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  1. 1. Endocrine Physiology โดย นางสาวพัชฎา บุตรยะถาวร ครู ผ้สอน ู โรงเรียนเตรีมอุดมศึกษาน้ อมเกล้ า ปทุมธานี
  2. 2. Endocrine vs. Nervous System • Major communication systems in the body • Integrate stimuli and responses to changes in external and internal environment • Both are crucial to coordinated functions of highly differentiated cells, tissues and organs • Unlike the nervous system, the endocrine system is anatomically discontinuous.
  3. 3. Introduction • The endocrine system includes the organs of the body that secrete hormones directly into body fluids such as blood – Regulates chemical reaction in cells and therefore control functions of the organs, tissues, and other cells bloodstream to Glands into secrete hormones 34-3 target tissues
  4. 4. Hormones • Endocrine glands – Ductless – Release hormones • Directly into target tissues • Into bloodstream to be carried to target tissues • Hormones – chemicals secreted by a cell that affect the functions of other cells 34-4
  5. 5. Hormones (cont.) • Many are derived from steroids that easily cross the cell membrane • Examples of steroid hormones – – – – Estrogen Progesterone Testosterone Cortisol hormones 34-5
  6. 6. Hormones (cont.) • Nonsteroidal hormones • Prostaglandins – Made of amino acids or proteins and cannot cross the cell membrane easily – Local, or tissue, hormones – Derived from lipid molecules – Do not travel in the bloodstream – Target tissues are located close by – Produced by organs such as – Bind to receptors on the surface of the cells – G-protein – activated by the hormone-receptor complex • • • • • • Activates enzymes inside cell 34-6 Kidneys Heart Stomach Uterus Brain
  7. 7. Negative and Positive Feedback Loops • Control hormone levels • Negative feedback loop – Hormone release stops in response to decrease in stimulus • Stimulus (eating) raises blood glucose levels • Pancreas releases insulin in response to elevated blood glucose • Blood glucose decreases as it is used by the body or stored in the liver • Insulin release stops as blood glucose levels normalize 34-7
  8. 8. Negative and Positive Feedback Loops (cont.) • Positive feedback loop – As long as stimulus is present, action of hormone continues • Infant nursing at mother’s breast  stimulates hypothalamus  stimulates posterior pituitary • Oxytocin released  stimulates milk production and ejection from mammary glands • Milk release continues as long as infant continues to nurse 34-8
  9. 9. Apply Your Knowledge Match the following: ANSWER: ___ Chemicals that effect cell function A. Nonsteroidal hormone E B ___ Easily cross cell membranes B. Steroidal hormone A ___ Made of amino acids C. G-protein D ___ Target nearby cells D. Prostaglandins ___ Activated by hormone-receptor C complex E. Hormones ___ Cannot cross cell membranes easily A B ___ Estrogen and cortisol 34-9
  10. 10. Hypothalamus • Hormones – Oxytocin – Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) • Hormones transported to the posterior pituitary for storage • Directs posterior pituitary to release hormones 34-10 Glands
  11. 11. Pituitary Gland • Controlled by the hypothalamus • Located at the base of the brain – Protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica – The optic chiasm is located just above the pituitary gland • Carries visual information to the brain for interpretation • Two lobes – Anterior lobe – Posterior lobe Glands 34-11
  12. 12. Pituitary Gland (cont.) Growth hormone Stimulates increase in size of muscles and bones Luteinizing Prolactin Stimulates milk production Anterior Lobe Females: stimulates ovulation and estrogen production Males: stimulates testosterone production Adrenocorticotropic Stimulates the adrenal cortex to release its hormones Thyroid-stimulating Stimulates the thyroid gland to release its hormones Follicle-stimulating Females: stimulates estrogen production and maturation of the ova Males: stimulates sperm production 34-12
  13. 13. Pituitary Gland (cont.) Oxytocin Posterior Lobe Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Stimulates the kidneys to conserve water 34-13 Females: causes contraction of the uterus and ejection of breast milk Males: stimulates contraction of the prostate and vas deferens during sexual arousal
  14. 14. Apply Your Knowledge Match the following: ANSWER: D, E Stored in posterior pituitary ___ A. Follicle-stimulating hormone ___ Milk production B B. Prolactin D, E Produced by hypothalmus ___ C. Luteinizing hormone ___ Stimulates sperm production A D. ADH ___ Maturation of ova A E. Oxytocin ___ Stimulates ovulation C Super! ___ Conservation of water D ___ Production of testosterone C ___ Contraction of uterus E 34-14
  15. 15. Thyroid Gland and Parathyroid Glands Thyroid Gland Located below the larynx  Divided into follicles that store some of the hormones  Major hormones T3 T4 Stimulate protein synthesis and increase cellular energy production Lowers blood calcium levels by activating osteoblasts that Glands build new bone tissue 34-15
  16. 16. Thyroid Gland and Parathyroid Glands (cont.) • Parathyroid glands – Four located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland – Secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) • Agonist to calcitonin by raising blood calcium levels through activation of osetoclasts (dissolve bone) – As bone dissolves, calcium levels in blood increase Glands 34-16
  17. 17. 34-17 Apply Your Knowledge True or False: ANSWER: __ Thyroid hormones stimulate protein synthesis. T Thyroid follicles store __ The thyroid gland does not store hormones. some hormones. F __ PTH activates osteoblasts. F PTH activates osteoclasts. __ Calcitonin increases cellular energy production. F Thyroid hormone increases cellular energy production. T __ The four parathyroid glands are located on the thyroid gland. __ Calcitonin lowers blood calcium levels. T
