6)The Human Body

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6)The Human Body

  1. 1. The Human Body
  2. 2. What is A&P? <ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of structure of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of those structures functions </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Normal Anatomical Position <ul><li>Normal Anatomical Position </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standing erect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feet together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arms at side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palms facing forward </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Anatomical Directional Terms <ul><li>Superior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Further from the ground/Close to head </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inferior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close to the ground/Close to feet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anterior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toward front of body (AKA. Ventral) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Posterior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toward back of body (AKA. Dorsal) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close to the midline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lateral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farther away from the midline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilateral- Both R and L side </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Anatomical Directional Terms <ul><li>Proximal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closer to the trunk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farther away from the trunk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At, in, or near the core </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peripheral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Away from the center of the body </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Anatomical Divisionary Lines <ul><li>Midline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divides body into Right and Left halves. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Anatomical Divisionary Lines <ul><li>Mid-clavicular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passes through middle of clavicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel to the midline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in assessing lung sounds </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Anatomical Divisionary Lines <ul><li>Midaxillary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passes vertically through armpits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divides body into anterior/posterior halves </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Anatomical Surfaces <ul><li>Palmer Surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Palm of hands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plantar Surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sole of foot </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Anatomical Positions <ul><li>Supine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lying on back </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lying face down </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recumbent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lying on side </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Anatomical Positions <ul><li>Trendelenburg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supine with feet elevated and head down </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fowlers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sitting position </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shock Position </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supine with feet elevated 8”-12” </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Anatomical Motion Terms <ul><li>Abduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ab”=away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement away from body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ add”= toward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement toward to the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flexion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bending of a joint </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Straightening of a joint </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Body Systems <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells – Tissues – Organ - Organ System - Organism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tissue Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contract to allow motion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth, Skeletal, Cardiac </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct impulses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epithelial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protective and semi permeable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structure/protection/attachment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extracellular matrix, bone, cartilage, blood </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Skeletal System <ul><li>14% total body weight </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape, Movement, Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood cell production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocrine Regularion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mineralized osseous tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soft connective tissue/Collagen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attach muscle to bone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collagen, Elastin, Proteogylcans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ligaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attach bone to bone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collagen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Axial Skeleton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appendicular Skeleton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper limbs, pelvic girdle, lower limbs </li></ul></ul>
  15. 18. Axial Skeleton Skull <ul><li>Skull </li></ul><ul><ul><li>22 bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cranium + Face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encases brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain + CSF + Vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Little space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Facial Bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eyes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal Bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maxilla </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Jaw </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zygomatics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cheekbones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Jaw </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 20. Axial Skeletal Vertebral Column <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>33 Vertebrae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intervertebral disks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Divisions of Vertebrae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervical (C-) = 7 Neck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C1 = Atlas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C2 = Axis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoracic (T-)= 12 Chest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lumbar (L-)= 5 Lower Back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacral (S-)= 5 Back of pelvis (fused) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coccyx (C-)= 4 Tailbone (fused) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 21. Axial Skeletal Thoracic Cage <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of thoracic cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports shoulder girdle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 pairs of ribs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1-10 attach to sternum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>11-12 “float” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sternum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manubrium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xiphoid process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costal cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connect ribs to sternum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoracic vertebrae (12) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 22. Appendicular Skeleton Upper Extremities <ul><li>Clavicle </li></ul><ul><li>Scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Acromion (Tip of shoulder) </li></ul><ul><li>Humerus </li></ul><ul><li>Olecranon (elbow) </li></ul><ul><li>Radius </li></ul><ul><li>Ulna </li></ul><ul><li>Carpals (wrist) </li></ul><ul><li>Metacarpals (hands) </li></ul><ul><li>Phalanges (fingers) </li></ul>
  19. 23. Appendicular Skeleton Lower Extremities <ul><li>Greater Trochanter (head of femur) </li></ul><ul><li>Acetabulum (socket of hip) </li></ul><ul><li>Femur (thigh) </li></ul><ul><li>Patella (knee) </li></ul><ul><li>Tibia (shin) </li></ul><ul><li>Fibula (lower leg) </li></ul><ul><li>Medial/Lateral malleolus (ankle) </li></ul><ul><li>Tarsals and metatarsals (foot) </li></ul><ul><li>Calcaneus (heel) </li></ul><ul><li>Phalanges (toes) </li></ul>
  20. 24. Appendicular Skeleton Pelvis <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support and protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ilium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pubis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior portion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ischium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inferior portion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coccyx </li></ul></ul>
  21. 25. Joints <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 or more bones connecting to bones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ball and socket </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hip/Shoulder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wide Range of motion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elbow/knee </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motion in 1 plane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexion and extension only </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 26. Body Cavities
