AS / A Level Sport and Physical Education
AS Unit G451 An Introduction to Physical Education

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Today we are going to concentrate on the
joints in the human body.
JOINT- A place where two or more bones
meet.

Previous
...
Types of Joints
There are 3 main types of joint found in the body.
1. Fixed or Immoveable Joints
The bones at an immoveabl...
Joints

CLASSIFICATION OF JOINT BY

STRUCTURE

Fibrous: Have no cavity and are held together
by fibrous connective tissue ...
Joints

CLASSIFICATION OF JOINT BY

MOVEMENT

Fibrous or synarthrosis: Does not allow any
movement, which makes more sense...
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AS Module 1A.6
Joints

JOINT / MOVEMENT TYPES
Joint type

Shape of joint

Ball + socket

ball shaped bone fits

Hinge

convex and concave...
In the picture below the ball and socket joint at the hip allows the player
to get height and then the ball and socket joi...
Hinge joint (the elbow) in use taking a set shot
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The knee (HINGE JOINT) is used when flexing (bending)
and extending (straightening) the leg to kick a football
Previous

N...
Spin bowling requires a
complex movement of the
wrist joint – what type of
joint?
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Bowling underarm involves
extension and flexion of the
shoulder – what type of
joint?
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Knowledge of Joints

RELATIONSHIP of MUSCULAR SYSTEM to SKELETAL
SYSTEM
TEN DO N S

a tt tt a c h m u s c ll e tt o b o
a ...
Cartilage : Tendons: Ligaments: What ’s the difference?

Cartilage

Tendons

Ligaments

Tough

Attaches bone to muscle

At...
Synovial Joints

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Types of Synovial Joints
Freely moveable (synovial) joints can
be divided into six groups depending upon
how they move.

K...
Joints

Synovial Joints
•

The articular capsule is a fibrous tissue encasing
the joint, forming a capsule

•

The synovia...
Joints

Synovial Joints
• Ligaments are white fibrous connective tissues
joining bone to bone, making the joint more stabl...
Synovial Joints

Hip Joint

Cartilage
Ligament

Ligament

Synovial
Fluid

Pelvis
Capsule
Femur
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Synovial
Me...
Ball-and-Socket Joint
• hip
• shoulder

Condyloid Joint
• between metacarpals
and phalanges

8-9
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Hinge Joint
• elbow
• between phalanges

Gliding Joint
• between carpals
• between tarsals

8-10
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AS Module...
Pivot Joint
• between proximal
ends of radius and
ulna

Saddle Joint
• between carpal and
metacarpal of thumb

8-11
Previo...
Shoulder Joint
• ball-and-socket
• head of humerus
• glenoid cavity of
scapula
• loose joint capsule
• bursae
• ligaments ...
Elbow Joint
• hinge joint
• trochlea of humerus
• trochlear notch of
ulna
• gliding joint
• capitulum of
humerus
• head of...
Hip Joint
• ball-and-socket joint
• head of femur
• acetabulum
• heavy joint capsule
• many reinforcing
ligaments
• less f...
Knee Joint
• largest joint
• most complex
• medial and lateral
condyles of distal end of
femur
• medial and lateral
condyl...
Sporting Movements

8-23
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AS Module 1A.27
Which Movements?
• Look through the following slides and consider
the types of joint, movement allowed in each of
the spor...
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AS Module 1A.29
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AS Module 1A.31
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AS Module 1A.32
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AS Module 1A.33
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AS Module 1A.34
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AS Module 1A.36
Name the joint,
type of joint and
movement
occurring – as
marked by the
arrows in each of
the following
pictures.

