine) with juniper, (ii) Combine the “straight” moutwijn (maltwine) with the redistilled juniper moutwijn #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  54. 54. Genever 101 How To Make It, Step 3 Korenwijn, Oude (old-style) & jonge (new-style) 3. (i) Redistill moutwijn (maltwine) OR neutral alcohol with botanicals (ii) Blend with the right % of “straight” moutwijn (iii) Add sugar (optional) (iv)Age in vats of at least 700 liters for at least 1 year (optional) (v) Filter & reduce to bottling strength #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  55. 55. Genever 101 The Genever Rules #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever Min. Maltwine % Usual maltwine % Usual neutral alcohol % Max. sugar? 100% Maltwine 100% 100% 0% 0% Korenwijn 51% 53% 47% 20g/l Oude (old-style) 15% 17% 83% 20g/l Jonge (new-style) MAX. 15% 1-3% 97% 10g/l
  56. 56. Genever 101 2014: UNESCO Register of Intangible Cultural Heritage #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  57. 57. Genever 101 Old Duff Genever, distilled at Herman Jansen, Schiedam (T & IG: @oldduffgenever) Style: 100% maltwine with Seal of Schiedam Grains: ⅔ rye, ⅓ malted barley, fermented 5 days, then whole-grains distilled 3 times Botanicals: Juniper, English Bramling hops, all redistilled with maltwine Strength: 45% abv #RealDutchGenever
  58. 58. Genever 101 Old Duff Genever, distilled at Herman Jansen, Schiedam (T & IG: @oldduffgenever) Style: Oude (old-style), 53% maltwine Grains: 53% maltwine (⅔ rye, ⅓ malted barley, whole-grains distilled), 47% neutral grain (wheat) spirit. Botanicals: Juniper, lemon peel, orange peel, coriander, star anise & liquorice, all redistilled with maltwine Strength: 40% abv #RealDutchGenever
  59. 59. Genever Mixology - Real genever is a masterful grain distillate; whisky cocktails are the best template for genever cocktails - Maltwine % and the dominant grains used will hint at which “whisky” a genever most resembles. E.g.; 100% maltwine genever with a majority of rye will taste close to a rye whiskey. - The higher the maltwine content, the better it will pair with creamy/viscous ingredients such as dairy, horchata, etc. #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  60. 60. Genever Mixology Classic: The Martinez/Manhattan 1883: First mentioned in Chicago as “Manhattan, made with whiskey or gin”, “gin” then meaning “genever”. Recommended recipe: 2oz vermouth di Torino 1oz oude genever 1 barspoon maraschino liqueur 3 dashes Boker’s/Bogart’s bitters Stir with ice Strain straight up #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  61. 61. Genever Mixology Classic: The Collins 1826: Brought from NY to London by Stephen Price, theater manager, who popularized it. Recommended recipe: 2oz. oude genever 1oz. fresh lemon juice ½oz. rich sugar syrup (2:1) Shake with ice Strain into ice-filled longdrink Top with soda Garnish: lemon slice #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  62. 62. Genever Mixology Contemporary: The Kingsman (Nathan O’Neill, The NoMad Bar, New York) 1oz. Old Duff Genever 100% Maltwine Genever ½oz. rye whiskey ½oz. agricole rum ½oz. oloroso sherry 5ml banana liqueur ½oz. brown butter falernum Stir with ice Strain over an oversized ice cube #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever
  63. 63. Thank you! Genever 101 This deck, and Genever Timeline: www . slideshare . net / philipduff / genever-101 @philipduff @philipsduff #RealDutchGenever @OldDuffGenever

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