  23. 27. Body Cavities <ul><li>Cranial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enclosed by skull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains: brain, eyes, ears </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vertebral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enclosed by vertebrae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains: spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thoracic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enclosed by ribcage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bounded by diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains: trachea, esophagus, lungs, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, heart, great vessels, thymus gland, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abdominopelvic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enclosed by ribcage and pelvis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains: kidneys, ureters, stomach, large/small intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divided into quadrants (next slide) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelvic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enclosed by pelvis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains: urinary bladder, anus, reproductive organs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 28. Abdominal Quadrants
  25. 29. Respiratory System
  26. 30. Respiratory System <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas exchange with outside environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtration/Humidification/Warming/Conduction of air </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naso/Oro/Laryngopharynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchioles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Associated muscles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveoli </li></ul></ul>
  27. 31. Upper Airway Nose/Mouth <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moistens </li></ul></ul>
  28. 32. Upper Airway Pharynx <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior to mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior to esophagus, larynx, trachea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducts air to bronchi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 Divisions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nasopharynx </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oropharynx </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laryngopharynx </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 33. Upper Airway Epiglottis <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sits posterior to larynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attached to tongue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaf shaped cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents food/liquid from entering larynx during swallowing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guards opening to vocal cords (glottis) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 34. Upper Airway Larynx <ul><li>AKA: “Voice box” </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferior to epiglottis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior to trachea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartilaginous rings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid Cartilage = “Adam’s Apple” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bulk of anterior wall </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cricoid Cartilage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firm rings forming lower aspect/base </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stops foreign objects that pass epiglottis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laryngospasm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice production </li></ul></ul>
  31. 35. Lower Airway Trachea <ul><li>AKA: “Windpipe” </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferior to Larynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior to Esophagus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bifurcates into primary bronchi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartilaginous rings anterior and lateral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Approx 15-20 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle tissue posterior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trachealis muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why???? </li></ul></ul>
  32. 36. Lower Airway Bronchi <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bifurcation of trachea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd Intercostal space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Angle of Louis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right and Left main stem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irregular hyaline cartilage rings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducts air to lungs </li></ul></ul>
  33. 37. Lower Airway Bronchioles <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distal bifurcations of the bronchi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminate at alveoli </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct air to alveoli </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st airways with NO cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ALL muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchoconstriction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchospasm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>< 1 mm wide =Tiny </li></ul></ul>
  34. 38. Lower Airway Alveoli <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal sacs of bronchial tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distal to bronchioles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particular to mammalian lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>150 million/lung </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 cell thick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface are= 75m 2 (Tennis court) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased SA= Increased 0 2 absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.2-0.3 mm diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covered in capillaries (70%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bathed in surfactant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion of gas with capillaries </li></ul></ul>
  35. 40. Lower Airway Lungs <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilateral of midline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided into lobes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Left= 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right= 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Houses structure for gas exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alteration of pH </li></ul></ul>
  36. 41. Lower Airway Mucociliary Escalator <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Along epithelium of primary bronchi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beat in rhythm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cilia projections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Hair like” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move debris up out of lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cough or swallow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smokers… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent mucous accumulation </li></ul></ul>
  37. 43. Respiratory Physiology How we breathe… <ul><li>Ventilation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical movement of air into/out of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inhalation ( Active ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles Used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphragm & External Intercostals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphragm contracts downward </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External intercostals pull ribs up and out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases dimension of chest cavity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased diameter of chest drops intra thoracic pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air rushes in until pressure is equalized </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 44. Respiratory Physiology How we breathe… <ul><li>Ventilation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical movement of air into/out of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exhalation ( Passive ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphragm relaxes as well as intercostals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chest cavity dimension decreases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease in dimension increases intrathoracic pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air rushes out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs recoil </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 46. Respiratory Physiology Gas Exchange <ul><li>Respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process by which the body utilizes oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Net movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 48. Respiratory Physiology Gas Exchange <ul><li>Respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process by which the body utilizes oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alveolar/Capillary Exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 rich air enters alveoli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 poor blood in capillaries pass alveoli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 diffuses down its concentration gradient into the capillaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 diffuses down its concentration gradient into the alveoli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 is exhaled and O 2 transported to tissues </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 49. Respiratory Physiology Gas Exchange <ul><li>Respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process by which the body utilizes oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capillary/Cellular Exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 rich blood passes cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 diffuses across its concentration gradient into the cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 diffuses across its concentration gradient into the capillary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 is transported to the alveoli </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 50. Respiratory Evaluation <ul><li>Areas of assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate. Rhythm. Depth. Quality. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult = 12-20 per minute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child = 15-30 per minute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infant -= 30-60 per minute </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rhythm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular or irregular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tidal volume adequate or inadequate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of air breathed in/out in one ventilation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Approx 500 mL </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 51. Respiratory Evaluation cont’d. <ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breath sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Midclavicular & Midaxillary lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Present or diminished or absent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chest expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unequal or symmetrical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accessory muscles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Seesaw” breathing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal flaring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retractions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Above clavicles, between ribs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cyanosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shortness of breath </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Altered mental status </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 52. Accessory Muscle Use Nasal Flaring Retractions
