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Library research paper


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Library research paper

  1. 1. Polytechnic University of the Philippines MARAGONDON BRANCH Maragondon, Cavite A LIBRARY RESEARCH ON “MUSIC” By: Diana R. Araracap, BSA-1 January 19, 2015 SUBMITTED IN THE PARTIAL FULFILMENT AS A REQUIREMENT IN THE SUBJECT ENGL 1023 WRITING IN THE DISCIPLINE (Fr) Hermogenes P. Verano, DPA Subject Professor
  2. 2. PREFACE This work began as a research paper intended to show how the music works in our life. We conducted this research for us to know the beauty of music in the world. The main goal of this research is to be knowledgeable enough about music and the factors that surround it. This Research paper created as the partial completion of the subject ENGL1023 Writing in the Discipline. It is arrange for the information about music. Sight-Reading is a technical term we used in music and with this research we want to know and analyse it better than we knew it. While music that reflects our emotion is a psychological factor of it, we will find out how deep it is in a human being, to understand also their feelings and to know the effects of music in our lives. Lastly, music in the society is the sociological effect of music in people that’s why we made a research on it. Araracap/ ii
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First and foremost, I would like to thanks God for everything that he has given to me. For a shower of blessings, for guiding me always, and for making this research a possible one. Also thank you God for the courage, strength, and wisdom to be able to write this research well enough. Also, I would like to give gratitude to my professor in this subject, Fr. Hermogenes P. Verano, DPA .Thanks for allowing me to do this kind of research and for guiding me on what to do. Next is to my Family. I’m so grateful that you always support and love me unconditionally. Thank you for supporting me financially, emotionally, mentally, and physically. Also, I would like to give credits to my cousin, Krizie Araracap Jaberina, for letting me use her laptop in typing my research. Furthermore, I would like to thanks to my friends who always there for me. Special thanks to my ladies namely: Rhowen Anne Sosa Torres, Casey Llagas Alvarez, and Madelene Sierra Dones. Also to Mike C. Lapeciros, Reggie Brazil and Yury Samonte, because there are the ones who’d been my research buddies. I would also like to recognize the libraries that I went to for my research, the reading rooms of General Trias, Naic and Tanza Cavite. I’m so thankful that they allow me to conduct my research on these places. And for all the people that became a part of my research, a heart-warming thanks for you. Good day and God bless. Araracap/ iii
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTS Contents Pages TITLE PAGE…………………………………………………......i PREFACE………………………………………………………....ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………………...…......iii TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………….....iv Introduction………………………………………………………...1 Anecdote………….………………………………………………...1 History….…………………………………………….….…..…......2 Definition of Terms…………………………….………………......3 Music in an art of the following:  Music: The Sight-Reading……………………………….......6  Music as an Emotional Reflector……………………….........7  Music as a Buddy of Society………………………………....9 Summary……………………………………………………............12 Recommendation…………………………………………................13 Bibliography…………………………….………………..............,,..14 Appendices.....………………...………………………………..……15 Appendix A…..………...………………………………………........16 Appendix B……………………………………………………….....17 Araracap/ iv
  5. 5. Introduction Anecdote When I was younger, I didn’t have a great love for music as I do now. I mainly, listened to whatever song was playing in the radio. But as time pass by, I realized that I am starting to fall in love in music. Especially in high school, I must break my walls and be active to gain more confidence and more friends. When I am a third year high school, I started to join a choir in Tanza church specifically Celestial Choir. That time I fell that this decision that I made is just right. And there, I gained more friends, I became sociable, I learned things about music (and still learning), but most specially, I learn to love God. There’s a time that I’m the one who is assigned in the solo part in Papuri sa Diyos. As a result, some parts are not so good, but they said that it’s okay. We also sung in funeral when we were needed. We also experienced singing in a kumpil. The last time that I’ve got solo part in the choir was on December 22 at Misa de Gallo. That was the longest solo that I did in a song. That time, our pianist said that I would sing in acapella and I was just got nervous, a big time. And I sung in the entourage of our priest, together with the altar servers. But thanks God because I sing the song perfectly. Expressing what you feel is what I do every time I listen to music. There’s a time that I’m in pain, and I listen to songs that hits my heart. That time, that song eases the pain in me. It releases the agony that burdens my heart a lot. But that was just back then. Experience is the best teacher. This experience can teach you lessons in life. And reminiscing memories in our life is very pleased in mind. So let’s treasure every little moment of our life, and we only live ones. Araracap/ 1
