Morrisons 3

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  • Wm Morrison Supermarkets Plc
  • Introduce session aims.
  • Introduce session objectives.
  • The working environment can be seen as the whole of the organisation, from the car park to the canteen. Discuss with the participants and ask for a few examples from the group that reflect their own working environments.
  • Explain that ‘ quality ’ here refers to subjects such as efficiency, cleanliness and tidiness. Either use examples from your own background/experience to illustrate the points or use common domestic examples such as: An efficient kitchen layout which saves time during meal preparation and serving A tidy garage or workshop which makes for an easier life Always mopping up spills in the kitchen to avoid slips A home office where everything is organised which encourages order and helps with time management
  • These are the elements of 5S / 5C. Explain that each of these will be covered in more detail later in the session. Many companies use alternative terms to describe the elements and some may adopt a 3C programme or a 4S programme depending on their current business goals. For the rest of the session, we will refer to the 5S approach to workplace organisation as this is the most common.
  • A 5S approach to the working environment has a direct impact on three core elements within the business – safety, efficiency and quality.
  • The first step in the 5S programme. It concerns itself with separating those items which are currently required for the job from those which are not. It is an essential first stage that allows order and discipline to follow.
  • The bullet points are self explanatory. The sort phase can have positive effects on space, transport, efficiency, maintenance and safety issues.
  • Explain that sorting items in terms of priority use are an essential part of good 5S.
  • A red tag is a label which indicates visually that further action/consideration is required.
  • Explain that this is an example of a fully-functional, double-sided Red Tag, supplies of which can be obtained commercially. In many companies a Red Tag is a much simpler affair – a piece of red card with some handwritten information and a date. The objective is the same – to identify an item or items where further action is required before the 5S programme can continue. The tagged items can remain in place or more commonly they can be removed to a Red Tag holding area (either local or central) where interested parties can examine and make disposition decisions as required.
  • Having cleared the area of all unnecessary items, the essential items can now be organised as required by the current process/business needs. This will usually involve analysing the current situation and developing storage formats and locations to suit. Shadow boards are common at this stage as are floor markings, labels and signs.
  • Again the bullet points are self explanatory. This stage can have an impact on efficiency, safety and convenience and begins the process of standardisation.
  • Once the essential items have been identified (Sort) and correctly located (Straighten) this is the time to clean the area and machinery and bring up to an ideal standard. It is essential that the standard is maintained and responsibilities should be allocated to ensure this. This could include check sheets, audits and allocated times and tasks. Cleaning is a form of preventive maintenance.
  • Again, there is an impact on quality, efficiency and safety. A clean workplace also creates a more pleasant environment with potentially a resulting increase in morale and productivity.
  • Having organised and cleaned the area the next stage is to create a standard approach to maintain the situation. This could involve the use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOP ’ s), check sheets, labels etc. The key is to ensure that changes in process personnel or tasks do not adversely affect the organised area.
  • Standardisation reduces variation and allows for greater management of available resources in the work place
  • The final step – ensuring that the benefits are sustained and improved upon. Many organisations fail in these last two steps of the 5S programme – the area is brought up to the ideal standard but allowed to slip back over subsequent weeks or months when the focus is elsewhere. This step is the most difficult to achieve and must consider ways to obtain buy-in from the personnel actually involved in the area. Regular audits (whether self-audits or management driven) will probably be a feature of this stage and should highlight any training needs or areas for concern.
  • Again there can be impact on continuous improvement, efficiency and productivity issues.
  • To help with sustaining improvements, an SOP can be created (or amended) to reflect the ‘new’ way of doing things. Explain that the SOP format will be covered in more detail in a later UPK session.
  • Many features of a 5S programme will involve elements of visual management – labels, check sheets, shadow boards, colour coding etc. True visual management goes beyond this and can be applied company-wide. Visual management allows key information to be displayed and provides essential input to the decision making process – whether this be on a strategic or process level. It should provide the same unbiased information to all area personnel – what is done with the information may vary. For example a RAD (red, amber, green) system to indicate status may elicit a different response depending on who is viewing the information. A senior manager may view an amber signal as highlighting a concern that needs addressed at the next daily operations meeting while a process operator my view the same signal as an indication that additional assistance is required to maintain current process levels.