Previou...
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Name each joint and the movement occurring at it.
Now do the same for each of the slides that follow
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L1 joints

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Joints L1

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  • Task 1 and 2
  • All six differ in movement – as the shape of the articulating bones defines
    But they are all very similar I structure….
    Your example is a knee
  • L1 joints

    1. 1. AS / A Level Sport and Physical Education AS Unit G451 An Introduction to Physical Education Previous Next
    2. 2. Today we are going to concentrate on the joints in the human body. JOINT- A place where two or more bones meet. Previous Next
    3. 3. Types of Joints There are 3 main types of joint found in the body. 1. Fixed or Immoveable Joints The bones at an immoveable joint cannot move they overlap or interlock, and are held together by a tough fibre, e.g. the skull. 2. Slightly Moveable Joints The bones at a slightly moveable joint can only move a little - they are held together by strong straps called ligaments and are joined by protective pads known as cartilage, e.g. the ribs. 3. Freely Moveable Joints At a freely moveable joint the bones move freely. They are also known as synovial joints, and are the largest group of joints found in the body, e.g. the hips, shoulders and knees. Previous Next
    4. 4. Joints CLASSIFICATION OF JOINT BY STRUCTURE Fibrous: Have no cavity and are held together by fibrous connective tissue – e.g. the sutures of the skull bones Cartilaginous: Also have no cavity. There is cartilage between the bones of the joint. May be found between the vertebrae of the spine Synovial: Has a fluid filled cavity surrounded by an articular capsule. The articulating surfaces are covered in hyaline cartilage – e.g. the hinge joint of the knee Previous Next
    5. 5. Joints CLASSIFICATION OF JOINT BY MOVEMENT Fibrous or synarthrosis: Does not allow any movement, which makes more sense when you know where in the body they occur, as they supply protection – e.g. for the brain Cartilaginous or amphiarthrosis: Allows only limited movement Synovial or diarthrosis: Is freely moving, as much as the shape of the articulating surface will allow. Previous Next
    6. 6. Previous Next AS Module 1A.6
    7. 7. Joints JOINT / MOVEMENT TYPES Joint type Shape of joint Ball + socket ball shaped bone fits Hinge convex and concave surfaces fitting together Movement range 3 axes F/E AB/AD R C into cup shaped socket 1 axis F/E Pivot ring shaped surrounding process of axis a cone Gliding two flat gliding surfaces Previous knee : femur, patella, tibia elbow : humerus, radius, ulna spine / atlas : odontoid (turns head from side to side) elbow : proximal ends of radius and ulna modified ball and socket fingers : metacarpals, giving circumduction shaped like a saddle giving circumduction hip : femur, acetabulum of pelvis shoulder : scapula, humerus 1 axis R Condyloid Saddle Body place : articulating bones 2 axes F/E AB/AD C knuckle joints of phalanges wrist : radius, carpals 2 axes F/E AB/AD C joint at base of thumb : carpal, metacarpal a little in all directions centre of chest : clavicle, sternum wrist : carpals ankle : tarsals spine : articulating surfaces of vertebrae Next
    8. 8. In the picture below the ball and socket joint at the hip allows the player to get height and then the ball and socket joint at the shoulder allows him to SLAM DUNK!! Previous Next
    9. 9. Hinge joint (the elbow) in use taking a set shot Previous Next
    10. 10. The knee (HINGE JOINT) is used when flexing (bending) and extending (straightening) the leg to kick a football Previous Next
    11. 11. Spin bowling requires a complex movement of the wrist joint – what type of joint? Previous Next
    12. 12. Bowling underarm involves extension and flexion of the shoulder – what type of joint? Previous Next
    13. 13. Knowledge of Joints RELATIONSHIP of MUSCULAR SYSTEM to SKELETAL SYSTEM TEN DO N S a tt tt a c h m u s c ll e tt o b o a ach m u sc e o b o v ii a P E R II O S T E U M v a PER O STEUM e x a m p ll e :: a c h ii ll e s tt e n x a m p e a c h ll e s e n e FASCIA ne ne don don LIGAM ENTS TS c o n n e c t iv e t is s u e e x a m p le : e p im y s iu m M USCULAR ATTACH M EN TS a t t a c h b o n e tt oo bb oo nn ee e x a m p le : k nn ee ee jj oo i inn t t le c r u c i a t e l igg aa m ee nn tt ss i m PERIO STEAL LAYERS a t t a c h t e n d o n s t o bb oo nn ee AA PP O NN EE U R O S II S O UROS S l aa f fl aa t t t t ee nn ee dd r r i ibb bb oo nn sshh aa pp ee dd t t ee nn dd oo nn NAMES OF MAJOR MUSCLE GROUPS example : biceps ORIGIN (static end) : coracoid process / glenoid fossa tubercle of humerus INSERTION (moving end) : tuberosity of radius (specific knowledge of origins and insertions will not be examined) Previous Next