  45. 53. Respiratory Evaluation cont’d. <ul><li>Cyanosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue/pale coloring of skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nail beds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lips </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eyelids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is this seen in these areas first??? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicates poor perfusion </li></ul></ul>
  46. 54. Pediatric Considerations <ul><li>Mouth/Nose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller and easily obstructed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tongue is BIG </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trachea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Softer and more flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cricoid Cartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less developed/Less rigid = easily kinked </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chest is soft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depend on diaphragm to do most of the work of breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seesaw Breathing…. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 55. The Circulatory System
  48. 56. The Circulatory System Function/Components <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport system of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivers O2 and nutrients to cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Returns waste to liver/kidneys/lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transports specialized cells to fight infection. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60,000 – 100,000 miles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart </li></ul></ul>
  49. 57. The Circulatory System The heart <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just left of midline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior to sternum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior to T-spine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pump for driving of blood flow </li></ul></ul>
  50. 59. The Circulatory System Chambers of the Heart <ul><li>4 Chambers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided by a septum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Atria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receiving chambers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contract together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superior to ventricles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Ventricles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pumping Chambers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contract together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inferior to atria </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 60. The Circulatory System Valves of The Heart <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents backflow of blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create heart sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atrioventricular Valvues </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between each atria and its ventricle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tricuspid Valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between Right Atria/Ventricle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bicuspid/Mitral Valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between Left Atria/Ventricle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Semilunar Valves </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between each ventricle and its artery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonic Valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right Ventricle and Pulmonary Artery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aortic Valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Left Ventricle and Aorta </li></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 61. The Circulatory System Types of Circulation <ul><li>Separate Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right ventricle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood to the lungs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygenation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systemic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Left ventricle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood to the body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perfusion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  53. 62. The Circulatory System Conductive System <ul><li>Automaticity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to create own electrical signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pacemaker Sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sinoatrail Node (SA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60-100 bpm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atrioventricular Node (AV) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>40-60 bpm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bundle of HIS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>40-60 bpm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purkinje Fibers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20-40 bpm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  54. 64. The Circulatory System Blood Vessels <ul><li>Arteries Arterioles Capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Venules Veins </li></ul>
  55. 65. The Circulatory System Arteries <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct blood away from heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endothelial lining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THICK Smooth muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for great expansion of vessels </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 66. The Circulatory System Major Arteries <ul><ul><li>Coronary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supply heart with blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aorta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major artery from the heart to the body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1” diameter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carries O2 poor blood to lungs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Umbilical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carries O2 poor blood to lungs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carotid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major artery of the neck </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supplies the head with blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Femoral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major artery of the thigh </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supplies lower extremities with blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bifurcation of aorta at navel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major artery of the lower arm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brachial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artery of the upper arm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior tibial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artery running posterior to ankle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorsalis pedis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artery of the foot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior </li></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 68. The Circulatory System Arterioles <ul><li>Smallest branch of an artery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to a capillary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin smooth muscle wall (1-2 layers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main site of vascular resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important in blood pressure </li></ul></ul>
  58. 69. The Circulatory System Capillaries <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiny blood vessel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5-10 μ m diameter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 endothelial cell thick </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect arterioles to venules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange of gases, nutrients, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually carries no more than 50% of the volume it could </li></ul></ul>
  59. 70. The Circulatory System Venule <ul><li>Smallest branch of a vein leading from a capillary </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A vein on small scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal valves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducts deoxygenated blood out of capillaries into veins </li></ul></ul>
  60. 71. The Circulatory System Veins <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Return blood to the heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low pressure system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endothelial lining </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connective tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thinner Smooth muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connective tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Valves </li></ul></ul></ul>
