Gamification Features 4 FitCity Paolo Massa I3 - FBK http://www.gnuband.org
Menu1. I show gamification features2. We decide which ones we willuse in FitCity project
“By 2020, anyone who ever used theterm ‘gamification’ will be embarrassedto admit it.” Alex Halavais, associate professor, Quinnipiac UniversityThe Future of Gamification. May 18, 2012. Pew Internet Report
“(Gamification)’s a modern-day form ofmanipulation. And like all cognitivemanipulation, it can help people and itcan hurt people. And we will see both.” danah boyd, researcher, Microsoft and Harvard’s Berkman CenterThe Future of Gamification. May 18, 2012. Pew Internet Report
Gamification is the useof game mechanics innon-game contexts inorder to engage users
THERE IS ALREADY ABUNDANCE OF CHOICES!!!!http://www.slideshare.net/amyjokim/gamification-101-design-the-player-journey
Gamification Features (and related research )● Badges● Virtual goods● Quests/missions/challenges● Points● Levels● Progress bar● Onboarding tutorial (for new user)● Leaderboard (global, local, social)
Warning: all gamification features are extrinsic rewardsHamari, Juho; Eranti, Veikko (2011)."Framework for Designing and Evaluating GameAchievements". Proceedings of Digra 2011Conference: Think Design PlayLiterature on intrinsic motivation would indeedseem to doom expected extrinsic rewards asdetrimental to intrinsic motivation, via diminishingthe perceived autonomy of the individual to carryout given activities (see e.g. Deci, Koester &Ryan 1999 for a comprehensive meta-review ofintrinsic and extrinsic rewards)
Disclaimer● Not a lot of research yet (gamification is a new word ;)● Workshop at CHI (Conference on Human-computer Interaction) 2012● Workshop at CHI 2013● Some books (reality is broken, gamification by design)
Badges … nothing new actually ...Roman warriorsRomans warriors Boy scouts
5 functions of badgesAntin, J., & Churchill, E. (2011). Badges in social media: A socialpsychological perspective. Gamification workshop at CHI1. Goal setting: goal given by the system (getting the badge becomesthe goal, I.e. intrinsic again, but not towards the original goal, anhealthy lifestyle)● Simply engaging students is not enough. They need to be engaged for the right reasons. - Mitchel Resnick (Many students corrupt their learning in attempt to gain a badge) http://www.andrea-zellner.com/archives/9172. Instruction: understand what is valued by the community3. Evaluate reputation: users judged based on badges4. Status symbol: Badges advertise one’s achievements without explicitbragging.5. Group identification: shared activities bind users together, increasegroup identification, promotes increased cooperation
Badges● Trophy case always growing, i.e. when you get a badge, you never lose it!
BadgesWarning: they require some editorial work, clevercontent/storytelling creators that can create"clever" badges for different activities (checked50 profiles, explored X, ...)
Badges can be created by users!Wikipedia barnstars!
(research on) Badges● Badges in Social Media: A Social Psychological Perspective. Antin, J.; Churchill, E.F. CHI 2011● Halavais, Alexander M. C. “A Genealogy of Badges: Inherited Meaning and Monstrous Moral Hybrids.” Information, Communication, and Society, 2012● Hamari, J., & Koivisto, J. (2013). Social Motivations to Use Gamification: An Empirical Study of Gamifying Exercise. (Subm.)The 21st European Conf. Information Systems.● We dont need no stinkin badges: examining the social role of badges in the huffington post. Nathan Altadonna, Julie Jones CSCW, 2012 Vol. (), p.249-252● Stefano De Paoli, Nicolò De Uffici, and Vincenzo DAndrea. 2012. Designing badges for a civic media platform: reputation and named levels. In Proceedings of the 26th Annual BCS Interaction Specialist Group Conference on People and Computers● Carlo Maiolini, Stefano De Paoli, Maurizio Teli. Digital games and the communication of health problems. A review of games against the concept of procedural rhetoric. G|A|M|E, Italian Journal of Game Studies.
Virtual goods● They can be traded, gifted … sold (create a parallel economy, if someone cares...)● NO: implementing exchange of virtual goods can create social and legal issues, better to avoid them.● “Chinese online gamer killed for selling virtual sword” (2005)
Quests / Missions / Challenges● Quest/Missions similar to badges● Badge is the final certification of a quest/mission● But points can be awarded as well (and real world gift?)
Set your challengeBadges are challenges given by systemAlternative: you can set your own challengesPro: You have a commitment (forge motivation) and the interfacecan use them as a reminder (keep motivation).Cons: if this is totally free, the system cannot “measure” if thechallenge is surpassed or not and how much. If this is not free, it can be basically a badgeEx: “Ill run the half marathon in 3 months time”“Flow in sport” Psychologists who study happiness find that peoplewho only set themselves long- term goals (such as making a milliondollars 20 years hence or retiring to Florida when they turn 65) arein general less happy than people who set goals that can bereached next mont, next year — or later the same day
Progress barVisually show howmuch is missing beforenext level.Shall be always visiblein the interface.Increase stickiness
(research on) Points and LevelsOptimizing Adaptivity in Educational Games. ErikAndersen, Center for Game ScienceAutomatic generation of levels in an educationalgame for teaching fractionsHowever I would suggest hardcodedlevels/points, e.g.15000 points = level 1018000 points = level 11 ...
Points and levelsShall they “encode” – your activity on application or – your real fitness level?Lets choose! (I vote for “activity” on app)Focuses on the positive things (whatever you do,it grows). Always grow, never decrease.
Your fitness status (not a gamification feature but important)Not the level andXP!Public or private?