  18. 18. Adrenal Glands • Located on top of each kidney • Divided into the adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex • Adrenal medulla – Central portion – Hormones • Epinephrine • Norepinephrine • Same effects as sympathetic nervous system Glands 34-18
  19. 19. Adrenal Glands (cont.) • Adrenal cortex – Outermost portion – Secretes many hormones, but main ones are • Aldosterone – Stimulates body to retain sodium and water – Important in maintaining BP • Cortisol – Released when stressed – Decreases protein synthesis, resulting in slowed tissue repair – Decreases inflammation 34-19
  20. 20. Apply Your Knowledge Match the following: ANSWER: ____ Adrenal medulla B, D A. Cortisol C ____ Sodium retention B. Epinephrine A ____ Decreases inflammation C. Aldosterone B, D ____ Sympathetic effects D. Norepinephrine ____ Maintains blood pressure C Excellent! ____ Released during stress A A, C ____ Adrenal cortex 34-20
  21. 21. 34-21 Pancreas • Located behind the stomach • Both exocrine gland and endocrine gland – Exocrine – secretes digestive enzymes into a duct leading to the small intestine – Endocrine – secretes hormones into bloodstream Glands
  22. 22. Pancreas (cont.) • Islets of Langerhans secrete hormones into bloodstream – Alpha cells secrete glucagon – Beta cells secrete insulin Blood glucose concentrations Blood glucose concentrations Protein synthesis Protein synthesis 34-22
  23. 23. Apply Your Knowledge What are the effects of insulin and glucagon? ANSWER: Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration and increases protein synthesis. Glucagon does just the opposite. It increases blood glucose and decreases protein synthesis. Yippee ! 34-23
  24. 24. Other Hormone-Producing Organs • Pineal body • Thymus gland – Small gland – Located between cerebral hemispheres – Melatonin – Located between lungs – Thymosin • Promotes production of T lymphocytes • Regulates circadian rhythms • May play a role in onset of puberty Glands 34-24
  25. 25. Other Hormone-Producing Organs (cont.) • The gonads • Small intestine – Ovaries – Secretin – Cholecystokinin • Estrogen • Progesterone – Testes • Heart – Atrial natriuretic peptide – regulates BP • Testosterone • Stomach – Gastrin • Kidneys – Erythropoietin – stimulates blood cell production 34-25 Glands
  26. 26. Back 34-26
  27. 27. Apply Your Knowledge Match the following: ANSWER: D ___ Between lungs A. Pineal body A ___ Melatonin B. Heart G ___ Estrogen/testosterone C. Kidneys F ___ Gastrin D. Thymus gland E ___ Secretin E. Small intestine C ___ Erythropoietin F. Stomach B ___ Atrial natriuetic peptide G. Gonads D ___ Thymosin E ___ Cholecystokinin 34-27
  28. 28. 34-28 The Stress Response • Stressor – Any stimulus that produces stress – Types • Physical factors • Psychological factors • Positive stimuli
  29. 29. The Stress Response (cont.) • Physiologic response to stress caused by hormone release – General stress syndrome • Increased heart rate, respiratory rate, and BP • Increase in glucose and fatty acids in blood, which leads to weight loss • Increase in cortisol if stress prolonged – Decreased body repair – Susceptibility to illness 34-29
  30. 30. Apply Your Knowledge Match the following: ANSWER: ___ Extreme heat A A. Physical stress ___ Death of friend B B. Psychological stress ___ Fractured leg A C. Positive stimulus ___ Wedding C ___ Exam B ___ Hearing an explosion nearby B ___ “A” on an exam C ___ Flu A ___ Car stolen B 34-30
  31. 31. 34-31 Common Diseases and Disorders Disease/Disorder Acromegaly Description Too much growth hormone produced in adults; enlargement of bones and thickened skin Addison’s disease Adrenal gland fails to produce enough corticosteroids Cretinism Extreme form of hypothyroidism present prior to or soon after birth Cushing’s disease Hypercortisolism; over-production of cortisol Diabetes insipidus Kidneys fail to reabsorb water, resulting in excessive urination; hyposecretion of ADH
  32. 32. 34-32 Common Diseases and Disorders (cont.) Disease/Disorder Diabetes mellitus Description Chronic disease characterized by elevated blood glucose levels Type I Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; usually develops in childhood Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; primarily in adults but increased incidence in teens Occurs during pregnancy; usually temporary Type II Gestational Dwarfism Too little growth hormone (somatotropin) produced during childhood
  33. 33. 34-33 Common Diseases and Disorders (cont.) Disease/Disorder Description Gigantism Too much growth hormone produced during childhood Goiter Enlargement of thyroid gland, causing swelling in neck; deficiency of iodine in diet Grave’s disease Hyperthyroidism; antibodies attach to thyroid gland, causing it to produce too much thyroid hormone Thyroid gland produces inadequate amounts of thyroid hormone; common in females over 50 Myxedema
  34. 34. Apply Your KnowledgeCorrect! True or False: ANSWER: in an adult ___ Acromegaly develops as a result of too much growth hormone in a child. F T ___ In diabetes insipidus, the kidneys fail to reabsorb water. ___ Too little growth hormone in childhood results in dwarfism. T ___ Myxedema is the result of hyperthyroidism. F hypothyroidism ___ Addison’s disease is the result of too little corticosteroid. T ___ Cushing’s disease is the result of too little ACTH. F too much ACTH ___ Cretinism is an extreme form of hyperthyroidism present at birth. F hypothyroidism 34-34
  35. 35. In Summary • The organs of the endocrine system secrete hormones directly into blood and other body fluids. • Hormones secreted by the endocrine system control the functions of other cells. • Endocrine organs – – – – – – – – – 34-35 Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Adrenal glands Pancreas Pineal body Thymus gland Gonads, stomach small intestine, heart, kidneys