Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Value Sensitive Design: Four
Challenges




Ibo van de Poel
Associate professor Delft University of Technology
Fellow-in-r...
What is value-sensitive design
 (VSD)?

• Systematic attempt to include values of ethical
  importance in design

• Three ...
Why VSD?

• Design is about changing the world
   • Inherently normative

• Designers have being doing it all the time
   ...
Four challenges for VSD


• What values to include in design?
• How to make these values bear on the design process?
• How...
The challenges

• Seem practical in nature
• But each of them is related to a deeper underlying
  philosophical problem
• ...
Philosophical issues

• What values to include in design?
   • What are values? Are they objective or subjective?
• How to...
1st challenge

Sources of values in design:

•    Design brief (motivation of project)
•    Designers (and their professio...
What values to include?

• This is a normative question

• Sources provide first approximation, but how to
  decide:
   • ...
Correspondence between values and
 reasons

V: If x is valuable or is a value one has reasons for a
   positive response (...
Possible positive responses

•    Increase
•    Maximize
•    Respect
•    Protect
•    Admire
•    Enjoy

• What response...
Examples of some appropriate
 responses in design

• Safety
   • Respect safety margins
   • Maximize overall safety
• Dem...
What values to include in design?

• (v) is helpful
   • To distinguish ‘real’ values from ‘mere’ values
   • To determine...
2nd challenge

• How to make values bear on the design process?

• Might require closing gap between humanities/social
  s...
Design requirements

• Desirable characteristics of the designed system

• Usually formulated at start of design process b...
Values hierarchy




May 16, 2010        15
Example of values hierarchy




May 16, 2010                   16
Constructing a values hierarchy

• Can be done top-down and bottom-up
• Usually combination and iterative process

• Top-d...
Specification

• Non-deductive
• Context-dependent
• Adds information
   • Scope of norm
   • Specification of goals
   • ...
For the sake of

• Higher level elements provide reasons for striving for
  lower level elements

• “For the sake of” rela...
Third challenge


• How to make choices and tradeoffs between conflicting
  values?

• Incommensurable values
• For how mu...
Non optimizing approaches to value
conflict in engineering

• Satisficing
• Reasoning about values
• Diversity

• Maximizi...
4th challenge: How to verify whether the
  designed system embodies the intended values?


• Can technology embody values?...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Value Sensitive Design: Four Challenges

3,748 views

Published on

Ibo van de Poel's fPET-2010 presentation

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Value Sensitive Design: Four Challenges

  1. 1. Value Sensitive Design: Four Challenges Ibo van de Poel Associate professor Delft University of Technology Fellow-in-residence Netherlands Institute of Advanced Studies May 16, 2010 1
  2. 2. What is value-sensitive design (VSD)? • Systematic attempt to include values of ethical importance in design • Three types of investigations: • Empirical • Conceptual • Technical/engineering May 16, 2010 2
  3. 3. Why VSD? • Design is about changing the world • Inherently normative • Designers have being doing it all the time • But make more explicit, transparent and systematic • Improve design • Include values that have not been commonly included so far May 16, 2010 3
  4. 4. Four challenges for VSD • What values to include in design? • How to make these values bear on the design process? • How to make choices and tradeoffs between conflicting values? • How to verify whether the designed system embodies the intended values?
  5. 5. The challenges • Seem practical in nature • But each of them is related to a deeper underlying philosophical problem • My aim: • clarify problems and show ways for dealing with them or even avoiding them. • No clear-cut methodology for engineers
  6. 6. Philosophical issues • What values to include in design? • What are values? Are they objective or subjective? • How to make these values bear on the design process? • How to bridge the gap between world of ideas and world of things? • How to make choices and tradeoffs between conflicting values? • Do incommensurable values preclude optimizing? • How to verify whether the designed system embodies the intended values? • Can technology embody values?
  7. 7. 1st challenge Sources of values in design: • Design brief (motivation of project) • Designers (and their professional community) • Users and stakeholders • Codes of ethics, codes & standards, law, society May 16, 2010 7
  8. 8. What values to include? • This is a normative question • Sources provide first approximation, but how to decide: • What values are worth including and which ones not? May 16, 2010 8
  9. 9. Correspondence between values and reasons V: If x is valuable or is a value one has reasons for a positive response (a pro-attitude or a pro-behavior) towards x May 16, 2010 9
  10. 10. Possible positive responses • Increase • Maximize • Respect • Protect • Admire • Enjoy • What response is appropriate will usually depend on value and the context May 16, 2010 10
  11. 11. Examples of some appropriate responses in design • Safety • Respect safety margins • Maximize overall safety • Democracy • Involve stakeholders in the design process • Design criteria for democratic technologies (Sclove) May 16, 2010 11
  12. 12. What values to include in design? • (v) is helpful • To distinguish ‘real’ values from ‘mere’ values • To determine appropriate response • But: • Requires judgment • Room for (rational) discussion and disagreement May 16, 2010 12
  13. 13. 2nd challenge • How to make values bear on the design process? • Might require closing gap between humanities/social sciences (value inquiries) and engineering/sciences • Now: focus on translation of values into design requirements
  14. 14. Design requirements • Desirable characteristics of the designed system • Usually formulated at start of design process but may be reformulated during design • Set is often incomplete and potentially conflicting • Hierarchically structured
  15. 15. Values hierarchy May 16, 2010 15
  16. 16. Example of values hierarchy May 16, 2010 16
  17. 17. Constructing a values hierarchy • Can be done top-down and bottom-up • Usually combination and iterative process • Top-down: specification • Bottom-up: for the sake of May 16, 2010 17
  18. 18. Specification • Non-deductive • Context-dependent • Adds information • Scope of norm • Specification of goals • Specification of means • Adequacy: does meeting lower level norms count as an instance of meeting higher level norm or value? May 16, 2010 18
  19. 19. For the sake of • Higher level elements provide reasons for striving for lower level elements • “For the sake of” relation is antisymmetrical • Higher level elements done for their own sake: intrinsic value May 16, 2010 19
  20. 20. Third challenge • How to make choices and tradeoffs between conflicting values? • Incommensurable values • For how much money are you willing to betray your friend? • Incommensurable values preclude optimizing • MCDM, QFD, Pugh charts, AHP
  21. 21. Non optimizing approaches to value conflict in engineering • Satisficing • Reasoning about values • Diversity • Maximizing is not the (only) appropriate response to all values
  22. 22. 4th challenge: How to verify whether the designed system embodies the intended values? • Can technology embody values? • Same technology in different (cultural) contexts realizes different values • But differently designed technologies (with same function) in same user practice also realize different values • Values embodied in “technology + user practice”

×