  6. 6. History After the collapse of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, Western Europe entered a time known as “The Dark Ages”- a period when invading hordes of Vandals, Huns, and Visigoths overran Europe. It was during this time that Pope Gregory I is generally believed to have collected and codified the music known as “Gregorian Chant,” which was approved music of the church. Much later, the university at Notre Dame in Paris saw the creation of a new music called organum. (Sherrane 22) And it was during these “Middle Ages” that Western culture saw the appearance of the first great name in music, Guillaume De Machaut. Renaissance which means rebirth was a time of cultural arising and flowering of the arts, letters, and sciences in Europe. It was also a time of clash between science and religion. One of the early masters of the Flemish style was Josquin Des Prez. These polyphonic traditions reached their culmination in the unsurpassed works of Giovanni de Palestrina. (Sherrane 23) Named after the popular ornate architectural style of the time, the baroque period saw composers beginning to rebel against the styles that were prevalent during the high Renaissance. Johann Sebastian Bach, was the greatest composer of the period. It was during the early part of the seventeenth century that the genre of opera was first created by a group of composers in Florence, Italy and the earliest operatic masterpiece were composed by Claudio Monterverdi. The instrumental concerto became a staple of the baroque era. (Sherrane 23) Dances such as minuet, and the gavotte were provided in the forms of entertaining serenades and divertimenti. The classical period reached its majestic culmination with the masterful symphonies, sonatas, and string quarters by the three great composers of the Viennese school: Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven. (Sherrane 24). Araracap/ 2
  7. 7. From roughly artists, architects, and musicians moved from the heavily ornamented styles of the baroque and instead embraced a clean uncluttered style they thought reminiscent of classical Greece. Romanticism derives its’ name from the romances of the medieval times – long poems telling stories of the heroes and chivalry of distant lands and faraway places, and often of unattainable love. Definition of Terms According to Merriam Webster, Music is the science or art of ordering tones or sounds in succession, in combination, and in temporal relationship to produce a composition having unity and continuity.(Merriam Webster 237) And according to Edward Teall, Music is an art of sound in time that expresses ideas and emotion in significant forms through the elements of rhythm, melody, harmony, and color. (Teall, 187) The tones or sounds employed, occurring in single line (melody) or multiple lines (harmony) and the sounded or to be sounded by one or more voices or instruments or both. Pitch is known by its relative position in a scale of high and low tones. The highness and lowness of tones are determined by the frequency of vibrations of the sound waves reaching ear. The larger the number of vibrations per second, the higher is the pitch. (Bautista et al 55) Rhythm is a flow of movement, based on an accent pattern or a regular recurrence of the heavy and light accents, conforming to the time signature of the composition. (Bautista et al 54) Duration of a tone is the time within which it lasts. It is determined by the time value of notes. Harmony is a pleasing combination of simultaneous tones that blend agreeably with the main pattern or melody. Araracap/ 3
  8. 8. Intensity is the relative loudness and softness of tonal effect. It is determined by the size of the vibrations of the sound waves. The wider the vibrations, the louder is the tone. ( Bautista et al 55) Timbre is the quality of tone which depends on the nature of the substance causing the vibration –it is that quality which distinguishes voices and instruments. Color is the radiant energy or expression put by a musician into a musical piece. On this tone color depends very much the life and beauty of the composition. The tone color or dynamic intensity by signs. ( Bautista et al 54 ) Form is the arrangement of the parts and elements of a composition, having symmetry and unity, and harmonious contrast for beauty and variety. Araracap/ 4
