Behavior Modification

13,716 views

Published on

Behavior Modification for the classroom, based on Cliff Madsen's excellent book "Teaching/Discipline: A Positive Approach for Educational Development."

Published in: Education, Technology
1 Comment
10 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Thank you for this presentation. As an educator, I feel that this presentation is one I need to view periodically.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
13,716
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
234
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
491
Comments
1
Likes
10
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Behavior Modification

  1. 1. Applications to teaching
  2. 3. Pavlov’s Dogs Skinner’s Box
  3. 5. <ul><li>Skinner and His Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Defining Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Belief behind Behavior Modification </li></ul><ul><li>What is behavior modification? </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>Skinner: Behavioral Scientist </li></ul><ul><li>Defining Behavior: Anything a person does </li></ul><ul><li>Belief behind Behavior Modification: People work for things that bring pleasure. </li></ul><ul><li>What is behavior modification? Techniques for implementing values. </li></ul>
  5. 8. <ul><li>Over 99% of teaching professionals believe in a positive classroom environment </li></ul><ul><li>97% believe that there should be more positive comments than negative </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 10% of teachers dispense more approving comments than disapproval </li></ul>
  6. 9. <ul><li>Words: positive comments defined as specified solutions to specific problems </li></ul><ul><li>Expressions: Facial expressions of an approving or disapproving nature </li></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><li>The most effective behavior management technique is the easiest to implement--&quot;catching 'em being good&quot;. Research shows us that the quickest and most effective way to promote the display of appropriate behaviors is to reward them (e.g., touch, a smile, a &quot;thank you&quot;, praise, points, food,...whatever would be reinforcing to those youngsters). We all like to have our efforts acknowledged, and will show more of that behavior if it brings us rewards. It's human nature to show behaviors that bring benefits to us. It is also human nature to like and want to please people who recognize our efforts. Source. </li></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>Behavioral techniques can be used to implement any and all values </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and Effect are always present; sometimes teachers unwittingly reinforce a wrong behavior </li></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>A person has not learned </li></ul><ul><li>A person has learned correct associations </li></ul><ul><li>A person has learned incorrect associations </li></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>Subject matter should be geared to students at their level </li></ul><ul><li>Must be presented in logical sequences </li></ul><ul><li>Must be appropriate feedback concerning correct and incorrect responses </li></ul><ul><li>There should be contingent rewards given for successive approximations towards defined goals. </li></ul>
  11. 14. The basic premise of reinforcement teaching is to arrange the stimuli of the external world to shape the behavior of the students.
  12. 15. arrange the stimuli to shape the behavior
  13. 16. <ul><li>If a student knows what is expected </li></ul><ul><li>And wants to do it </li></ul><ul><li>She probably will. </li></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>Approval </li></ul><ul><li>Withhold Approval </li></ul><ul><li>Disapproval </li></ul><ul><li>Threat of disapproval </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>Contingencies, in both approving and disapproving ways, can include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words (spoken and written) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressions (facial-bodily) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closeness (nearness-touching) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities and privileges (social-individual) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Things (tokens, materials, food, playthings, money) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>APPROVAL </li></ul><ul><li>Praise </li></ul><ul><li>Smiling </li></ul><ul><li>Embracing or touching </li></ul><ul><li>Activities that are enjoyable </li></ul><ul><li>Games, badges, food trinkets </li></ul><ul><li>DISAPPROVAL </li></ul><ul><li>Getting yelled at </li></ul><ul><li>Frowning </li></ul><ul><li>Getting hit, placed in isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Deprivation of fun activity, made to do unpleasant activity </li></ul><ul><li>Feared objects </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>Used when the positive reinforcer functions to produce “hope” for the next time the behavior is improved </li></ul><ul><li>Functions as disapproval </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers can redirect responsibility: </li></ul><ul><li>“ I’m sorry you didn’t finish on time—now you can’t go out and play. Maybe tomorrow you can finish on time and be able to play.” </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>Should be used rarely </li></ul><ul><li>Profoundly effective once the knowledge of disapproval is established. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I’m careful crossing the road so I won’t get run over.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I don’t play with guns because I may get shot.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I study so I won’t fail.” </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>Ignore </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>Approval </li></ul><ul><li>Withholding of approval </li></ul><ul><li>Ignoring </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>Children who are completely negatively motivated are: </li></ul><ul><li>Tense, unenthusiastic, fearful, quiet, shy, passive </li></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>Many teachers leave the profession because they can’t control their classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective discipline ensues from direct cause-and-effect relationships </li></ul><ul><li>We discipline those we love—to provide each child with behaviors necessary for individual productivity </li></ul>
  23. 26. <ul><li>Payoff: that which keeps behaviors alive </li></ul><ul><li>For specific inappropriate behavior, find the payoff. Eliminate it if possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior that is unrewarded will extinguish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One significant result of eliminating payoffs is that the undesired behavior will initially get worse. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 27. <ul><li>Elementary: words, contact, expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Middle school, high school: group activities, peer and group approval </li></ul><ul><li>High school, college: material things, individual activities </li></ul>

×