Urban AgricultureTurning an urban homestead into an integrated and           sustainable, social enterprise.      Restorin...
Workshop Agenda•   Permaculture Design Principals•   Edible Landscaping•   LED Grow Lights•   Solar Greenhouses•   Living ...
Permaculture = "permanent" & “culture."Its roots evolve from• the design of sustainable   agricultural systems,• technique...
Permaculture Ethics        and Guiding PrinciplesPermaculture Ethics• Care of land;• Care of people;• Reduce  consumption ...
Principle 1:    Ethics, care of land and peopleCaring for the land,people and all lifewould be astep forward for all.
Principle 2:              Relative locationThe strategic selectionand placement ofplants, animals,structures, etc., so tha...
Principle 3:    Multiple functions, single elementEvery element shouldprovide at least threefunctions.•   A "living" fence...
Principle 4:   Multiple elements, single functionMultiple elements for a singlefunction adds diversity and makesthe local ...
Principle 5:           Efficient energy planningThe goal is to help reducethe amount of effort(primarily human labour)The ...
Zones and Sectors                                 Sectors take into•   Zone Zero - Home             consideration the•    ...
Principle 6:             Biological resources• Move away from  monocultures.• Mimic the diversity and  resistant qualities...
Principle 7:                 Energy recyclingEnergy flowing through thesystem is used in many ways.• Water systems might c...
Principle 8:                Maximize diversity• Build stability by maximizing  diversity, in terms of plants  animals and ...
Principle 9:                    StackingStack elements in verticaland horizontal space aswell as in time to grow asmuch as...
Principle 10:          Appropriate technologyUse implements that are                              E.F Schumacher,locally m...
Principle 11:                            ScaleReturn to smaller scaletechnology and a balancewith technical diversity.http...
Mollisons 7 Permaculture Laws• (1) Everything is  connected to  everything else.• (2) Everything gardens.
Mollisons 7 Permaculture Laws(3) Yield of a system is   theoretically unlimited.   Limited only by the   imagination and  ...
Mollisons 7 Permaculture Laws5) The problem is in the   solution, or everything   works both ways.   Problems turned into ...
Mollisons 7 Permaculture Laws(7) Work with nature   instead of against it.
Edible Landscaping
Optimizing Use of Small Space
Vertical Gardens
Outdoor Vertical Summer Gardens
Experimental Outdoor,   Year-round Wall
Vertical Herb and Flower Garden
Fruit                BlueberriesBlack Current                                 Haskap Berries                Haskap Berries
Haskap Hedge with SedumBlack Currant in Foreground
Haskap Berry
Propagating Black Currants
Rhubarb & Fiddleheads
Rhubarb
Hops(1/8 acre: 500# flowers/100,000 litres of beer)
Agro-Forestry
Food Forest Garden Plant List  Mulberry          Black                    Raspberry
Food Forest Garden Plant ListCherry                   Heartnut               Asian Pears          European Pears
Food Forest Garden Plant List   Plums                    Plumcots  Chum                 Apple
Food Forest Garden Plant List                    ApricotDwarf Peach                    Nectarine         Seaberry
Food Forest Garden Berry ListAlmonds       Aronia - Choke                             Plant    Quince          Shipova – P...
Food Forest Garden Plant List                               PawpawPersimmon                Gooseberries
Apple Trellis System
Grape Trellised on HouseSpring 2012        August 2012
Grape Arbour
Kiwi Arbour andStraw bale Garden
Hardy Kiwi and Rhubarb
Straw bale Garden
Container Grown Mint
Wild Mint
Edible Landscape Video Linkshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t2bvThJn9gQhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tQDISDZnpPwhttp://www...
LED Grow Lights
11’x15’ Indoor Grow Room; 154 mature plantsThere is a capacity for mature 400 plants, using the same systems, in this room...
LEDs for Home andCommercial Gardening
Omega Gardenhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=84zh7XL15n8&feature=related
Self-watering Planter1             23             4
Planters on Decks
Structures
Small-scale Coops & ‘Tractors’
Root Cellars      rootcellarsrock.ca/food-skills-workshops/http://
Rooftops
Green, Green, Greenhouse
Shed & Hydro-Garden
Gardens & Sheds
Insulated Cold frames        April
Insulated Cold frames         May
Insulated Cold frames        June
Livestock                      QuailChicken                              Partridge
WormsRed Wiggler Worms                    Common Earthworms
Bees
Urban Bee Yard
Indoor Wall Mounted    Observation Hive‘www.bonterrabees.com’
Solar Greenhouse Rules of ThumbDesign:•If the greenhouse is longer than 16ft., the East and West walls should besolid.•For...