  9. 9. Music is an artful arrangement because it has sight-Reading, an emotional reflector, and a buddy of our society. Music is an art of sounds across time. This definition is obviously very broad, but a narrower one would exclude too much. Music is part of virtually every culture on Earth, but it varies widely among cultures in style and structure. Music comes from the Greek word mousik which means “the art of muse”. Muse is one of the nine sister goddesses of song and poetry and of the arts and sciences.( Bustista et al 3) Music is an art of combining tones in a pleasant manner. It is an art that permeates every human society. Without music, world is a lonely place. Music also, gives light to every people who listen to it. It is quite common to see somebody walking in the street with their headphones on. You know that they are listening to music. It is not easy to find a coffee shop which has no music on the background, and it is also so boring and unusual to see a bar which has no music. It is undisputable that music is everywhere in our lives. It gives soothe to those who are in pain, and offers joy to those who are inspired. Music is not just about singing, or listening to it. It’s the eyes that sings too, but, we must first study it to understand it better, and that’s what we called “sight-reading”. It’s not just about the mouth that sings, but also the eyes do so. We come to music to be freed our stressfulness. Listening to the rhythm of music can stimulate our brain to forget all complicated thoughts. Music is the treatment of our soul. It helps us release our sorrow when we have a bad day and have happiness when we have a good day. It gives us inspiration to live a good life. Araracap/ 5
  10. 10. Music has its own magic to consolidate the connection between people. It is not coincidental when friends ask us about our favourite music, because we know that the music we listen to will bring us together. Music has its power to solidify intimacy. A quote from a reggae singer, and artist Bob Marley, “One good thing about music, when it hits you, you feel no pain”. And that’s what music is all about. Music: The Sight-Reading Can music be seen? An important attribute of the accomplished musician is the ability to “hear mentally”, that is to know how a given piece of music sounds without recourse to an instrument. (Ottman xvii) Sight-singing, together with ear training and other studies in musicianship, helps develop this attribute. Originally, sight-singing was first coined as sight-reading. It is the reading and performing of a piece of written music, specifically when the performer has not seen it before. Authors in music literature commonly use the term sight-reading basically for the read and produce both instrumental and vocal music at first sight. It is the conversion of musical information from sight to sound. (Udtaisuk 54) In short, the sight-reading is the word used for the silent reader of music without creating sound by instrument or voice. Highly skilled musicians can sight-read silently; that is, they can look at the printed music and hear it in their heads without playing or singing. Less able sight-reader generally must at least hum or whistle in order to sight-read effectively. (Manguel 68) Araracap/ 6
  11. 11. “The ability to hear the notes on the page is clearly akin to music reading and should be considered a prerequisite for effective performance. Egregious errors can occur when a student, analysing a piece of music, makes no effort to play or hear the composition but mechanically processes the notes on the page.” (Payne 40) A sight-singing is the combination of sight-reading and singing skills. While, sight-playing combines two unique skills: music reading and music making. The goal of sight singing is the ability to sing at first sight, with correct rhythm and pitch, a piece of music previously unknown to performer.Accomplishing this goal demonstrates that the music symbols on paper were first comprehended mentally before being performed. (Ottman xvii) Music as an Emotional Reflector Like many people, music is a great passion of mine, I like singing, writing, and listening to music as a creative outlet and for entertainment. I listen to music to lift my mood when I’m down, and to brighten an already radiant day. When we connect with music it has an impact on our emotions, and is an activity where we can connect with others, revive our energy, and experience greater joy. Research isn’t totally clear about how people emotionally respond to music, but there is some research that shows people intentionally listen to music to regulate their mood, and that positive emotions tend to be dominant response. More often than not when we listen to music that we enjoy, it provides an increase in positive emotion and feelings, such as contentment, happiness, and interest. (Wilner 5) Araracap/ 7