  • Most visual management is simple and logical – colours to indicate status, location footprints, shadow boards etc. It can also include visual display of information such as performance charts, historical trends, records of improvement activities etc. The next few slides show some examples.
  • Discuss some further everyday examples – supermarket checkouts, parking bays, petrol pump nozzle colour coding etc.
  • Typical visual management uses in the workplace.
  • Expand on the image as required.
  • Expand on the image as required.
  • Expand on the images as required.
  • Expand on the image as required.
  • Expand on the image as required.
  • One use of a matrix approach to show skill level – the chessboard.
  • Another use of a skills matrix approach – the ILU chart.
  • Some guidelines for effective display.
  • Some further guidelines when designing visual displays.
  • Visual display objectives.
  • Expand on examples as required.
  • Expand on examples as required.
  • Expand on examples as required.
  • The visual display board – a core element in the creation of a factory-wide information and display system.
  • A company information board – normally placed at the entrance to an area.
  • A work area display board – a visual focal point for essential area information.
  • Facilitate a discussion (using flipchart) around the difference in product and service between McDonald ’ s and the burger van, emphasising standardisation: McDonalds – standard product and quality, standard menu and prices, standard method, standard service, standard uniforms, levels of performance and expectations clearly stated for staff. Burger van – product and quality varies (depends what is on offer at cash & carry); menu and price varies, method and service varies (depending who is on duty) levels of performance and expectations not necessarily stated. What about price? Which supplier can drive down costs through standardisation?
  • This is the recognised definition of a Standard Operation. The key words are - currently , it is valid only until another improvement has been incorporated; safety , it must be the safest method currently available; quality , it must achieve the required quality standards; cost , keep to a minimum the inputs required to do a task and deliver the output. The standard operation must enable the product to be made in such a manner to meet the customers delivery requirements.
  • A typical manufacturing process will have inputs of labour, machinery and material. Each of these elements need to be controlled to ensure consistent output: Man – differing techniques; differing skills; differing knowledge and experience of the process; differing levels of ability Machine – correct usage; correct set-up; correct maintenance; Material – storage rules; handling rules; quantities; health and safety issues The SOP defines the best method of combining these to ensure QCD objectives are met consistently.
  • A standard method: Reduces variation – same equipment, same method, same steps, carried out in the same sequence every time. Maintains quality – consistent input should produce consistent output Audit tool – gives a standard method to audit against Training – new personnel can be aligned with process requirements in a shorter time Standardisation – the means of ensuring consistency Improvement – provides a stable base on which to build; changes in materials, equipment and technology can lead to further improvements
  • Standardisation is all about control - control of output as well as control of costs. Consistency is the key to being competitive – variation in an organisation can mean that some customers will be provided with goods or services that exceed their expectations, some with goods or services that are adequate and some with goods or services that are unacceptable. In addition, without a standard method an organisation will find that the costs and delivery elements of a process will vary leading to poor profit control.
  • In addition to the benefits above, SOP ’ s can also have other benefits: They standardise the approach of individuals within the company to specific procedures, improving the quality and speed of decision making in key areas; They provide a valuable structure for inter company discussion and development, with a key role in creating a knowledge management base within the organisation They act to disseminate best practice within the organisation and can be updated as the conditions and legislation require They serve to speed the integration of an individual into the organisation during the induction training phase by making available a library of company wide best practice and company operating procedures They provide a clear audit trail in cases of dispute or external investigation where it can be shown that correct procedures were followed and records maintained They provide a check list which is action orientated
  • The main tool of the standardisation programme – the SOP sheet. It is a concise and formal method to record and display in a visual format the best method currently available to carry out a sequence of tasks. It explains the main process steps and indicates any key points, quality considerations and health and safety concerns. It is a live document – it should reflect current practice and needs to be maintained. It also needs to be used by process personnel – an SOS should be available for consultation as required, not created then stuck in a drawer.