Solar Greenhouse Rules of ThumbFoundation:•For a greenhouse less than 300sq. ft. should be attached, a pit or dug intothe ...
Solar Greenhouse Rules of ThumbHeat Storage:•Choose building materials that absorb heat quickly.•Use as much storage as po...
Solar Greenhouse Rules of ThumbPlant Care:•If the greenhouse faces 15 degrees east of south, it will benefit plantresponse...
Solar Greenhouse Rules of ThumbVentilation:•Vents should equal 1/6 of the floor area with uppers of 1/3 larger than thelow...
THE PEI ARK – an early exploration in weaving together thesun, wind, biology, and architecture on behalf of humanity.
Outdoor algae ponds
Ark – Kitchen Garden
Ark Commercial Garden
Ark Garden with Aquaculture           Tanks
Bedding Plants
Veggie Greens
The PEI ArkActive and Passive Solar       Bioshelter
Helen and Scott Nearing ‘Living the Good Life’
Nearing ‘Sun-Heated Greenhouse’
Nearings Forest FarmHarbourside, Maine
The ‘New Garden House’
Helen and Scott Nearing Greenhouse        Harbourside, Maine
Aquaponic Container Farmhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yKEIkc98qtE&feature=player_embedded#!
Aquaponicshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mCCN4nq7BlQ&feature=share
Attached Solar/Aquaponic      Greenhouse
Green Roof Systems
Vertical Gardens and Green Roofs See: www.atlanticlivingwalls.ca         and www.ibspei.ca
Grow Your Own MushroomsOyster       Shitake
First Mushroom Harvest
Mushrooms
Ethnic Crops                         Pak ChoiIndian Carrots                       Chinese Cabbage  Chinese Mustard
Ethnic CropsJapanese Spinach     Kohlrabi            Chinese Radish
Ethnic Crops              Celtuce                                       Japanese                                       Tur...
Japanese Egg Plant                     Okra  Daikon Radish
Urban Agriculture – Be Careful     What You Wish For
Urban Agriculture –Be Careful What You     Wish For
Social Enterprise inthe Age of Responsibility
Key Principles in the       Age of ResponsibilityConsidered Design-       Less energy, less waste, reusable resources•Elim...
In the Age of Responsibility the company contributes to and becomes part of the community. It is not just something to inv...
Consultation, Design and        Project ManagementCommunity and Corporate Social Responsibility,Urban Homesteading and Far...
Thank You Restoring Community, Protecting the Land    and Informing the Earth’s Stewards     114 Upper Prince Street, Char...
Urban Agriculure
Urban Agriculure
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Urban Agriculure

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Presented at the Opening of the Urban Agriculture Summit, Toronto; August, 2012

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Urban Agriculure

  1. 1. Urban AgricultureTurning an urban homestead into an integrated and sustainable, social enterprise. Restoring Community, Protecting the Land and Informing the Earth’s Stewards 114 Upper Prince Street, Charlottetown Prince Edward Island, Canada C1A4S3 Phone: (902) 367-0390; E-mail: ibs_pei@yahoo.com www.ibspei.ca
  2. 2. Workshop Agenda• Permaculture Design Principals• Edible Landscaping• LED Grow Lights• Solar Greenhouses• Living Walls and Rooftop Gardens• Social Enterprise• Urban Homestead Design
  3. 3. Permaculture = "permanent" & “culture."Its roots evolve from• the design of sustainable agricultural systems,• techniques and principles of ecologically designed communities,• urban restoration and self-reliant regions.in such a way that all life benefits (i.e. human and non-human).
  4. 4. Permaculture Ethics and Guiding PrinciplesPermaculture Ethics• Care of land;• Care of people;• Reduce consumption and share surplus.
  5. 5. Principle 1: Ethics, care of land and peopleCaring for the land,people and all lifewould be astep forward for all.
