Creating Havoc using Human Interface Device Nikhil Mittal
About Me• SamratAshok• Twitter - @nikhil_mitt• Blog – http://labofapenetrationtester.blogspot.com• Creator of Kautilya, Mareech and Nishang• Interested in Offensive Information Security, new attack vectors and methodologies to pwn systems.• Previous Talks – Clubhack’10, Hackfest’11, Clubhack’11, Black hat Abu Dhabi’11, Troopers’12• Upcoming Talks – Training at Shakacon’12 and GrrCON’12
Agenda - Introduction• A typical Pen Test Scenario• How we are doing it• Need for new methods to break into systems• HID anyone?
Agenda - Workshop• Introduction to Teensy• Basics of Arduino Development Environment (ADE)• Installing and configuring ADE to use with Teensy• Understanding the basics of programming using ADE• Writing Hello World• Basic usage and programming of Teensy• Introduction to Kautilya• Demonstration of Payloads in Kautilya• Program and perform attacks on a Windows machine• Program and perform advanced attacks on a Windows machine• Program and perform attacks on a Linux machine• Understanding structure of and automation using Kautilya• Understanding Integration of payloads in Kautilya
Agenda - Conclusion• Protection against HID based attacks• Pen Test Stories• Limitations• Future• Conclusion
Let’s get started• Be as interactive as you can. Query me, ask nasty questions, insult me.• It is mandatory to laugh on jokes, they be on slides or cracked by me.• We will start slow and then pick up speed. Be patient if you know something, everybody is not good as you.• I don’t have much theory so be ready to see demos and source code.• Make sure you keep your eyes on. You should be able to program your device after this. I will keep checking if everyone is awake ;)
A typical Pen Test Scenario• A client engagement comes with IP addresses.• We need to complete the assignment in very restrictive time frame.• Pressure is on us to deliver a “good” report with some high severity findings. (That “High” return inside a red colored box)
How the threats are TestedVuln Exploit ReportScan
• This is a best case scenario.• Only lucky ones find that.• Generally legacy Enterprise Applications or Business Critical applications are not upgraded and are the first targets.• There is almost no fun doing it that way.
Some of us do it betterEnum Scan Exploit Report
Some of us do it even betterEnum Post + Scan Exploit Report ExpIntel
Why do we need to exploit?• To gain access to the systems.• This shows the real threat to clients that we can actually make an impact on their business. No more “so-what” • We can create reports with “High” Severity findings which bring $$$
What do we exploit?• Memory Corruption bugs. – Server side – Client Side• Mis-configurations• Open file shares.• Sticky slips.• Man In The Middle (many types)• Unsecured Dumpsters• Humans• <Audience>
Worse Scenario• Many times we get some vulnerabilities but can’t exploit. – No public exploits available. – Not allowed on the system. – Countermeasure blocking it. – Exploit completed but no session was generated :P
Worst Scenario• Hardened Systems• Patches in place• Countermeasures blocking scans and exploits• Security incident monitoring and blocking• No network access• We need alternatives.
Need for new methods to break into systems• Bad guys are getting smarter.• Smart attacks of 2011 – Sony (ok not so smart :P) – RSA (clever attack), chained to Lockheed Martin – Epsilon (Spear Phishing) – Barracuda Networks (WAF turned off for little while) – Some attacks on India• Smart attacks of 2010 – Stuxnet – Operation Aurora• And Many more (like Apache in 2009)
Need for new methods to break into systems• Breaking into systems is not as easy as done in the movies.• Those defending the systems have become smarter (at many places :P) and it is getting harder to break into “secured” environments.• Everyone is breaking into systems using the older ways, you need new ways to do it better.
HID anyone?• Wikipedia – “A human interface device or HID is a type of computer device that interacts directly with, and most often takes input from, humans and may deliver output to humans.”• Mice, Keyboards and Joysticks are most common HID.• What could go wrong?
Introduction to Teensy• A USB Micro-controller device.• Storage of about 130 KB.• We will use Teensy ++ which is an updated version of Teensy.
Current usage of Teensy• http://www.pjrc.com/teensy/projects.html• Really cool projects.
Arduino - Installation• Install Arduino• Windows Serial Installer (only Windows)• Install Teensyduino• Detailed with screenshots here:http://labofapenetrationtester.blogspot.in/2012 /04/teensy-usb-hid-for-penetration- testers.htmlhttp://www.pjrc.com/teensy/td_download.html
Arduino - Configuration• Make sure to select correct “Board” and “USB Type” under Tools menu item.• If Teensyduino has been installed properly, sketch examples could be found at File->Examples->Teensy
Programming using ADE• Almost C++ like syntax is used in ADE• Two functions are required at minimum – setup() which runs whenever Teensy is plugged or restarted. – loop() which keeps running after setup()• Basic usage and programming of Teensy• Writing Hello World with Teensy.