  • Identify key components of the sheet for candidates: Details of the part/process the SOP refers to Issue date and authorisation details Numbered process steps in task order Description of each major step with details of any key points Reason for each key point from a safety, quality or ease of manufacture point of view A sketch or photo if this assists with the completion of the task Indication of PPE required Revision and page details
  • To develop an SOP: Analyse the operation to identify tasks and process steps Develop the best method of carrying out these tasks taking account of any constraints (such as tool availability, machine use, environment etc) and health and safety considerations Review and confirm that the method does actually produce the desired results Break the process down into main step tasks (e.g. “ remove items from oven ” ; “ tighten pump locating screws ” etc) Identify any key points associated with the main steps, indicating where these relate to safety, quality or task assistance. Review when complete and confirm that the method does produce the desired results Add any additional information such as a sketch, photograph and PPE requirements.
  • Process personnel may often carry out tasks without fully understanding why. The key point section of an SOP gives an opportunity to describe the reason for the step and the impact it has on QCD and/or safety.
  • When developing the best current method, consideration should be given to motion economy. If an operation can be carried out consistently using fewer motions or shortening the distances required to perform the task, the SOP should reflect this. For example, an instruction such as “ Simultaneously pick up the tool with left hand and place retaining screw on unit with right hand ” may save 2 seconds per task cycle – which repeated during a shift can have a big impact on productivity. The principles are relevant from a safety and an efficiency perspective by removing unnecessary motions from the operation. First step is to study the motions and decide if any can be removed from the task all together. If the motion can be removed then it is not required and makes the job easier and quicker. Secondly, can two or more tasks be performed simultaneously? (being able to take less time to do two or more things) Third, how can we make motions that are shorter? Can we bring items closer together to eliminate walking or reaching for items? Finally how can the motions remaining be made easier? (for example, making work benches all the same height to eliminate bending and stretching or using lift assist devices to help lift heavy objects)
  • The review is fundamental to the SOP system and its integrity. The maintenance and updating of the SOP has got to become a regular part of the routine. The review should be carried out at least every 6 months – even if just to confirm that the SOP is being followed by relevant personnel. If there have been improvements these need to be evaluated to establish relevance and effectiveness. Once evaluated the changes should be adopted where necessary and the SOP amended. If there has been a change to the SOP, then there may be a training requirement to ensure that the new method is followed by all..
  • Stress the maintenance of the SOP is fundamental in achieving all of the bullet points above. Without this, control is lost, variation starts to appear in the process, results become unpredictable and the whole system starts to breakdown – resulting in errors and inefficiencies rather than improvements.
  • Most of us will be more comfortable in our ‘preferred’ team role. However a ‘good’ team player will be able to switch roles if required to ensure the team is successful in its tasks. Knowing your preferred role (and also as important your least preferred role) can help with your ability to be an effective team member. Wm Morrison Supermarkets Plc
  • Explain that we tend to communicate based on past experience – what worked well before (e.g. a certain method used to communicate on a certain subject) will tend to be used again even although the ‘receiver’ may be different. We may also tend towards our own preferences when trying to communicate – e.g. if we prefer facts, figures and handouts as a method of communication we will stick to these even if our ‘receiver’ is more of a visual/action type of person.
  • Involve the whole group in a discussion about these topics – as they relate to several of the areas in the UPK sections of the BIR 202 standard.
  • Review – time, different priorities, extra responsibilities and conflict of interests can all be seen as barriers to effective teamwork and successful Kaizen activities.
  • Re visit session objectives.
  • Morrisons 3

    1. 1. April 2013 Improving Operational Performance
    2. 2. To introduce participants to leadership techniques, workplace organisation, standardised work and a cariety of visual management techniques. Session Aims
    3. 3. By the end of the session participants will be able to: Explain the qualities required in leading and participating in CI teams. Recognise the benefits of an organised workplace. Identify a range of visual management techniques. Understand the importance of a standard method of working. Understand takt time and line balancing activities. Session Objectives
    4. 4. Your working environment is the place where you work and its main features or characteristics: • Work areas, equipment and materials • Storage spaces • Light, heat and air The Working Environment
    5. 5. The quality of the working environment can have a big impact on how you work: • an efficient layout will save time • a tidy workplace will make things easier to find • a clean workplace will reduce accidents • a pleasant workplace encourages productivity Why is the Working Environment Important?
