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Transgenic animals ppt

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Transgenic animals ppt

  1. 2. TRANSGENIC ANIMALS <ul><li>UNDER GUIDENCE OF : </li></ul><ul><li>Ms.Meenu Singh </li></ul><ul><li>M.Pharm(Ph.D.) </li></ul><ul><li>Asst.Proffesor </li></ul><ul><li>Dept. Pharmacology </li></ul>By: M.V.Prasanth M.Pharm Pharmacology
  2. 3. Contents: <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Methods used to produce transgenic animals </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of Transgenic animals </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 4. Definition: <ul><li>A Transgenic animal is one that carries a foreign gene that has been deliberately inserted into its genome. </li></ul><ul><li>The foreign gene is constructed using recombinant DNA methodology </li></ul>
  4. 5. Advantages: <ul><li>Increased growth rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved disease resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved food conversion rates. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased muscle mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved nutritional quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved wool quality. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Disadvantages: <ul><li>Inserted gene has multiple functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Breeding problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes leads to mutagenesis and functional disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Low survival rate of transgenic animals. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Methods to produce Transgenic animals: <ul><li>The Embryonic Stem Cell Method. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pronucleus Method. </li></ul><ul><li>Retro virus mediated gene </li></ul><ul><li>transfer. </li></ul>
  7. 8. The Embryonic Stem Cell Method: <ul><li>Embryonic stem cells </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of gametocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Injection into blastocysts </li></ul><ul><li>Injection into foster mother </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of new individual. </li></ul>
  8. 9. The Pronucleus Method: <ul><li>Formation of DNA as in the first method. </li></ul><ul><li>Fusion of male pronucleus with desired DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of diploid zygote. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitotic division </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of two-cell embryo. </li></ul><ul><li>Transferring to foster mother. </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of new individual. </li></ul>
  9. 11. The image is an comparision between a transgenic mouse and a normal mouse. The giant mouse developed from a fertilized egg transformed with a recombinant DNA molecule containing the Human growth Hormone.
  10. 12. Retro Virus Mediated Gene Transfer: <ul><li>Retroviruses used as vectors to transfer genetic material into the host cell, resulting in a chimera , an organism consisting of tissues or parts of diverse genetic constitution </li></ul>
  11. 13. Examples for genetically modified animals: <ul><li>Mice </li></ul><ul><li>Goat </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><li>Chicken </li></ul><ul><li>Cow </li></ul><ul><li>Horse </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs </li></ul><ul><li>Fish </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><li>Spiders </li></ul><ul><li>Guinea pigs </li></ul><ul><li>Rabbits </li></ul><ul><li>Rats </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Transgenic cows carrying extra copies of two types of casein genes produce 13% more milk protein. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently the milk from these animals is under FDA review. </li></ul>Transgenic Cow:
  14. 16. <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Organ transplant harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Study of human membrane </li></ul><ul><li>co-factor protein </li></ul>Enviropig:
  15. 17. <ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Breeding problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutation will occur . </li></ul><ul><li>Discharges phytase which is pollutant to environment. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Transgenic fish: <ul><li>Tilapia </li></ul><ul><li>Salmon/trout </li></ul><ul><li>Catfish </li></ul><ul><li>Can grow up to 6 times faster than wildtype fish </li></ul><ul><li>Most have extra copies of growth hormone (GH) gene </li></ul>
  17. 19. Transgenic sheep: <ul><li>Tracy is the first transgenic animal to produce a recombinant protein in her milk. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Uses of transgenic sheep: <ul><li>It is used as a model for studying: </li></ul><ul><li>Immunology </li></ul><ul><li>Human blood clotting factor viii </li></ul><ul><li>Transplantation </li></ul><ul><li>Haematology </li></ul><ul><li>Biological product manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Recombinant DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Drug production in milk </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Failed in vitro fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul>
  20. 22. Transgenic Mice <ul><li>Knock-out technology allows for the specific loss of a gene in mice </li></ul>
  21. 23. Advantages: <ul><li>Gene mutation </li></ul><ul><li>Alzheimer's disease </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Atherosclerosis </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac hypertrophy </li></ul><ul><li>Human leukocyte antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Human gastric carcinoma </li></ul><ul><li>Making poliovirus vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>Different type of cancer </li></ul><ul><li>HIV studies </li></ul><ul><li>Ocular inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis B virus </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal muscular atrophy (knock-out) </li></ul>
  22. 24. Disadvantages: <ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Gene can only be added not deleted </li></ul><ul><li>Embryos are not easily accessible for manipulation. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Transgenic Monkey: <ul><li>Its so similar to human hence it used in clinical trail used for studying : </li></ul><ul><li>1. HIV </li></ul><ul><li>2. Huntington’s disease Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Breeding problem </li></ul>
  24. 26. Transgenic Rabbit: <ul><li>Alba, the EGFP (enhanced GFP) bunny. </li></ul><ul><li>Created in 2000 as a transgenic artwork. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Advantages: <ul><li>Hemorrhagic disease </li></ul><ul><li>Gene mutation </li></ul><ul><li>Cell metabolisms </li></ul><ul><li>Eye disease </li></ul><ul><li>Heart problems </li></ul><ul><li>Atherosclerosis </li></ul><ul><li>Retinal degeneration </li></ul>
  26. 28. Conclusion: <ul><li>Transgenic animals are now-a-days used for screening of many drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Using of transgenic animals reduce number of experimental animals during testing. </li></ul>

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