Kautilya• It is a toolkit which aims to make Teensy more useful in Penetration Tests.• Named after Chanakya a.k.a. Kautilya.• Written in Ruby.• It’s a menu drive program which let users select and customize payloads.• Aims to make Teensy part of every Penetration tester’s tool chest.
Payloads• Payloads are written for teensy without SD Card.• Pastebin is extensively used. Both for uploads and downloads.• Payloads are commands, powershell scripts or combination of both.• Payload execution of course depends on privilege of user logged in when Teensy is plugged in.• Payloads are mostly for Windows as the victim of choice generally is a Windows machine.
Windows User Add• Adds a user with Administrative privileges on the victim.• Uses net user command.
Default DNS• Changes the default DNS for a connection.• Utilizes the netsh command.
Edit Hosts File• Edit hosts file to resolve a domain locally.
Enable RDP• Enables RDP on victim machine.• Starts the service.• Adds exception to Windows firewall.• Adds a user to Administrators group.
Enable Telnet• Installs Telnet on victim machine.• Starts the service.• Adds exception to Windows firewall.• Adds a user to Administrators group and Telnetclients group..
Forceful Browsing• Starts an invisible instance of Internet Explorer which browses to the given URL.
Download and Execute• Downloads an exe in text format from pastebin, converts it back to exe and executes it.
Sethc and Utilman backdoor• Using registry hacks, calls user defined executable or command when Shift is pressed 5 times or Win + U is pressed.• When the system is locked, the called exe is executed in System context.
Uninstall Application• Uninstalls an msiexec application silently.
Chrome RDP• This payload uses opens up chrome, launches Remote Desktop plugin, enters credentials and copies the access key to pastebin.• This payload operates on browser window.
Information Gather• Dumps valuable information from registry, net command and hosts file.
Sniffer• This payload pulls the sniffer powershell script (by Robbie Fost) and executes it on the victim.• The output is compressed and uploaded to ftp.
Hashdump• This payload pulls powerdump script of msf from pastebin, schedules it as task to run in system context and upload the hashes to pastebin.
Keylogging• This payload logs keys and pastes it to pastebin every twenty seconds.• There is a separate script to parse the output.
Wireless Rogue AP• This payload creates a hosted network with user define SSID and key.• It also adds a user to Administrators and TelnetClients group.• It installs and starts telnet and adds it to windows firewall exception.
Forced Wireless Connection• This payload forces the victim to connect to an attacker controlled WiFi AP. The AP in this case is portable WiFi hotspot on a smartphone.• Using this either payloads can be pulled from the smartphone or the internet using the AP thus effectively bypassing any internet restriction policies on the system.
Code Execution• This payload uses the powershell code execution script (by Matt from exploit-monday blog).• A meterpreter shell is executed completely in memory using this script.
Java Signed Applet Code Exec• This payload browses in background to a url where Metasploit Java Signed Applet module is hosted and accepts the run prompt after few seconds.
Time based payload execution• This payload waits till the given time, downloads a payload at the time and execute it.
WLAN keys dump• This payload dumps WLAN keys in clear text and upload them to pastebin as a private paste.
Pen Test Stories Could you please plug this in for me?
Pen Test Stories Library Fun• We were doing internal PT for a large media house.• The access to network was quite restrictive.• The desktops at Library were left unattended many times.• Teensy was plugged into one system with a sethc and utilman backdoor.• Later in the evening the system was accessed and pwnage ensued.
Pen Test Stories Breaking the perimeter• A telecom company.• We had to do perimeter check for the firm.• The Wireless rogue AP payload was used and teensy was sold to the clients employees during lunch hours.• Within couple of hours, we got a wireless network with a administrative user and telnet ready.
Pen Test Stories Help by the Helpdesk• A pharma company.• We replaced a user’s data card with a Teensy inside the data card’s cover.• The payload selected was Keylogger.• “Data card” obviously didn’t worked and we got multiple keylogging for the user and the helpdesk.• Helpdesk guys had access to almost everything in the environment and over a workday, it was over.
Defense from malicious HID• Use Endpoint Protector 4 :P :P• Group Policy in Windows which prevent installation of hardware devices.• UDEV rules for Linux.
Limitations with Teensy• Limited storage in Teensy. Resolved if you attach a SD card with Teensy.• Inability to “read” from the system. You have to assume the responses of victim OS and there is only one way traffic.
Limitations with Kautilya• Many payloads need Administrative privilege.• Lots of traffic to and from pastebin.• Inability to clear itself after a single run.• Not very stable as it is still a new tool and has not gone through user tests.• For payloads which use executables you manually need to convert and paste them to pastebin.
Future• Improvement in current payloads.• Implementation of SD card.• Use some payloads as libraries so that they can be reused.• Support for Non-English keyboards.• Maybe more Linux payloads.• Implementation of some new payloads which are under development.
Thank You• Please complete the Speaker Feedback Surveys.• Questions?• Insults?• Feedback?• Kautilya is available at http://code.google.com/p/kautilya/• Follow me @nikhil_mitt• http://labofapenetrationtester.blogspot.com/