    6. 6. • Sort - Clear up • Straighten - Configure • Shine - Clean • Standardise - Conformity • Self Discipline - Custom and practice Elements of 5S / 5C
    7. 7. There are three main benefits in a 5S approach: • Improved safety – reduction in accidents • Improved efficiency – more effective staff • Improved quality – fewer defects Benefits of 5s
    8. 8. • Separate those things which are necessary to do the job from those that are not • Keep the number of necessary items to a minimum and in a convenient location • Quarentine what is not needed • Prevent accumulation 1 - Sort (clearing up)
    9. 9. • Unnecessary equipment means more space is required • More space increases transport distances •Unnecessary equipment increases search time for necessary items • An untidy environment can be a safety risk • Aids more systematic maintenance Why Sort?
    10. 10. USAGE FREQUENCY OF USE ACTION Low Things that you have not used in the past year. Things you have only used once in the last 6-12 months. Place into quarentine Store at a distance Medium Things you have only used once in the last 2-6 months. Things used once a month. Store in a central location High Things used once a week. Things used every day. Things used hourly. Store near the workplace or carried by the person Sorting Criteria
    11. 11. “Red tagging” is used where there is any doubt about whether an item:  is needed at all  is needed in that quantity  is located in the right place A red tag is a label with a date and a reason. Establish Red Tag Holding Areas (local and central). Evaluate after a short period and retain, dispose or auction. Red Tagging 11
    12. 12. Name: Date: Item Found …………………………………. ………………………………………………... ………………………………………………… Category (circle one) 1) Raw material 2) Work-in-Progress 3) Finished Goods 4) Tools or Fixtures 5) Surplus Equipment 6) Maintenance or Supplies 7) Office Equipment or Supplies 8) Unknown 9) Other ………………………………….. ……………………………………………… 5S RED TAG Tag No: Area: Qty Disposition (circle one): 1) Scrap (with paperwork) 2) Scrap (no paperwork) 3) Return to supplier 4) Move to Red Tag area 5) Move to: ………………………………..…Storage Area 6) Store in Work Area 7) Other ……………………………… ……………………………………………… 5S RED TAG Reason Tagged (circle as appropriate): 1) Not needed in next 30 days 2) Not needed in known future 3) Defective 4) Surplus 5) No needed now (service only) 6) Need identification 7) Other ……………………………………. …………………………………………………. Other ………………………………….. Disposition by: (Date) Disposed by: Disposal Date:
    13. 13. 13 • Analyse the present situation • Develop a standard storage policy • Develop fixed locations • Keep to storage rules 2 -Straighten (organise)
    14. 14. 14 • Anyone should be able to find equipment or material • Reduces time spent searching for items • Improves safety • Makes the job easier • Starts the process of standardisation Why Straighten?
    15. 15. 15 • Bring up to an ideal standard • Allocate roles and responsibilities • Be systematic • Deal with problems before they become serious 3 – Shine (clean)
    16. 16. 16 • Has a direct impact on quality • Has a direct impact on efficiency • Has a direct impact on health and safety • Increases morale Why Shine?
    17. 17. 17 • Develop an agreed way of doing things • Use visual management for continuous improvement • Consider exceptions and emergencies • Use labels for tasks and responsibilities 4 – Standardise (conform)
    18. 18. 18 • Everyone will know what has to be done •Everyone will know when and how things should be done • Changes of role or task are made easier • New personnel will know what is expected Why Standardise?
    19. 19. 19 • Develop simple clear instructions • Consider realistic expectations • Involve those actually carrying out the tasks • Carry out regular audits 5 – Self Discipline (custom)
    20. 20. 20 • There is always room for improvement • Training and discipline contribute to overall success • Good working habits ensure efficient and effective working • Productivity and efficiency will remain high Why have Self Discipline?
