SSTRM - - HSI Linda Bossi


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  • What is Human Systems Integration? A Model for Considering the Soldier as a System Introduction to Workshop Themes Physical Ergonomics and Integration on the Soldier Cognitive Ergonomics and Integration on the Soldier System Architecture & Interoperability (External Integration) Physical Ergonomics & Integration Challenges Scope – anthro, exercise/work/thermal physiology, physical environment (Noise, Lighting, Thermal, Vibration), biomechanics, load carriage, displays and controls Integration Challenges – see Visioning Workshop slides protection, load,
  • Human Systems Integration : the technical process of integrating the 5 HSI domains with a materiel system to ensure safe, effective operability and supportability of the system: Human Factors Engineering Manpower and Personnel Training System Safety Health Hazard Assessment About overall effectiveness of human-operated systems—socio-technical systems Part of a systems engineering approach
  • Applicable to all systems having a human interface, including hardware and software HFE application to systems design improves ease of use, system performance and reliability & user satisfaction while reducing operational errors, operator stress, training requirements, user fatigue, and product liability HFE is distinctive in being the only discipline that relates humans to technology
  • Applicable to all systems having a human interface, including hardware and software HFE application to systems design improves ease of use, system performance and reliability & user satisfaction while reducing operational errors, operator stress, training requirements, user fatigue, and product liability HFE is distinctive in being the only discipline that relates humans to technology
  • A Model for Considering the Complex Soldier System Scope within each of User/Task/Tools/Environment Interactions between User/Task/Tools/Environment
  • Briefings by: Dave Tack – USMC approach to burden Steve Boyne – PPE Integration Challenges Joan Stevenson – Role of Biomechanics in SSI Linda Bossi – HSI Tools Last half of this talk – focus on anthropometry
  • Presentations that will go into depth in this theme area: Beth Redden – Advanced Interfaces for Dismounted Warfighters Dave Tack – Reqrs for Enhancing Soldier Perception, SA and Cognition David Bryant & Justin Hollands – Decision Aids for Soldiers Francois Bernier – Virtual Simulation for Soldiers Linda Bossi – HSI Tools
  • Presentations that will go into depth in this theme area: Marc-Andre Rochon – Soldier Equipment/Vehicle/Communications Integration Requirements Beth Redden – Advanced Displays Warren Downing – Industry Perspective on soldier system integration Michel Ducharme – Soldier-Vehicle Integration: A TTCP Approach Linda Bossi – HSI Tools
  • 1997 Land Force Anthro Survey 465 males, 243 females 200 traditional measures 2D body and 3D head scans
  • No such thing as a 5 th , 50 th or 95 th percentile soldier! When you hear/read this expression, you need to immediately ask – for which dimension? Canada prefers to specify population accommodation in its acquisition specifications: The “ x ” shall accommodate “ x ”% of the “ x ” population Accomodation implies not only USER fit/adjustability, but also ability to perform the range of TASKS to specific performance standards under the range of ENVIRONMENTS, and with the range of clothing and equipment (TOOLS) with which the item must be compatible
  • Head- Supported Mass Studies: Addition of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kg mass at user preferred CoM Tests included static stand, obstacle course, ½ day platoon missions Measures included EMG & accelerometry, soldier performance, ratings of acceptability Weapon Mass Properties Study Addition of 1.5 kg, 3.0 kg and 4.5 kg to C7 weapon base weight Each weight at each of 3 centres of mass
  • Hit probability when the target passes a 10m wide opening at maximum speed Carrying loads of 20, 32.5 or 45 kg Exposure times when running upright or crouched are marked by vertical or solid red lines respectively
  • SSTRM - - HSI Linda Bossi

    1. 1. Introduction to Workshop Themes & Physical Ergonomics & Integration Challenges Linda Bossi, CD, MSc Human Systems Integration Section DRDC Toronto September 21-22, 2010 Château Cartier Gatineau, Que. Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Human and Systems Integration Workshop
    2. 2. <ul><li>What is Human Systems Integration? </li></ul><ul><li>A Model for Considering the Soldier as a System </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Workshop Themes </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Ergonomics & Integration Challenges </li></ul>OUTLINE
    3. 3. What is HSI? Technical process of integrating 5 HSI domains with a materiel system to ensure safe, effective operability and supportability of the system
    4. 4. <ul><li>Human Factors: Multidisciplinary field incorporating contributions from psychology, engineering, human biology, industrial design, statistics, operations research and anthropometry. </li></ul><ul><li>A term that covers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The science of understanding the properties of human capability (Human Factors Science) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The application of that understanding to the design, development and deployment of systems, processes and work environments (Human Factors Engineering, Ergonomics) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ‘science/art’ of ensuring successful application of HFE to a program (Human Factors Integration, Human Systems Integration) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Human Factors Engineering: Application of knowledge of human characteristics, capabilities, limitations and needs to the specification, design, development, testing and acquisition of products, processes, systems and work environments </li></ul>