    14. 14. Cartilage : Tendons: Ligaments: What ’s the difference? Cartilage Tendons Ligaments Tough Attaches bone to muscle Attaches bone to bone Flexible Sturdy Elastic At end of bone Non elastic Stabilise Cushions Size changes depending on muscle Made of many fibres Anchor Strong Previous Next
    15. 15. Synovial Joints Previous Next
    16. 16. Types of Synovial Joints Freely moveable (synovial) joints can be divided into six groups depending upon how they move. KEY Ball & Socket Joint Hinge Joint Pivot Joint Gliding Joint Saddle Joint Condyloid Joint Previous Next
    17. 17. Joints Synovial Joints • The articular capsule is a fibrous tissue encasing the joint, forming a capsule • The synovial membrane acts as a lining to the joint capsule and secretes synovial fluid • The articular/hyaline cartilage covers the ends of the articulating bones • Synovial fluid fills the joint capsule nourishes and lubricates the articular cartilage Previous Next
    18. 18. Joints Synovial Joints • Ligaments are white fibrous connective tissues joining bone to bone, making the joint more stable • Bursa is found where tendons are in contact with bone. It forms a fluid filed sac between the tendon and bone and helps reduce friction • Articular discs of cartilage act as shock absorbers • Pads of fat act as buffers to protect the bones form wear and tear Previous Next
    19. 19. Synovial Joints Hip Joint Cartilage Ligament Ligament Synovial Fluid Pelvis Capsule Femur Previous Next Synovial Membrane
    20. 20. Ball-and-Socket Joint • hip • shoulder Condyloid Joint • between metacarpals and phalanges 8-9 Previous Next
    21. 21. Hinge Joint • elbow • between phalanges Gliding Joint • between carpals • between tarsals 8-10 Previous Next AS Module 1A.21
    22. 22. Pivot Joint • between proximal ends of radius and ulna Saddle Joint • between carpal and metacarpal of thumb 8-11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.22
    23. 23. Shoulder Joint • ball-and-socket • head of humerus • glenoid cavity of scapula • loose joint capsule • bursae • ligaments prevent displacement • very wide range of movement 8-15 Previous Next AS Module 1A.23
    24. 24. Elbow Joint • hinge joint • trochlea of humerus • trochlear notch of ulna • gliding joint • capitulum of humerus • head of radius • flexion and extension • many reinforcing ligaments • stable joint Previous Next 8-17
    25. 25. Hip Joint • ball-and-socket joint • head of femur • acetabulum • heavy joint capsule • many reinforcing ligaments • less freedom of movement than shoulder joint 8-19 Previous Next
    26. 26. Knee Joint • largest joint • most complex • medial and lateral condyles of distal end of femur • medial and lateral condyles of proximal end of tibia • femur articulates anteriorly with patella • modified hinge joint • flexion/extension/little rotation Previous Next • strengthened by many ligaments and tendons • menisci separate femur and tibia 8-21 • bursae AS Module 1A.26
    27. 27. Sporting Movements 8-23 Previous Next AS Module 1A.27
    28. 28. Which Movements? • Look through the following slides and consider the types of joint, movement allowed in each of the sporting activities shown. Previous Next AS Module 1A.28
    29. 29. Previous Next AS Module 1A.29
    30. 30. Previous Next
    31. 31. Previous Next AS Module 1A.31
    32. 32. Previous Next AS Module 1A.32
    33. 33. Previous Next AS Module 1A.33
    34. 34. Previous Next AS Module 1A.34
    35. 35. Previous Next
    36. 36. Previous Next AS Module 1A.36
    37. 37. Name the joint, type of joint and movement occurring – as marked by the arrows in each of the following pictures. Previous Next AS Module 1A.37
    38. 38. Previous Next
    39. 39. Previous Next
    40. 40. Previous Next
    41. 41. Previous Next
    42. 42. Name each joint and the movement occurring at it. Now do the same for each of the slides that follow Previous Next
    43. 43. Previous Next
    44. 44. Previous Next
    45. 45. Previous Next
    46. 46. Previous Next
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    48. 48. Previous Next

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