Dioxin Exposure And Health


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Dioxin Exposure And Health

  1. 1. Dioxin exposure and health effects “ Let us watch well our beginnings, and results will manage themselves”                          Alexander Clark Maryna Kuzminska Master student in Chemistry University of Leipzig Leipzig, 2010
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>What are dioxins: </li></ul><ul><li>general information </li></ul><ul><li>2. Behavior of dioxins in the environment: </li></ul><ul><li>how long dioxins remain in the environment? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Sources of dioxins contamination: </li></ul><ul><li>where are dioxins found? </li></ul><ul><li>how do dioxins enter the environment? </li></ul><ul><li>Dioxin toxicity: </li></ul><ul><li>effects on humans; dioxin incidents </li></ul><ul><li>How to avoid dioxins: </li></ul><ul><li>few tips </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. What are dioxins?
  4. 4. Dioxins <ul><li>group of polyhalogenated compounds </li></ul><ul><li>colorless and odorless solids </li></ul><ul><li>T melt depends on numbers of chlorine atoms </li></ul><ul><li>water-insoluble </li></ul><ul><li>environmental pollutants toxic substances </li></ul>2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) - toxicity is compared to TCDD (from 0 to 1)
  5. 5. 2. Behavior of Dioxins in the environment
  6. 6. Behavior of dioxins in the environment <ul><li>Dioxins are absorbed by plants and by soil </li></ul><ul><li>Landfill leakage into soil </li></ul><ul><li>Accumulation in food chain </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions: can be transported long time in air </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical-resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Half-decay period is more than 10 years </li></ul>
  7. 7. 3. What are the major sources of dioxins?
  8. 8. Sources of dioxins contamination Waste Incineration 2% Energy Generation 4% Other High Temperature Sources 1% Metallurgical Processes 3% Chemical Manufacturing 1% Land Sludge Application 4% Societal 5% (e. g., residential wood combustion, crematoria, gasoline and diesel use) Industrial 15% Natural Forest Fires 54% Backyard Trash Burning 26%
  9. 9. 4. Dioxin toxicity and human health effects
  10. 10. <ul><li>disrupting chemical </li></ul><ul><li>binds to cell hormone receptors </li></ul><ul><li>modifies the functioning and the </li></ul><ul><li>genetic mechanisms of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>causes a wide range of effects </li></ul>Dioxin
  11. 11. Minimum toxic dose – 0,5-1 μ g/kg <ul><li>Symptoms of acute </li></ul><ul><li>toxic exposure: </li></ul><ul><li>lack of appetite </li></ul><ul><li>physical weakness </li></ul><ul><li>chronic tiredness </li></ul><ul><li>depression </li></ul><ul><li>weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases: </li></ul><ul><li>cancer </li></ul><ul><li>chloracne </li></ul><ul><li>porphyria </li></ul><ul><li>diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>damaging the immune system </li></ul>
  12. 12. 5. Dioxin contamination incidents
  13. 13. 1976, Italy <ul><li>Accident at a chemical factory in Seveso </li></ul><ul><li>A cloud of toxic chemicals, including TCDD, was released into the air; </li></ul><ul><li>contamination - 15 km 2 inhabited by 37 000 people </li></ul>
  14. 14. 1997, the USA <ul><li>Chickens, eggs, and catfish were contaminated with dioxins when a tainted ingredient was used in the manufacture of animal feed </li></ul>
  15. 15. 1998, Brazil <ul><li>High levels of dioxins in milk sold in Germany were traced to citrus pulp pellets used as animal feed exported from Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>a ban on all citrus pulp imports to the EU from Brazil </li></ul>
  16. 16. 1999, Belgium <ul><li>High levels of dioxins were found in poultry and eggs </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Detection of increased dioxin levels in milk (traced to a clay used in production of animal feed) </li></ul>2004, the Netherlands
  18. 18. 2006, the Netherlands <ul><li>Elevated dioxin levels were detected in animal feed; </li></ul><ul><li>The source - contaminated fat used in production of feed </li></ul>
  19. 19. 2004, Ukraine 2004 - Ukrainian President  Victor Yushchenko was poisoned with dioxin (TCDD) three and a half years after poisoning before poisoning three months after poisoning
  20. 20. 6. How to avoid dioxins? Recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines
  21. 21. <ul><li>Choose fish, lean meat, poultry, and low or fat-free dairy products </li></ul><ul><li>Increase consumption of fruits, vegetables and grain products </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Beef or pork meet should be avoided (it has the largest concentrations of dioxin of all food sources) </li></ul><ul><li>Limit your intake of ocean and freshwater fish </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarian meat substitutes such as tofu, beans and rice have essentially no contamination! </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Drink only skim milk since dioxins exist in the butterfat </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid all full-fat dairy products: butter, cheese, ice cream </li></ul><ul><li>Use non-fat skim-milk products or non-dairy substitutes </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Wash all fruits and vegetables carefully to remove chlorophenol pesticide residue </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid grapes and raisins unless they are clearly labeled as organic (grown without pesticides) </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Use unbleached (brown) coffee filters </li></ul><ul><li>If you smoke cigarettes (although tobacco has other cancer hazards) roll your own in unbleached paper </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Avoid all organic chemicals that have &quot;chloro&quot; as part of their names </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid chlorine bleach and products containing it </li></ul><ul><li>Use unbleached paper products </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Avoid household or personal products and toys made of or packaged in polyvinyl chloride - PVC (labeled V on plastic) </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>The way to reduce the dioxin threat is to stop burning trash and to stop producing PVC and other chlorinated chemicals! </li></ul>
  29. 29. 6. Conclusions <ul><li>Dioxins are super-toxic chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Dioxins are unwanted by-products of different processes </li></ul><ul><li>Dioxins enter the food chain through animals </li></ul><ul><li>Dioxin levels in environmental samples, in food have decreased over the 1970s till present </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of dioxins on human health </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed dietary recommendations </li></ul>
  30. 30. References: <ul><li>www.cdc.gov/exposurereport </li></ul><ul><li>Gullett, B.K. and Touati, A. (2003). PCDD/F emissions from forest fire simulations, Atmospheric Environment 37, p. 803 </li></ul><ul><li>  www4.nas.edu/cp.nsf/Projects+by+PIN/BEST-K-03-08-A?OpenDocument </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.who.int/ipcs/assessment/en/index.html </li></ul>
  31. 31. Thank you!