  6. 6. Principle 2: Relative locationThe strategic selectionand placement ofplants, animals,structures, etc., so thatthe yields of oneelement becomethe requirements for What does the chicken produce that can be used by other elements in the design?another element
  7. 7. Principle 3: Multiple functions, single elementEvery element shouldprovide at least threefunctions.• A "living" fence can act as a barrier, act as a windbreak, and provide food and medicine for the family.• When designed into a system, bees can provide; food, income, and pollination.
  8. 8. Principle 4: Multiple elements, single functionMultiple elements for a singlefunction adds diversity and makesthe local ecosystem moreresilient to environmentalfluctuations.For instance, for heating a structure,the elements would include:• body heat from animals,• south facing windows, and• the use of thermal mass to store the collected heat.
  9. 9. Principle 5: Efficient energy planningThe goal is to help reducethe amount of effort(primarily human labour)The property is divided intozones related to howfrequently each zone is visited.The more intensive the activitythe closer to human habitationit should be.
  10. 10. Zones and Sectors Sectors take into• Zone Zero - Home consideration the• natural elements and Zone One – Home Garden wildlife.• Zone Two – Home Orchard• Zone Three – Farm• Zone Four – Managed Forest• Zone Five - Wilderness
  11. 11. Principle 6: Biological resources• Move away from monocultures.• Mimic the diversity and resistant qualities of natural systems.• Focus on utilizing energy flows (water, wind, etc.) that pass through a region.
  12. 12. Principle 7: Energy recyclingEnergy flowing through thesystem is used in many ways.• Water systems might create keyline swales and dams as it passes through the landscape.• Energy recycling would also include recovering biogas from waste and orientating structures to obtain maximum solar gain.
  13. 13. Principle 8: Maximize diversity• Build stability by maximizing diversity, in terms of plants animals and in terms of livelihood.• Maximize the number of beneficial interactions• Create as many microsites, and habitats as possible by increasing edges, patterns, and plant guilds.
  14. 14. Principle 9: StackingStack elements in verticaland horizontal space aswell as in time to grow asmuch as possible in avertical plane so largerareas of land can beput back into a morenatural state in the hopeof healing the planet.
  15. 15. Principle 10: Appropriate technologyUse implements that are E.F Schumacher,locally made, can be ‘Small is Beautiful’repaired locally, and usedwith the skills of localpeople.Also, have less reliance onfossil fuels.
  16. 16. Principle 11: ScaleReturn to smaller scaletechnology and a balancewith technical diversity.http://www.ferrari-tractors.com/smallscale.htm
  17. 17. Mollisons 7 Permaculture Laws• (1) Everything is connected to everything else.• (2) Everything gardens.
  18. 18. Mollisons 7 Permaculture Laws(3) Yield of a system is theoretically unlimited. Limited only by the imagination and experience of the designer.(4) "Protracted and thoughtful observation, rather than protracted and thoughtless labour."
  19. 19. Mollisons 7 Permaculture Laws5) The problem is in the solution, or everything works both ways. Problems turned into assets and wastes into resources.(6) Stay out of the bush; it is already in good order.
  20. 20. Mollisons 7 Permaculture Laws(7) Work with nature instead of against it.