    21. 21. Changes should be reflected in the amended Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) Standard Operation Sheet No . Revision Date S/ V Operation No. Operation Name Safety critical Area Dept . Sheet of Date Prepared by No . Main step No . Operation Description Key Points Reason for key points/sketches Protective clothing Jigs/Tools Quality checks Training comments Authorisation Sustaining – The SOP
    22. 22. Visual information – just means any information that you can see that helps you to understand the current state of something ‘at a glance’ – and to modify your behaviour accordingly. Visual control – includes any situation where visual information helps you to manage a task. For example, the dials on a car dashboard help you to control your speed and other aspects of performance. Visual Management
    23. 23. 24 Simple signs and signposts, traffic lights, ‘cats’ eyes’ lines on the road or the safety message on a new gadget. Everyone makes wide use of visual information in everyday living. Everyday Visual Management
    24. 24. These are just some common workplace examples: • Checklist • Colour coding • Floor markings • Safety diagrams • Shadow boards & Footprints • Skills matrix • Standard operating procedure (SOP) Workplace Visual Management
    25. 25. Note the curved mirror to identify FLT and vehicle movements when entering a hazardous area Example
    26. 26. Warning Informing:- safety checks Example
    27. 27. Example Shadow boards make it easy for anyone to find, use and return items.
    28. 28. Example 5S Cleaning Station Scheduling board
    29. 29. Example
    30. 30. A display showing the skill status of each team and zone in the workplace, making clear at a glance the skills available. Name Skill Hydraulics Pneumatics Communications COSHHRegulations Electrics Electronics Computerskills Robotics Ian Jones Frank Smith Charlie Capon Alan Dale James Miller Example
    31. 31. Job Name Wash Dishes Dry Dishes Put Dishes Away Clean Benches S. Smith I L I J. Bloggs U U U D. Carr L L T. Price I I Blank = Can not do L = Can do with occasional reference to Std Op U = Is fully competent I = Is currently under training = Can train others The Skills Matrix
    32. 32. • Standardisation – wherever possible visual displays should have a similar layout. • Format – should be the same wherever possible. • Positioning – information on the same subject should be placed in the same position on each display. • Relevance – should be agreed in advance. No point in cluttering the place up with irrelevant information. • Type of information – should describe workplace activities and results that are relevant to the target audience. Effective Display
    33. 33. 34 Visual management is not a form of decoration to make the place look more attractive! To be effective it has to be properly designed and involves thinking about: • The purpose that it is to serve (Why?) • The target audience and ensuring ‘ownership’ (Who?) • Selecting a suitable medium and style (How?) • Selecting the best location (Where?) • Choosing the content (What?) Displaying Visual Management
    34. 34. 35 At workplace level an important element of any visual management system should be displays that show: • What the workplace is expected to achieve in terms of management objectives. Where are we going? • How the workplace is performing in relation to its targets. Are we heading in the right direction? • What the current state of play looks like. Are things on track? Displaying Visual Management
    35. 35. Systems indicating the direction of flow of people and goods. Operation Operation Operation Stock A Stock B Transport Systems indicating how to get to plant wide facilities, canteen or learning centre. Reception Learning centre Example
    36. 36. A standard format for all standard operation sheets – so that key features and safety reminders are always in the same style and location. Standard Operation Sheet No . Revision Date S/ V Operation No. Operation Name Safety critical Area Dept . Sheet of Date Prepared by No . Main step No . Operation Description Key Points Reason for key points/sketches Protective clothing Jigs/Tools Quality checks Training comments Authorisation Example
    37. 37. Kaizen boards in the workplace showing the results to date of the various kaizen activities that have been undertaken and the productivity gains resulting from these efforts. Example
    38. 38. 39 The visual display board - the use of charts, graphs and simple bullet points. The aim is to tell all members of staff: • New product information • Levels of quality at the workplace • Health & Safety information Example • Company performance.
    39. 39. 40 Visual Display Boards
    40. 40. Visual Display Boards Historical trend data (weekly / monthly) Current real time data (hourly / shift by cause) Improvement Activity Actions / Status
    41. 41. What’s the Difference?
    42. 42. 43 What is a Standard Operation? 43 “The best method currently available to perform a specific task, ensuring that safety, quality, cost and delivery targets are achieved.”
    43. 43. Quality Cost Delivery Man Machine Material Method Defined by the standard operation It combines the inputs of man, machine and materials in a safe and repeatable manner. The Standard Operation?