  12. 12. Music is an outlet to release emotions. People who had a hard time telling their true feelings to someone mostly show it through music. Also, those people who have an emotional stress tend to listen music for them to relieve their anxiety. The researchers found that music powerfully influenced the emotional ratings of the faces. Happy music made happy faces seem even happier while sad music exaggerated the melancholy of a frown. A similar effect was also observed with neutral faces. The simple moral is that the emotions of music are “cross-modal,” and can easily spread from sensory system to another. Music with its various moods has a match for every conditions and occasion. There are song for the sad and the weary, songs for the gay and the cheery. There are songs that stir men to heroic action and the songs that comfort the down hearted, songs that brings back memories and songs that promise a bright future. There are operas, arias, and symphonies for lovers of the grand; and the sacred songs for consecration and deepening of religious ardor. (Bautista et al 3) Like language, another arrangement of sounds, music is a uniquely human form of communication with well-developed rules of construction much like grammar. Some language experts would say that you can listen to someone speaking a language you do not understand and still know whether the speaker is excited or tired, angry or delighted. You would be making interpretations based upon the speech patterns: loud or soft, high-pitched or low-pitched, rapid and bitten off, or slow and smooth. We all have a personal preference for music, and enjoy listening to music in a specific context, and with certain people. Though, regardless of these individual differences music has an impact on our emotional state. (Wilner 5) Araracap/ 8
  13. 13. When we feel comfortable and are listening to music we enjoy, music can set us free and open us to experience amusement, fun, and delight.Sure music can bring back troubling memories when we listen to sad music, but think of all times when you hear a happy song and it brings you back to a remarkable moment in your past. Maybe it was your first crush, first date, or when you got married. We all have songs that can really brighten our day and remind us of proud and significant moments in our life. (Wilner 5) Music can also stimulate and awakens our nervous system. If you’re looking for a boost of energy, music is what you need. We are likely to listen up beat or rhythmic music to arouse us to be productive and be more enthusiastic. Music can be up boosting energy and gets us to take action, keep us alert, and maintain a cheerful attitude. Music easily changes our mood. It influences us by their rhythm, or by the message of the song. Music is so magical that no one can’t resist. Music is really the Earth. Music as a Buddy of Society When we want to share good times and celebrate, music is often involved. Music helps people come together and embrace the moment by rejoicing and having fun. When we see other people having a good time it can be contagious and provide a shared emotional experience. Music and society have always been intimately related. Music reflects and creates social conditions- including the factors that either facilitate or impede social change. The development of recording techniques in the latter half of the 20th century has revolutionized the extent to which most people have access to music. (Francis 29). All kinds of music are available to most people, 24 hours a day, at the touch of a switch. Araracap/ 9
  14. 14. The down side of this easy availability of music in the Western world is that there is a tendency for it to be taken for granted. Music is a very powerful medium and in some societies there have been attempts to control its’ use. It is powerful at the level of the social group because it facilities communication which goes beyond words, enables meaning to be shared, and promotes the development and maintenance of individual, group, cultural, and national identities. It is powerful at the individual level because it can induce multiple responses –physiological, movement, mood, emotional, cognitive, and behavioural. (Francis 30) Few other stimuli have effects on such a wide range of human functions. The brain multiple processing of music can make it difficult to predict the particular effects of any piece of music on any individual. The power of music to act therapeutically has long been recognized. Therapy can involve listening to or actively making music. Increasingly it may involve both. Music can be effective in conjunction with other interventions in promoting relaxation, alleviating anxiety and pain in medicine and dentistry, and promoting well-being through the production of particular endorphins. (Francis 30) It has also been use to promote appropriate behaviour in vulnerable groups and enhance the quality of life to those who cannot helped medically. In parallel with this, there is a large industry concerned with the effects of music on workers and consumers. Music can influence our purchasing behaviour in subtle ways in a range of environments. (Francis 31) Araracap/ 10