  21. 21. Edible Landscaping
  22. 22. Optimizing Use of Small Space
  23. 23. Vertical Gardens
  24. 24. Outdoor Vertical Summer Gardens
  25. 25. Experimental Outdoor, Year-round Wall
  26. 26. Vertical Herb and Flower Garden
  27. 27. Fruit BlueberriesBlack Current Haskap Berries Haskap Berries
  28. 28. Haskap Hedge with SedumBlack Currant in Foreground
  29. 29. Haskap Berry
  30. 30. Propagating Black Currants
  31. 31. Rhubarb & Fiddleheads
  32. 32. Rhubarb
  33. 33. Hops(1/8 acre: 500# flowers/100,000 litres of beer)
  34. 34. Agro-Forestry
  35. 35. Food Forest Garden Plant List Mulberry Black Raspberry
  36. 36. Food Forest Garden Plant ListCherry Heartnut Asian Pears European Pears
  37. 37. Food Forest Garden Plant List Plums Plumcots Chum Apple
  38. 38. Food Forest Garden Plant List ApricotDwarf Peach Nectarine Seaberry
  39. 39. Food Forest Garden Berry ListAlmonds Aronia - Choke Plant Quince Shipova – Pear x Mtn Ash
  40. 40. Food Forest Garden Plant List PawpawPersimmon Gooseberries
  41. 41. Apple Trellis System
  42. 42. Grape Trellised on HouseSpring 2012 August 2012
  43. 43. Grape Arbour
  44. 44. Kiwi Arbour andStraw bale Garden
  45. 45. Hardy Kiwi and Rhubarb
  46. 46. Straw bale Garden
  47. 47. Container Grown Mint
  48. 48. Wild Mint
  49. 49. Edible Landscape Video Linkshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t2bvThJn9gQhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tQDISDZnpPwhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yKwJ6pIWqLwhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OSsCvpDbMW8 Books by Rosalind Creasy
  50. 50. LED Grow Lights
  51. 51. 11’x15’ Indoor Grow Room; 154 mature plantsThere is a capacity for mature 400 plants, using the same systems, in this room and still have room for a four trier germination rack
  52. 52. LEDs for Home andCommercial Gardening
  53. 53. Omega Gardenhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=84zh7XL15n8&feature=related
  54. 54. Self-watering Planter1 23 4
  55. 55. Planters on Decks
  56. 56. Structures
  57. 57. Small-scale Coops & ‘Tractors’
  58. 58. Root Cellars rootcellarsrock.ca/food-skills-workshops/http://
  59. 59. Rooftops
  60. 60. Green, Green, Greenhouse
  61. 61. Shed & Hydro-Garden
  62. 62. Gardens & Sheds
  63. 63. Insulated Cold frames April
  64. 64. Insulated Cold frames May
  65. 65. Insulated Cold frames June
  66. 66. Livestock QuailChicken Partridge
  67. 67. WormsRed Wiggler Worms Common Earthworms
  68. 68. Bees
  69. 69. Urban Bee Yard
  70. 70. Indoor Wall Mounted Observation Hive‘www.bonterrabees.com’
  71. 71. Solar Greenhouse Rules of ThumbDesign:•If the greenhouse is longer than 16ft., the East and West walls should besolid.•For maximum solar heat gain, the glazed, south side should be tilted to thesame degree latitude you are located at, plus 15 degrees.•For maximum solar benefit on plant growth the glazed, south side should betilted to latitude plus 5 degrees•Snow can reflect 50 more total radiation through a vertical wall than a tiltedwall can transmit.•The angle of the north roof should approximate 30 degrees to reflect lightdown on the inside.•There should be a double doorway/vestibule on the main entrance if thegreenhouse is not attached to another building.•Insulate with R-20 in the walls and R-40 the roof.
  72. 72. Solar Greenhouse Rules of ThumbFoundation:•For a greenhouse less than 300sq. ft. should be attached, a pit or dug intothe side of a hill.•The floor in a five foot deep pit (no wider than 12ft.) will average 40-50degrees Fahrenheit, year round; providing warmth in the winter and coolingin the summer.Glazing:•Glazing should equal at least 1/4 of the total floor area.•R-12 insulation over the glazing for 14 hours will reduce the buildings heatloss by one half.•The south wall should be double glazed.•The east and west walls should be a triple glazed.•The north wall should be insulated and painted white.
  73. 73. Solar Greenhouse Rules of ThumbHeat Storage:•Choose building materials that absorb heat quickly.•Use as much storage as possible.•Use at least 1/2 cubic foot of stone or 4 gallons of water/sq.ft. of glazing•Insulate the perimeters of the foundation.•If it gets above 90 degrees in December, January, or February morestorage is needed.•Provide heat storage directly below plants.•Rocks 3/4 of an inch to 1 1/2 inches in diameter are most suitable forstorage bins.•The surface area of the storage should be at least equal to the floor area.Location:•The greenhouse should face within 30 degrees of true south.•No obstruction as tall as the greenhouse should be within 4 1/2 times theheight of the house.•Provide a wind break on the north side with trees, buildings, or hills.•If the floor area is less than 200sq. ft., the greenhouse should be attachedto another building.