  61. 72. The Circulatory System Major Veins <ul><ul><li>Pulmonary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carries O2 rich blood from lungs to left atrium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Umbilical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carries O2 rich blood from lungs to left atrium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vena Cava </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drains head/upper extremities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inferior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drains trunk/lower extremities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  62. 74. Path of blood through the heart Putting it all together <ul><li>Pulmonary Circulation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood from the body enters Right atrium via venae cavae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right Atrium contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood enters Right ventricle via Tricuspid valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right Ventricle contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood enters Pulmonary artery via Pulmonic Valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary artery carries blood to lungs for gas exchange </li></ul></ul>
  63. 76. Path of blood through the heart Putting it all together <ul><li>Systemic Circulation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood enters the L atrium via Pulmonary veins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atrium contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood enters the L ventricle via Mitral/Bicuspid Valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventricle contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood enters the aorta via Aortic Valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aorta conducts blood to body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pumps Your Blood Song </li></ul></ul>
  64. 78. The Circulatory System Blood <ul><li>5-6 Liters </li></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid that carries blood cells/nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>55% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formed Elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red Blood Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carry O2 to organs & CO2 away </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Give blood its color </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>45%, 4.2-6.1 million/mL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White Blood Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4,3000-10,800 WBC/mL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platelets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clotting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>150,000 - 350,000/mL </li></ul></ul></ul>
  65. 79. The Circulatory System Physiology Pulse <ul><li>Pulse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Palpable wave of blood sent though arteries after contraction of L ventricle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peripheral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brachial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior tibial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorsalis pedis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carotid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Femoral </li></ul></ul>
  66. 80. The Circulatory System Physiology Blood Pressure <ul><li>Blood pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Force exerted from blood on walls of vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phases of Cardiac Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systolic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure against the walls when the L ventricle contracts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diastolic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure against the walls when the L ventricle relaxes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  67. 81. The Circulatory System Physiology Perfusion <ul><li>Perfusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In an organ system: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery of O2/nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of waste products </li></ul></ul></ul>
  68. 82. The Circulatory System Pathology Shock <ul><li>Shock/Hypoperfusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure of the circulatory system to adequately perfuse and oxygenate the tissues of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signs/Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pale, cool, cyanotic, clammy skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid/shallow breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restlessness/anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea/vomiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak pulse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low blood pressure/volume </li></ul></ul>
  69. 83. Musculoskeletal System
  70. 84. Musculoskeletal System <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood cell production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ligaments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tendons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal tissue </li></ul></ul></ul>
  71. 85. Musculoskeletal System Skeletal Tissue <ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attached to bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tendons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form major muscle groups of the body </li></ul></ul>
  72. 86. Musculoskeletal System Smooth Tissue <ul><ul><li>Involuntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Walls of tubular structures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GI and urinary tract </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood vessels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control flow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carry out automatic functions of the body </li></ul></ul></ul>
  73. 87. Musculoskeletal System Cardiac Tissue <ul><ul><li>Involuntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only in heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create/conduct electrical impulses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automaticity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  74. 88. The Nervous System
  75. 89. The Nervous System <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls voluntary/involuntary activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Nervous System (Computer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal Cord </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral Nervous System (Communicator) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Associated nerves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory- Carry info from body to brain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motor – Carry info from the brain to the body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divided into </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic NS = voluntary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomic NS= Involuntary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  76. 91. Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>Sympathetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Fight or flight” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Feed or breed” </li></ul></ul>OR
  77. 93. The Nervous System The Brain <ul><li>Cerebrum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest most superior portion of the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided into R & L hemispheres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemispheres divided into specialized lobes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal = Intellect and motor function </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occipital = Eyesight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporal = Smell/Hearing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parietal = Sensory information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Brainstem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower part of the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulation, Respiration, BP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cerebellum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outpocketing of brain, posterior to brainstem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination and movement </li></ul></ul>
  78. 95. The Nervous System The Brain: Blood Supply <ul><li>Cerebral Blood Supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15% of Cardiac output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of blood is supplied by the carotid arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertebral arteries supply the rest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circle of Willis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each area of the brain has its own blood supply </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to Deprivation of glucose and O2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot store glucose itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deprivation = AMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interruption in O2 supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unconsciousness 5-10 seconds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blockage of O2 supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neural death 4-6 minutes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  79. 97. Integumentary System Skin
  80. 98. Integumentary System Skin <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest organ system in the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection from environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat, Cold, Touch, Pressure, Pain, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin D synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epidermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outermost layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No blood vessels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protection, absorption of nutrients homeostasis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deeper layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains sweat/sebaceous glands, hair folicles, blood vessels, nerve endings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gives skin its flexibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subcutaneous layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fat layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation, protective padding, energy storage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  81. 100. Endocrine System <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretes chemicals (hormones) that regulate body activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. Insulin & adrenalin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pituitary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pineal gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parathyroid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adrenals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Islets of Langerhans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testes </li></ul></ul>
  82. 101. That does it

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