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Romanticism part 2


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Romanticism and Its Major Poets

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Romanticism part 2

  1. 1. Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog by Caspar David Friedrich
  2. 2.  A movement that affected literature, art, and intellect  Reaction against the elevation of reason and science above all else during the Enlightenment as well as the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution
  3. 3.  Who is the poet?  “He is a man speaking to men….with….a disposition to be affected more than other men by absent things as if they were present.”  What should he write about and how?  “To choose incidents and situations from common life, and to relate or describe them…in a selection of language really used by men.”  What is poetry?  “The spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings”
  4. 4. I wandered lonely as a cloud That floats on high o'er vales and hills, When all at once I saw a crowd, A host, of golden daffodils; Beside the lake, beneath the trees, Fluttering and dancing in the breeze. Continuous as the stars that shine And twinkle on the milky way, They stretched in never-ending line Along the margin of a bay: Ten thousand saw I at a glance, Tossing their heads in sprightly dance. The waves beside them danced; but they Out-did the sparkling waves in glee: A poet could not but be gay, In such a jocund company: I gazed—and gazed—but little thought What wealth the show to me had brought: For oft, when on my couch I lie In vacant or in pensive mood, They flash upon that inward eye Which is the bliss of solitude; And then my heart with pleasure fills, And dances with the daffodils.
  5. 5.  What is the poet’s mood when he begins his walk?  What examples of simile, personification, and sensory detail are there?  How does nature affect the poet?  How does this scene of daffodils continue to bring him joy?
  6. 6.  “When we were in the woods beyond Gowbarrow park we saw a few daffodils close to the water side, we fancied that the lake had floated the seeds ashore & that the little colony had so sprung up— But as we went along there were more & yet more & at last under the boughs of the trees, we saw that there was a long belt of them along the shore, about the breadth of a country turnpike road . . . [S]ome rested their heads on [mossy] stones as on a pillow for weariness & the rest tossed & reeled & danced & seemed as if they verily laughed with the wind that blew upon them over the Lake, they looked so gay ever glancing ever changing. This wind blew directly over the lake to them. There was here & there a little knot & a few stragglers a few yards higher up but they were so few as not to disturb the simplicity & unity & life of that one busy highway... —Rain came on, we were wet. ”
  7. 7.  Stage One: Observation—poet observes and experiences powerful emotion  Stage Two: Recollection—poet recalls the emotion in tranquility  Stage Three: Filtering—poet filters that which is not essential  Stage Four: Composition—poet becomes “man speaking to men”
  8. 8.  Imagination  Nature  Symbolism and myth  Emotion  Self/Individual  Hero artist  Children  Simplicity/Innocence  Supernatural  Reconcile contrary states of being
  9. 9.  Only formal education in art; apprenticed as an engraver  1789 published 19 poems in “Songs of Innocence” and in 1804 published 26 poems in “Songs of Experience.” Each of the poems has its own engraving  “Illuminated painting” much like the illuminated texts of the Middle Ages  Etched in copper and then hand colored probably by his wife  Only 28 copies known to exist
  10. 10.  The central question is both poems is the concept of the creator: “Little Lamb, who made thee?” “What immortal hand or eye/Could frame thy fearful symmetry?”  In “The Lamb”, images of the subject and maker are pure/childlike: “softest clothing wooly bright”, “tender voice”; “he is called by thy name”, “for he is meek and he is mild”; repetition of “Little Lamb” like childish inquiry  In “The Tyger”, images of subject and maker are scary/dangerous: “fearful symmetry,” “fire of thine eyes”, “deadly terrors”; “what the hand dare seize the fire”, “what dread hand? & what dread feet?”, “what dread grasp/dare its deadly terrors clasp?”; “what the hammer?/what the chain?.../what the anvil? What dread grasp” like a repetitive hammering
  11. 11.  “What immortal hand or eye/could frame thy fearful symmetry” to “What immortal hand or eye/dare frame thy fearful symmetry?”— will and deliberateness of the maker  Blake’s contrary states of the soul: “Did he who made the Lamb make thee?”  Existence of good and evil in the same world, in the same beings, and created by the same maker
  12. 12.  Read through the two versions of “The Chimney Sweeper” and analyze in what ways the speakers are similar and in what ways they are different.  How do these two poems embody Blake’s contrary states of the soul? Is one state preferable to the other?  What role does religion play in each?  How is his work a critique of the Industrial Revolution?
