A slightly altered version of Dr. David Snyder's presentation to music education students at Illinois State University. http://finearts.illinoisstate.edu/profiles/default.aspx?q=BM200807100027&unitAbbr=schoolofmusic
Do You Have the Personality for Teaching? Presented at the 2011 Illinois Music Educators Association All-State Conference in Peoria, Illinois By Dr. David Snyder Professor of Music Education at Illinois State University email@example.com
Related Studies…• Several researchers have looked at personality as it relates to teaching …• Fred Pigge has done several longitudinal studies on general teacher attrition using Myers-Briggs and other measures.• Cutietta (1997), Coffman (2007) looked at personality traits and instrument selection among junior high and adult musicians respectively.• Kreuger (1974), Schmidt (1989),Bergee (1992) all looked at personality as it relates to music teacher behaviors and success.
Personality as defined by the Myers- Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) •The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a personality test based on Carl Jung’s theory of psychological types, designed to assist a person in identifying their personality preferences. •It was developed by Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers during World War II.
Personality as defined by the Myers- Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) •The MBTI differs from standardized tests measuring traits that can be improved with practice, instead identifying preferred “types”. While types and traits are both inborn, traits can be improved, whereas types, naturally differentiate over time.
Personality as defined by the Myers- Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) •Don’t think of personality in this case in terms such as “outgoing”, “reserved”, “happy” “warm”, “fun-loving” , “serious” and the like…
Personality as defined by the Myers- Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) •Instead, think of the type indicator in Myers-Briggs as being the operational preference for individuals when interacting with the world and making decisions.
Personality as defined by the Myers- Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) There are 4 Dichotomies searched for in the MBTI: Extroversion /Introversion Sensing/ iNtuition Thinking /Feeling Judging /Perceiving A dichotomy is a division of two mutually exclusive groups, or “type” preferences
The Preferences in DetailIn the Extroverted type the energyflow is outward, and the preferredfocus is on other people andthings, whereas in the Introvertedtype the energy flow is inward, andthe preferred focus is on ones ownthoughts and ideas.
The Preferences in DetailSensing type prefers to receive dataprimarily from the five senses, andiNtuition type prefers to receive datafrom the unconscious, or seeingrelationships via insights.
The Preferences in DetailThinking types uses logical "true orfalse, if-then" connections. Feelingtypes use "more or less, better-worse" evaluations.
The Preferences in DetailJudging types tend to prefer a step-by-step approach to life, relying onexternal rules and procedures, andpreferring quick closure. Perceivingtypes can be seen as having a “bouncingaround" approach to life, relying onsubjective judgments, and a desire toleave all options open.
The Preferences in DetailThe J/P terminology may bemisleading for some—the term"Judging" does not imply"judgmental," and "Perceiving" doesnot imply "perceptive".
The Preferences in DetailKeep in mind that each dimensionreveals a persons inborn preferencewith how he or she is mostcomfortable operating, and does notsay that any person will always usehis preferred dimension.
Personality as defined by the Myers- Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Participants are given one of 16 four-letter acronyms, such as ESTJ or INFP, indicating what they prefer in each of these dichotomies resulting in their “type”.
Types as represented in the USpopulation (taken from New World Encyclopedia .org)
Comparison of Music Ed Majors to National Percentages US population Music Ed (2006-09) •ISFJ 13.8%* 3.8% •ESFJ 12.3 % 17.9% •ISTJ 11.6% 5.1% •ENFJ 2.4% 30.2% •INFJ 1.5%** 14% *The most common personality type in the US ** The rarest personality type in the US
FJ’s•Myers and Briggs held that typeswith a preference for judgment showthe world their preferred judgingfunction (thinking or feeling).•FJ types are seen as empathetic andhelpful and caring.•This seems to be a natural fit forsomeone wanting to be a teacher.•155 of the 235 surveyed were FJ’s
ENFJ(30.2% of ISU/2.4% of US) •Genuinely and warmly interested in people •Value peoples feelings •Value structure and organization •Value harmony, and good at creating it •Exceptionally good people skills •Dislike impersonal logic and analysis •Strong organizational capabilities •Loyal and honest •Creative and imaginative •Enjoy variety and new challenges •Get personal satisfaction from helping others •Extremely sensitive to criticism and discord •Need approval from others to feel good about themselves
ESFJ(17.9% of ISU/12.3% of US) •Organized •Loyal •Can be depended on to follow things through to completion •Enjoy creating order, structure and schedules •Enjoy interacting with people •Warm-hearted and sympathetic •Tend to put others needs above their own •Very good at giving practical care •Very cooperative, good team members •Practical and down-to-earth •Value peaceful living and security •Enjoy variety, but work well with routine tasks •Need approval from others •Receive satisfaction from giving to others •Live in the here and now - dislike theorizing about the future
INFJ(14% of ISU/1.5% of US)•Intuitively understand people and situations•Idealistic•Highly principled•Complex and deep•Natural leaders•Sensitive and compassionate towards people•Service-oriented•Future-oriented•Value deep, authentic relationships•Reserved about expressing their true selves•Dislike dealing with details unless they enhance or promote theirvision•Constantly seeking meaning and purpose in everything•Creative and visionary•Intense and tightly-wound•Can work logically and rationally - use their intuition tounderstand the goal and work backwards towards it
Results compared to other studies…• Uhl (1981) looked at attrition and student personality type amongst all college majors and found 85% of music education majors to be Feeling (F) types.• 75% of the music education majors in this study were also found to be Feeling(F) types.