    6. 6. A Simple Model for Considering the Complex Soldier System USER TOOLS TASK ENVIRONMENT
    7. 7. Key Challenge – User Complexity and Variability USER Military Occupation Role (rifleman, leader) Perceptual Capabilities : Visual Acuity Colour Vision Eye Dominance Hearing Age Gender Physical Attributes : Size & Shape Strength Fitness Level Handedness Psychological/Cognitive Capabilities : Intellect, Cognitive Style, Information Processing, Decision-making capability, Resilience, etc. Education Training Experience Skills State : Fatigue Hydration Motivation Emotional Arousal
    8. 8. Key Challenge – Task Complexity and Variability USER TASK Type of Mission Phase of Mission Perceptual Tasks (observe) Cognitive Tasks (orient, understand, decide) Physical Tasks (act) Concurrent Tasks Time Pressure Threat Environment Individual & Team Tasks
    9. 9. Key Challenge – Equipment Complexity and Variability USER TOOLS TASK Compatibility vs Integration, Modularity, Scalability, Individual Clothing & Personal Equipment Collective / Team Equipment Legacy vs Future Weapon, Transport, Communication & Battle Management Systems Utility Usability Modality Salience
    10. 10. Key Challenge – Environment Complexity and Variability USER TOOLS TASK ENVIRONMENT Terrain : Slope, Surface, Cover Weather : Temperature Humidity Precipitation Cultural Organizational Training Threat Future Security Environment Lighting : Day/Night Obscurants Noise : Sound Discrimination & Localization Speech Intelligibility Hearing Protection
    11. 11. Can this soldier, with this training, perform this task, to this standard, with this equipment, and under these conditions? USER TOOLS TASK ENVIRONMENT EFFECTIVE SOLDIER SYSTEM INTEGRATION
    12. 12. Workshop Themes <ul><li>Soldier HSI complex and multidisciplinary </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop participant expertise also highly varied, crossing many domains and communities of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Decision to group first break-out discussion along a few key themes/hard problem categories to which a range of DND/industry/ academic participants could contribute </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize that there is significant overlap between these categories since we are considering HSI </li></ul>
    13. 13. Workshop Themes <ul><ul><li>Physical ergonomics and physical integration on the soldier (internal physical integration) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive ‘ergonomics’ and integration with the soldier perceptual/cognitive capabilities (internal psychological integration) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System Architecture and Integration/Operability with other Systems and Processes (external integration) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. 1. Physical Ergonomics & Physical Integration on the Soldier (Internal Physical Integration) <ul><li>Soldier System Physical Characterization (physical environment, behavioural task analyses, user characterisation – size, shape, age, strength, handedness, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Soldier Burden (due to environment/exercise/work/load, physiology, load carriage, biomechanics, thermal, noise, impact of PPE, volume/bulk, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Fit, form, anthropometry, human machine interface </li></ul><ul><li>Physical usability of soldier equipment/components </li></ul><ul><li>Physical compatibility of interfaces, with and between components of the soldier system </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing, Personal Equipment, PPE, personal weapon interface , load carriage, Display and Control hardware design </li></ul><ul><li>Tools and Processes (that help to understand and/or apply the foregoing knowledge areas to the design/acquisition of the physical soldier system, or that help select/train soldiers to improve their op readiness) </li></ul>
    15. 15. 2. Cognitive ‘Ergonomics’ & integration with the soldier psychological capabilities (Internal Psychological Integration) <ul><li>Soldier System Characterization (user perceptual capabilities – vision, hearing; cognitive style, characteristics, intelligence, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of stressors on perception/cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Socio/Psychological Readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Information overload, situation awareness, common operational picture, decision aids </li></ul><ul><li>Devices to enhance or augment soldier perception, understanding and decision-making (e.g., sensors, NVGs, digital maps, blue force tracking, decision aids, Combat ID, augmented cognition, intelligent adaptive interfaces, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Display GUI and content (imagery, information) </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Psychology, Engineering Psychology, Human Computer Interaction, usability engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Tools & Processes (that help us understand and apply knowledge of soldier perceptual/cognitive capabilities in soldier system integration or that help to train/select soldiers to improve their operational readiness) </li></ul>