  13. 13.  Co-authored Lyrical Ballads with William Wordsworth  Strong literary critic, poet, writer, lecturer in his own right  Once planned to establish an ideal democratic community in America called “Pantisocracy”  Ended up addicted to laudanum (opium dissolved in alcohol)
  14. 14.  In preface to poem, he described reading about Kubla Khan in a book and then falling into an opium-induced sleep where the visions he later wrote down appeared before him  When he awoke and began writing his visions down, he was called away and upon return, could only remember these remaining lines  Historical Kubla Khan founded the Mongol dynasty in China in the 13th century
  15. 15.  Where do dreams and visions come from? Do they mean something?  Stanza 1: Xanadu is a combination of real and imagined (“Alph, the sacred river”), a “fertile” pleasure palace that is “sunny” with “gardens bright” and other sensuous delights built by a river that runs “through caverns measureless to man/down to a sunless sea.”  Stanza 2: “the deep romantic chasm” is seen as a “savage”, “holy”, and “enchanted” place where a woman could be wailing for her demon lover!  Chasm is “seething”, “breathing”, “forced”, “burst” and “’mid this tumult Kubla heard from far/Ancestral voices prophesying war!” The actions of humankind echoes the power of nature
  16. 16.  Stanza 3: States of contrast: “sunny” pleasure dome with “caves of ice”; natural versus manmade; “floating” above ground versus underground caves; measured and planned versus the wild and uncontained  Stanza 4: Final vision of a woman with a dulcimer from another time; her song would enable him to build that “dome in air”; pleasure of vision is contrasted with a warning to “beware” and of another vision of “holy dread”— perhaps an image of the poet or of Kubla Khan?  And this is why we don’t do drugs, kids!
  17. 17.  A radical who scorned orthodoxy including religion and marriage  Married Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, who later wrote Frankenstein  Often in debt, having to move to avoid creditors  Felt radical social reform had to be based on the redeeming power of love on people’s morals and imagination  Drowned in a storm when he was only 30
  18. 18.  Greek name for Ramses II of Egypt 13th century BCE  Why do people build monuments of themselves?  Consider the framing of the poem. Who is the original teller of the tale? How is interpretation being used by narrator? Sculptor?  What literary devices are used to tell the tale?  What Romantic values are found?
  19. 19.  Sonnet: 14 lines of iambic pentameter  Alliteration: “traveller” “two” “trunkless”; “stand” “sand” “sunk”  Consonance: “vast” “trunkless” “visage” “lies”  Enjambment: carrying the sense of one line over to the next  “Tell that its sculptor well those passions read/which yet survive”
  20. 20.  Narrative frame/imagination:  “I met a traveller from an antique land”  Permanence of art  “Two vast and trunkless legs of stone/stand in the desart”  “Nothing beside remains. Round the decay/of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare/the lone and level sands stretch far away”  Role of the artist/creator  “Tell that its sculptor well those passions read/which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things”
  21. 21.  Keats was originally apprenticed as a doctor but dropped out to be a poet  Did not begin writing poetry until 18 years old but was prolific  Contracted same tuberculosis as that which killed his mother and brother  Fell in love with neighbor Fanny Brawne but had a foreboding of early death  Poetry embodied a wealth of “contrary states”  Died at age 24 of tb
  22. 22.  Stanza 1: contrast of “quietness” and “slow time” with “mad pursuit” and “pipes and timbrels”; “unravish’d bride”—innocent forever  Stanza 2: contrast of pain of never reaching goal with the fact that the lover will never fade/immortal; outside of time but also of experience  Stanza 3: Happiness is above the “breathing human passion…that leaves a heart high-sorrowful and cloy’d”; “forever piping…forever warm” yet will never be fulfilled  Stanza 4: Art stirs imagination of viewer beyond what’s there “What little town…is emptied of this folk…?”  Stanza 5: “Beauty is truth, truth beauty”--only quoted part or entire last two lines spoken by urn? Who does “ye” refer to? Meaning debated.
  23. 23.  Permanence of art:  “Do not grieve;/ she cannot fade, though thou has not thy bliss;/ For ever wilt thou love and she be fair!”  “Happy melodist, unwearied/For ever piping songs for ever new;/More happy love! More happy, happy love!”  Contrasting states of being  “Bold lover, never, never canst thou kiss…yet do not grieve;/ she cannot fade, though thou hasn’t not thy bliss  Art as truth/ideal:  “Beauty is truth, truth beauty”—that is all/ye know on earth, and all ye need to know