Using the CoI Framework to Assess the Efficacy of New Technologies

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Using the CoI Framework to Assess the Efficacy of New Technologies

  1. 1. Using the CoI Framework <br />to <br />Assess the Efficacy <br />of <br />New Technologies<br />Phil Ice<br />Jason Dom<br />2nd Sloan-C Emerging<br />Technology Symposium<br />San Francisco, 2009<br />
  2. 2. Part I<br />~<br />An Overview of the Community of Inquiry Framework<br />
  3. 3. Community of Inquiry Framework<br /><ul><li>a process model of learning in online and blended educational environments
  4. 4. grounded in a collaborative constructivist view of higher education
  5. 5. assumes effective online learning requires the development of a community of learners that supports meaningful inquiry and deep learning</li></li></ul><li>social presence<br />cognitive presence<br />LEARNING<br />teaching presence<br />
  6. 6. Social Presence<br /><ul><li>the ability of participants in a community of inquiry to project themselves socially and emotionally -- as ‘real’ people
  7. 7. the degree to which participants in computer mediated communication feel socially and emotionally connected </li></li></ul><li>Social Presence - Elements<br /><ul><li>affective expression (expressing emotion, self-projection)
  8. 8. open communication (learning climate, risk free expression)
  9. 9. group cohesion (group identity, collaboration)</li></li></ul><li>Cognitive Presence<br /><ul><li>the extent to which learners are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse in a critical community of inquiry </li></li></ul><li>Cognitive Presence - Elements<br /><ul><li>triggering event (sense of puzzlement)
  10. 10. exploration (sharing information & ideas)
  11. 11. integration (connecting ideas)
  12. 12. resolution (synthesizing & applying new ideas)</li></li></ul><li>Teaching Presence<br /><ul><li>the design, facilitation and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes</li></li></ul><li>Teaching Presence - Elements<br /><ul><li>design and organization (setting curriculum & activities)
  13. 13. facilitation (shaping constructive discourse)
  14. 14. direct instruction (focusing & resolving issues)</li></li></ul><li>Community of Inquiry Survey<br /><ul><li>9 social presence items (3 affective expression, 3 open communication, 3 group cohesion)
  15. 15. 12 cognitive presence items (3 triggering, 3 exploration, 3 integration, 3 resolution)
  16. 16. 13 teaching presence items (4 design & facilitation, 6 facilitation of discourse, 3 direct instruction)</li></li></ul><li>CoI Survey Validation<br /><ul><li>tested in graduate courses at four institutions in the US and Canada
  17. 17. principal component factor analysis
  18. 18. three factor model predicted by CoI framework confirmed
  19. 19. Arbaugh, Cleveland-Innes, Diaz, Garrison, Ice, Richardson, Shea & Swan - 2008</li></li></ul><li>Part II<br />~<br />CoI and the Integration of <br />New Technologies<br />
  20. 20. Audio Feedback<br /><ul><li>Pilot Study revealed the following benefits of providing asynchronous audio feedback using Acrobat Pro:
  21. 21. THEME 1 – Ability to understand nuance.
  22. 22. THEME 2 – Feelings of increased involvement.
  23. 23. THEME 3 – Increased content retention.
  24. 24. THEME 4 – Instructor caring.</li></li></ul><li>Audio Feedback & the CoI<br /><ul><li>The following slides compare the findings of the multi-institutional CoI sample (n = 1085) that received text-based feedback and responses from a multi-institutional sample(n = 1138) that received audio feedback
  25. 25. In the items addressed there was a significant difference (p > .05) in responses</li></li></ul><li>Teaching Presence<br /><ul><li>The instructor was helpful in identifying areas of agreement and disagreement on course topics that helped me to learn.
  26. 26. Summer 2007 / mean = 4.12
  27. 27. Audio group / mean = 4.43
  28. 28. The instructor encouraged course participants to explore new concepts in this course.
  29. 29. Summer 2007 / mean = 4.44
  30. 30. Audio group / mean = 4.58</li></li></ul><li>Teaching Presence<br /><ul><li>The instructor provided feedback that helped me understand my strengths and weaknesses relative to the course’s goals and objectives.
  31. 31. Summer 2007 / mean = 4.28
  32. 32. Audio group / mean = 4.57</li></li></ul><li>Social Presence<br /><ul><li>Online or web-based communication is an excellent medium for social interaction.
  33. 33. Summer 2007 / mean = 3.90
  34. 34. Audio group / mean = 4.27</li></li></ul><li>Cognitive Presence<br /><ul><li>I felt motivated to explore content related questions.
  35. 35. Summer 2007 / mean = 4.31
  36. 36. Audio group / mean = 4.55
  37. 37. Reflection on course content and discussions helped me understand fundamental concepts in this class.
  38. 38. Summer 2007 / mean = 4.37
  39. 39. Audio group / mean = 4.49</li></li></ul><li>SaaS Word Processors<br /><ul><li>Two online, graduate level education courses (combined n=78) students were asked to complete assignments (mean page count = 9.75 pages), alternating Word and Buzzword as the creation and submission mechanism.
  40. 40. Buzzword is an online document editor that is a part of Acrobat.com</li></li></ul><li>Document Analysis<br /><ul><li>average use of non-text based resources (e.g. hyperlinks, graphics, tables, etc.) was 5.1 for Word submissions and 14.3 for Buzzword based submissions.
  41. 41. Cognitive Presence Indicators</li></li></ul><li>Interview Data<br /><ul><li>Buzzword’s ease of use (as compared to Word) cited as primary reason for inclusion of more links, graphics, etc.
  42. 42. Majority (n = 12) indicated that it was easier for them to express complex concepts using multimedia.</li></li></ul><li>Interview Data<br /><ul><li>The concept of a Buzzword being a personal reflective space was common among 72% of students over 34 years old.
  43. 43. As an example these students frequently developed a document on their own and then shared it with classmates.
  44. 44. 82% of students 34 and younger recognized it as a collaborative tool and began workflow projects by sharing a common document.
  45. 45. Qualitative analysis revealed that these younger students frequently (68%) likened Buzzword to a Wiki or similar collaborative tool. In contrast, only 27% of older students made this association.</li></li></ul><li>Director of Course Design, Research & Development<br />American Public University System<br />pice@apus.edu<br />Thank You!<br />Phil Ice, Ed.D.<br />Director of Course Design, Research & Development<br />American Public University System<br />pice@apus.edu<br />Jason Dom. M.Ed.<br />Director of Academic Computing<br />American Public University System <br />jdom@apus.edu<br />

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