    16. 16. 3. System Architecture and Integration/ Interoperability with other Systems (External Integration) <ul><li>Integration/ Interoperability with other Platforms and Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weapon systems ( Personal & Crew-Served) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicles & transport platforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C4I Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomous Sensors/Vehicles (UXVs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modularity/Configurability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware integration/optimization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integration with Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HSI within Systems Engineering process, within DND acquisition, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools that facilitate more effective HSI </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive Approach, System of systems </li></ul>
    17. 17. Physical Ergonomics and Physical Integration Challenges <ul><li>Soldier variability (physical characteristics) </li></ul><ul><li>Soldier load </li></ul><ul><li>Trade-offs between protection & mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility between soldier system components </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>1996 Clothed Anthropometry survey </li></ul><ul><li>1997 Survey of the Land Forces </li></ul><ul><li>Additional surveys relevant to specific development efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Development & application of 2D & 3D anthropometry to better characterize shape variability </li></ul><ul><li>3D anthro modelling tools </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing collection of data using whole body scanning system (BoSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Current efforts underway to update soldier anthro data (nude and clothed) </li></ul>Anthropometric Characterization BoSS
    19. 19. Shape Variability (both soldiers have same head breadth) 5 th and 95 th percentile male For head breadth Anthropometric Variability For Head Breadth One size does not fit all!
    20. 20. Percentiles vs Population accommodation For a given male head breadth (153mm) Head length ranges more than 30 mm (183 to 215 mm)
    21. 21. Key Challenge – Soldier Load <ul><li>Based on several key studies, NATO recommends that the maximum load that soldiers should carry for extended periods is 32% of body weight (26.2 kg for 82 kg soldier) </li></ul><ul><li>Yet our soldiers in current operations are carrying (often by choice) significantly heavier loads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra ammunition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spare batteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Added protection to counter new threats </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Perception & acceptance of load by soldiers is complex </li></ul><ul><li>Critical to acceptance of load is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight distribution/ balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design of interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of other environmental stressors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value of the payload to the user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Makes specification of soldier equipment weight problematic (very context dependent) </li></ul><ul><li>Points to the need to be user-centered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>involve representative users, doing representative tasks under realistic conditions as part of system definition, design & selection process </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. How to Address Soldier Load <ul><li>Understand what soldiers are carrying and why </li></ul><ul><li>Understand and model the physiological, biomechanical, task performance implications of loads and load carriage designs </li></ul><ul><li>Understand and model mobility/vulnerability implications of the range of loads carried </li></ul><ul><li>Share this knowledge/models with all stakeholders (DND & industry) </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>Example studies to model/determine weight limits/balance optimization for specific equipment (e.g., head-supported mass, assault rifle mass properties) </li></ul>+ 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 kg mass at user’s preferred centre of mass + 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 kg mass at 3 CoM locations -7cm +7cm CM of Rifle (X=0) Z-Axis Torque L4 T12
    25. 25. Swedish Study (Daniellson 2006)
    26. 26. <ul><li>Require that new equipment incrementally contribute to reduced soldier load </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of novel materials (e.g., caseless ammunition) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or design approaches (e.g., integration, modularity) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider comprehensive approach vice just equipment or technical solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deal with soldier perception of risk (provide SA tools to give soldier ensure reliable resupply) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address reliability of resupply/sustainment system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select bigger stronger soldiers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical training of soldiers? </li></ul></ul>Eg. Scalable head protection
    27. 27. Physical Compatibility <ul><li>Studies of Compatibility between PPE & weapon </li></ul><ul><li>Viability of alternative options for effective integration of increase face/neck/nape protection with weapon butt stocks & sights </li></ul>
    28. 28. QUESTIONS ?