  15. 15. It can assist our ability to remember product names and enhance the product through association with like music. When consumers are actively involved in making a decision about buying product, music is likely to play a more peripheral role. The evidence outlined above indicates the extent to which music pervade our everyday lives and influences our behaviour. This demand for music is likely to continue to increase. To support our appetite for music, the music industries in the developed world constitute a major element of the economies of many countries. They are in danger of losing their skilled work force in the future because of the extent to which music is taken for granted. Araracap/ 11
  16. 16. Summary There is no reason why anybody in the music world, professional or layman, should find himself in the position of not understanding a piece of 20th century music if he is willing to give himself a little trouble. Music also sings in our eyes. With the coordination of our ears and mouth, we can create a harmonious and melodic song that comes from our heart. Sight-reading is the reading and performing of a piece of written music, specifically when the performer has not seen it before. Some highly skilled musicians can do this sight-reading.A sight-singing is the combination of sight-reading and singing skills. While, sight-playing combines two unique skills: music reading and music making. The goal of sight singing is the ability to sing at first sight, with correct rhythm and pitch, a piece of music previously unknown to performer. (Ottman xvii) Music is a reflector of our emotion. When we feel in pain we sometimes listen to slow rhythm song to relief our agony. When we are happy, we incline to listen to songs that are upbeat, so that we became much happier. We all have a personal preference for music, and enjoy listening to music in a specific context, and with certain people. Though, regardless of these individual differences music has an impact on our emotional state. (Wilner 5) Music is the buddy of our society. They have always been intimately related. Music reflects and creates social conditions- including the factors that either facilitate or impede social change. Music can influence our purchasing behaviour in subtle ways in a range of environments. It is important to society since it can change our lives. Music is very accessible nowadays because of the technology that has invented today. The bad side of it is that it was taken for granted. Araracap/ 12
  17. 17. Recommendation We all have radios in our home. We have now a television. We can access the computer. And all of us have a cellphone with mp3 or radio on it. There are a lot of technologies that can access the music. And it is very easy for us to listen to it. Then, because of our technology, we are not giving importance to music. We are taking it for granted. Some songs are having a bad message like they use some trash words in their songs. I suggest to at least don’t use music for influencing and using trash words to their songs because some kids are listening to it and it might copy the singer’s song. Also, some songs are made to subject sex. Therefore, I would suggest that don’t use music to subject sex. People nowadays became wild when it comes to sex. It is very terrifying that the number of rape cases and some act associated to sex are now increasing and maybe one of the reasons is music themed in sex. Music is a very peaceful one. Please do not take it for granted. It is very important in our lives. Yes, music is just a small thing, but without it, can world really be happy? Without this small thing, the earth will become so quiet, so boring. The world will not be exciting, not be so thrilling. Music can also connect people, can change our mood. Music is a magic. Araracap/ 13
  18. 18. Bibliography Sherrane, Robert(2009) Music History 102:a Guideto Western Composers and their music. Chilton BOOK Company, Michigan, U.S.A. Webster, Noah (2004) Merriam-Webster Dictionary Merriam-Webster Inc, Springfield Massachusetts, U.S.A A.M. Teall, Edward N. (1965) Webster’s New HandyPocket Dictionary. BOOKS INC, New York, U.S.A. Ottman, Robert, W. (2010) Music of Sight Singing.2nd edition Music Publishers, Inc. New York, U.S.A. Udtaisuk, Dneya (2005) A Theoretical Model of PianoSightPlaying components , Published by Chiton/Haynes, Missouri-Columbia Manguel, Alberto (1996) The Silent Readers, A History Of Reading. New York: Viking Payne, Dorothy (2005) Essential Skills part1 of 4: Essential Skill for Promoting a Lifelong Love of music and music making. American Music Teacher Inc. Wilner, Joe (2011) How Music Can Improve Your Mood . Psych. Central Press, U.S.A Francis, David(2008) The Powerful Role Of Music in Society The Performing Right Society, Berners Street, LondonWIT 3AB Bautista, Magdalena P. et al (1961) An Introduction to Music National Book Store Inc., National Book Store, Philippines Araracap/ 14
  19. 19. APPENDICES Araracap/ 15
  20. 20. APPENDIX A Araracap/ 16
  21. 21. APPENDIX B Araracap/ 17