Levels unlock abilities?Often features or abilities are unlocked asplayers progress to higher levels.Shall we do this so that users remain stickybecause they want to reach level X in which theycan use feature/ability Y?No: requires too much editorial work in inventing(non-essential) abilities
Are points redeemable?Gifts (t-shirt, pedometer, …)Points are a virtual currency and you create avirtual economy: opportunity for business butvery difficult to manage (require dedicated,clever person)I suggest NO
Points/Levels vs Badges/Quests● Points/Levels focus the player – In a linear, predictable way – Towards the main goal (exercise/stay fit)● Badges/Quests allow the player – To get alternative/parallel experiences – Can also be “certifying” moments for the main goal
Badges and points for which activities?Points: Well decide which Login once a day activities give ● Share on facebook points/badges later on ● ● Invite X friends to play ● Create route / tag route ● Upload/track an activity ● Create a new exercise (with burned calories...) ● Place fit tool on map ● Run on route X Badges ● View video of fitness exercise ● Performed an action X times ● Read text “doing X makes you more fit because ...” (motivational) ● visited 50 other users profile ● Badges ● Check-in in a certain location, … Performed an action X times Performed activity 5 times overall, 3 times ● ● ● visited 50 other users profile in 1 day ● Check-in in a certain location, … ● Performed activity 5 times overall, 3 times in 1 day
Tutorial (step by step)First steps = forced actions (that also gives youyour first points, level 1 and first badge!!!)Goal: onboarding/avoid user gets lost and leave
(research on) tutorialThe impact of tutorials on games of varying complexity. Erik Andersen,Eleanor ORourke, Yun-En Liu, Richard Snider, Jeff Lowdermilk, DavidTruong, Seth Cooper and Zoran Popović Proceedings of ACM CHI, 2012 ● # unique levels each player completes ● # time they played ● return rate=# times players loaded the game web page45,000 (new) players (!!!!) ● Context-sensitivity of help ● Tutorial freedom (can skip?) ● On-demand helpUsefulness depends on game complexity: play time increase by 29% incomplex game but no increase in two simpler gamesNO for games with mechanics that can be discovered throughexperimentation.
AppointmentAppointment Dynamics are game dynamics inwhich at a predetermined times/place a usermust log-in or participate in game, for positiveeffect.Ex: Farmville cropping, bar happy hoursNO: it requires tons of users and lot of real-timepreparation and management
CountdownThe dynamic in which players are only given acertain amount of time to do something. This willcreate an activity graph that causes increasedinitial activity increasing frenetically until timeruns out, which is a forced extinction.Ex: you shall run 10 km before midnight todayNO: it requires real-time management and canbe risky
Multiple players You can play this part only together with X other players: they could be online at same time or even physically close (close GPS coordinates)● NO: requires presence in time (and space), i.e. requires lots of users
User profile Endomondo RunkeeperWell decide later on, for now wefocus on individual motivation and howto exploit gamification to be persuasiveand addictive for the single user.
Avatar (customizable?)No: it requires good graphic designerSo what? Just the photo uploaded by the user asin Facebook Stanford University’s Virtual Human Interaction Lab (VHIL), researchers demonstrated that watching customized, look-alike avatars lose or gain weight as we do exercise makes us work out longer and harder. Participants who received “vicarious reinforcement” from their avatars volunteered to do on average eight times more exercise repetitions than participants without avatar feedback. That bodes well for the potential use of Mini-like avatars at home or at gyms, where people are more likely to work out in front of screens. (And, in fact, many home fitness games, including Wii Fit and EA Sports Active, use avatar feedback to engage players in harder workouts.) Another experiment at Stanford University’s Virtual Human Interaction Lab (VHIL): simply showing subjects a short animation of their look-alike avatar running in the laboratory inspired subjects to spend on average an hour more running in the first twenty-four hours after they left the laboratory. (There was no motivation effect watching a random avatar; it worked only when the avatar was highly customized to look like the subject.) Fox, Jesse, and Jeremy N. Bailenson. “Virtual Self-Modeling: The Effects of Vicarious Reinforcement and Identification on Exercise Behaviors.” Media Psychology, 2009, 12: 1–25.
Comparison with others?What is seen on otherusers profile? Can theyset visibility for differentfeatures?Can you directlycompare with otherusers?Well decide later on, for now we focus onindividual motivation and how to exploitgamification to be persuasive and addictive forthe single user.
Global leaderboardUHM, often counterproductiveThe main goal becomes being in theleaderboard and the main emphasis is on fiercecompetition for being there (fight forstaying/entering for a small portion of users,incentive to try to game the system, see Digg)(and envy/disinterest for most users)If we put it, better to have a weekly leaderboard,I.e. always refreshing (even if app-holic willtry/succeed in staying on leaderboard everyweek...)
Digg Top users list – REMOVED!2007 - Kevin Rose: “Some of our top users – thepeople that have spent hundreds if notthousands of hours finding and digging the beststuff – are being blamed by some outlets asleading efforts to manipulate Digg.”So, in response to the increased criticism and anever increasing amount of “noise around thistopic,” Digg “decided to remove the list beginningtomorrow” and true to their word, replaced thelist with a link to their blog.
Social leaderboardshows you versus your friends. I may be the475,296th best player in the world at X – but I’mnumber 5 among my friends…
Social leaderboard: Bragging/trash- taking friends
Local leaderboard/players● Better just to suggest nearby players as in runkeeper
Social appreciation != gamification NoomPost on facebook,twitter, runkeeper, …So that your friendscan support/trash talkyou● What to post?● When?Well decide later on
Gamification: how long?● Can gamification features “resist” for 1 year? 10 years?● Shall they be designed just for the beginning?