  74. 74. Solar Greenhouse Rules of ThumbPlant Care:•If the greenhouse faces 15 degrees east of south, it will benefit plantresponse to light intensity.•Red and blue light from painted walls will promote healthy growth andearlier flowering.•Plants prefer fluctuating temperatures from day to night.•Water once/ day during summer and once/ week during winter.Solar Heat Benefit:•During the day a greenhouse can put excess heat into an attachedbuilding heating an area over twice its own size.•A greenhouse will raise the humidity of an attached structure about 5percent.•An attached greenhouse is usually cooler than a freestanding structuresince 10-15 percent of the suns radiation is blocked by the adjoiningstructure.
  75. 75. Solar Greenhouse Rules of ThumbVentilation:•Vents should equal 1/6 of the floor area with uppers of 1/3 larger than thelowers.•Fans regulating air flow should circulate four(4) cubic feet per square foot ofglazing per minute.•Low vent windows should swing open at the top to aid thermo-circulation anddeter low flying insects from entering the house.•Upper vents should be located along the upper ridge or on opposite side wallthat a lower vent/door is located.
  76. 76. THE PEI ARK – an early exploration in weaving together thesun, wind, biology, and architecture on behalf of humanity.
  77. 77. Outdoor algae ponds
  78. 78. Ark – Kitchen Garden
  79. 79. Ark Commercial Garden
  80. 80. Ark Garden with Aquaculture Tanks
  81. 81. Bedding Plants
  82. 82. Veggie Greens
  83. 83. The PEI ArkActive and Passive Solar Bioshelter
  84. 84. Helen and Scott Nearing ‘Living the Good Life’
  85. 85. Nearing ‘Sun-Heated Greenhouse’
  86. 86. Nearings Forest FarmHarbourside, Maine
  87. 87. The ‘New Garden House’
  88. 88. Helen and Scott Nearing Greenhouse Harbourside, Maine
  89. 89. Aquaponic Container Farmhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yKEIkc98qtE&feature=player_embedded#!
  90. 90. Aquaponicshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mCCN4nq7BlQ&feature=share
  91. 91. Attached Solar/Aquaponic Greenhouse
  92. 92. Green Roof Systems
  93. 93. Vertical Gardens and Green Roofs See: www.atlanticlivingwalls.ca and www.ibspei.ca
  94. 94. Grow Your Own MushroomsOyster Shitake
  95. 95. First Mushroom Harvest
  96. 96. Mushrooms
  97. 97. Ethnic Crops Pak ChoiIndian Carrots Chinese Cabbage Chinese Mustard
  98. 98. Ethnic CropsJapanese Spinach Kohlrabi Chinese Radish
  99. 99. Ethnic Crops Celtuce Japanese Turnip RapiniChinese Broccoli
  100. 100. Japanese Egg Plant Okra Daikon Radish
  101. 101. Urban Agriculture – Be Careful What You Wish For
  102. 102. Urban Agriculture –Be Careful What You Wish For
  103. 103. Social Enterprise inthe Age of Responsibility
  104. 104. Key Principles in the Age of ResponsibilityConsidered Design- Less energy, less waste, reusable resources•Eliminate Waste,•Generate Benign Emissions,•Use Renewable Energy,•Close the Loop on Production,•Use Resource Efficient Transportation,•Sensitize Stakeholders,•Redesign CommerceLife Cycle Assessment and Biomimicry
  105. 105. In the Age of Responsibility the company contributes to and becomes part of the community. It is not just something to invest in or work at. It is something to believe in. To:From: •Collaborative Partnerships•Paternalistic Philanthropy •Reward-based Proactive•Risk-based Defensive Strategies Responses •Scalable•Marginal impacts •Global Consciousness•Western view •Service-based, take-back•Obsolete Products economy•Annual CSR reports •On-line, real time data flows•Stakeholder groups •Social networks•CSR Departments •CSR Incentives•Brand/Image Public Relations •Social, Environmental, and Ethical Performance
  106. 106. Consultation, Design and Project ManagementCommunity and Corporate Social Responsibility,Urban Homesteading and Farming,Green Roofs and Living Walls,Solar Greenhouses,Aquaponics,Contact:The Institute for Bioregional Studies Ltd. www.ibspei.ca; phil@ibspei.ca
  107. 107. Thank You Restoring Community, Protecting the Land and Informing the Earth’s Stewards 114 Upper Prince Street, Charlottetown Prince Edward Island, Canada C1A4S3Phone: (902) 367-0390; E-mail: ibs_pei@yahoo.com www.ibspei.ca

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