    44. 44. • Reduces variation • Maintains quality • Acts as an audit tool • Can be used as a staff training tool • Means of standardisation • A platform for improvement The Function of the SOP The Standard Operation is the cornerstone of all continuous improvement activities.
    45. 45. Being able to offer the same consistent product of the same or better quality at a lower cost than a rival company. And…. • Health & Safety is ensured/improved • Costs can be controlled • Quality standards are met • Delivery targets are met and can be controlled Why Standardise?
    46. 46. • Guarantees that the product is made to the required quality standard. • Uses the minimum of effort, tools, power and materials. • Keeps the workplace organised and tidy. • Can be followed by any employee given training. • Best method currently available. Benefits of SOP’s
    47. 47. • A means of recording all standard operating criteria • Presents the information in a structured, chronological • format • Contains all information required to perform a task • Highlights key points – safety, quality, cost and delivery • A ‘live’ document The Standard Operation Sheet
    48. 48. Example
    49. 49. The seven steps: 1. Analyse the operation 2. Develop best current method 3. Review and confirm 4. Identify main steps 5. Identify key points 6. Review and confirm 7. Add additional information Developing the SOP
    50. 50. Key points should re-iterate any action which may affect: • Quality • Safety • Delivery / Cycle time • Cost Explain the reason for any key point on the SOP. Key Points
    51. 51. Four principles: • Reduce the number of motions • Perform motions simultaneously • Shorten distances • Make motions easier Motion Economy
    52. 52. • The Standard Operation is not carved in stone. • To ensure we always operate best current method: • The Standard Operation must be reviewed on a regular basis • Any new methods must be evaluated • Any improvements should be adopted • Sheets must be revised and approved • Appropriate operators should be retrained or their skill matrix reduced accordingly. Maintaining the SOP
    53. 53. • To ensure it is still the ‘Best Current Method’ • To evaluate and adopt new methods • To support continuous improvement • To support cost reduction • To improve quality • To assure safety • To improve efficiency • To ensure staff are still working to current Standard Operation Why is maintenance of the SOP so Important?
    54. 54. Takt Time • Derived from the German word for metronome • Rate of production required to achieve customer demand • Producing above Takt time is as wasteful as being late Available Time Customer Demand = ‘X’ seconds per unit
    55. 55. Line Balancing Line balancing can be used to optimise three general areas: • Operators • Production • Takt time (production matched to customer demand) Operators Time Operators Takt Time Takt Time X
    56. 56. CI and Teamwork Ideas Person Problem Solver Investigator Implementer Specialist Co-ordinator
    57. 57. Team Roles Most people have a preferred role when working as part of a team. • Leader • Doer • Thinker • Carer
    58. 58. What makes a good Leader? A good leader has the ability to: Communicate Motivate Listen Problem Solve Organise Coach Manage time (their own and others)
    59. 59. Leadership v Management Leadership • Creating a Vision • Energising • Inspiring • Motivating • Creating a Culture • Management Management • Planning • Organising • Co-ordinating • Controlling
    60. 60. Leadership Styles Directive: Letting team members know what the leader expects Giving specific guidance Scheduling and co-ordinating work Supportive: Treating members as equals Showing concern for needs and welfare Creating a friendly working climate
    61. 61. Leadership Styles Achievement orientated: Setting challenging goals and SMART targets Seeking performance improvements Emphasising excellence in performance Participative: Consulting subordinates Taking opinions into account Authority: The power or right to give orders or make decisions
    62. 62. There are four elements of communication: • the sender • the receiver • the subject • the method of communication How well we feel we communicate depends on aspects of all of these elements and is based on our experience. Elements of Communication
    63. 63. Effective Communication is the transfer of information, ideas and emotions to achieve mutual understanding. Effective Communication Working relationships can be affected by: • behaviour, dress and language • not sharing knowledge and information • not keeping others involved in plans or activities • disruption caused by inopportune request for assistance
    64. 64. CI and Teamwork Time Priorities Responsibilities Barriers = Conflict of Interests
    65. 65. By the end of the session participants will be able to: Explain the qualities required in leading and participating in CI teams. Recognise the benefits of an organised workplace. Identify a range of visual management techniques. Understand the importance of a standard method of working. Understand takt time and line balancing activities. Session Objectives

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