Results compared to other studies…• Roberts, et. al. (2007) in his study of Agricultural Science student teachers found ESFJ and ENFP to be the two most common types• Of the 235 subjects I studied, ESFJ was the second most common type but there were only 4 ENFP’s identified
Results compared to other studies…• Phillips (1997) found the most common personality type in his study of 145 Music Majors from historically African-American Universities to be ESTJ (33 respondents).• Of the 235 subjects I studied, only 5 students were determined to be ESTJ’s.
Results compared to other studies…• Lanning (1990) used the Myers-Briggs test to look at music majors at select Oklahoma universities and found ENFP to be most common personality type among male (17%) and female (14%) music education students.• Of the 235 subjects I studied, only 4 students were identified to be ENFP’s (1.7%)
Results compared to other studies…• Steele (2008) found ENFP and ENFJ types to be the most prevalent among both music education and music therapy majors in her sample of 11 universities throughout the US.• Wubbenhorst (1992) also found ENFP and ENFJ to be the dominant types for music education majors.• ENFJ was the most prevalent type in this study(30.2%), but again of the 235 subjects I studied, only 4 students were identified to be ENFP’s (1.7%)
So Why the Differences? …• Obviously, different schools and different programs attract different types of students• But shouldn’t there be some equality of representation between different schools for the most common personality types among music education majors? Where are the ENFP’s?• The studies cited previously did not make a distinction by concentration area (instrumental, vocal, general, etc.). The percentage of the population represented in each study, could have effected the results.
So Why the difference? …• Finally, Illinois State has a long and focused history of preparing educators and the type of student who selects to go to ISU may have teaching as there primary objective as opposed to students attending other institutions and majoring in music education.
I’s vs E’s (2006-2009)• 43 subjects were classified asintroverts (I’s) and the preferredfocus is on ones own thoughts andideas.• The remaining 106 were extroverts(E) where the preferred focus is onother people and things.•A study by Kemp (1982) also foundmusic teachers to be moreExtroverted.
J’s vs P’s (2006-2009)• Only 13 subjects tested as “P”(Perceiving) type which rely onsubjective judgments, and a desire toleave all options open.• The remaining 136 tested as “J”types which have a preference for astep-by-step approach to life, relyingon external rules andprocedures, and preferring quickclosure.
Conclusions:•The music education population in thisstudy had a large representation of Extrovertpersonality types, FJ personality types andvery few Perceiving types.•The most common personality type in thesample studied was the ENFJ (over 30%) andthis was consistent from year to year.•The top three personality types(ENFJ, ESFJ, INFJ) represent approx. 60% ofthe overall sample studied and all threetypes name “teaching” as a well-suitedcareer choice.
Conclusions:•There may be a correlation between Introversion andincreased attrition from the music ed program.•Though there were significantly fewer P’s entering intothe music ed program, the Perceiving type does notseem to be a predictor for increased attrition from themusic ed program.•The T type indicator within the ISU music ed populationwas much less prevalent than the F type (37/112).However, this does not match the findings of the 1997study of historically African American Colleges.•The P type indicator within the ISU music ed populationwas much less prevalent than the J type (13/136).However, this does not match findings from the 1990study of Oklahoma universities (top two were ENFP andINFP).
Interested in learning more?•Take the Myers-Briggs test at:www.humanmetrics.com/cgiwin/JTypes2.asp•Read your personality descriptionand career choices at:www.personalitypage.com