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Chapter 07 - Dvr


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Chapter 07 - Dvr

  2. 2. <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how routing loops can occur in distance vector routing </li></ul><ul><li>Describe several methods used by distance vector routing protocols to ensure that routing information is accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Configure RIP </li></ul><ul><li>Use the ip classless command </li></ul><ul><li>Troubleshoot RIP </li></ul><ul><li>Configure RIP for load balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Configure static routes for RIP </li></ul><ul><li>Verify RIP </li></ul><ul><li>Configure IGRP </li></ul><ul><li>Verify IGRP operation </li></ul><ul><li>Troubleshoot IGRP </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Distance Vector Concepts </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Distance Vector Network Discovery </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Distance vector topology change </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Distance vector routing loop </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Problem : Counting to Infinity </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Solution: Defining a maximum count </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Solution: Split Horizon </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Solution : Holddown Timers </li></ul>
  11. 11. R outing I nformation P rotocol
  12. 12. <ul><li>RIP </li></ul><ul><li>It is a distance-vector routing protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>Hop count is used as the metric for path selection. </li></ul><ul><li>If the hop count is greater than 15, the packet will be discarded. </li></ul><ul><li>By default, routing updates are broadcast every 30 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>RIP implements split horizon and holddown mechanisms to prevent incorrect routing information from being propagated ( Loop ) </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Configuring RIP </li></ul><ul><li>BHM(config)# router rip – Selects RIP as the routing protocol </li></ul><ul><li>BHM(config-router)# network BHM(config-router)# network – Specifies a directly connected networks </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Common RIP configuration issues </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce routing loops and counting to infinity, RIP uses the following techniques: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Count-to-infinity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Split horizon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holddown counters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triggered updates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GAD(config-if)# no ip split-horizon </li></ul><ul><li>Router(config-router)# timers basic update invalid holddown flush </li></ul><ul><li>GAD(config-router)# update-timer seconds </li></ul><ul><li>GAD(config-router)# passive-interface s0/0 </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Verifying RIP configuration </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Verifying RIP configuration </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Verifying RIP configuration </li></ul><ul><li>BHM(config)# show ip route </li></ul><ul><li>BHM(config)# show ip protocols </li></ul><ul><li>BHM(config)# show running-config </li></ul><ul><li>BHM(config)# show interface s0/0 </li></ul><ul><li>BHM(config)# show ip interface s0/0 </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Troubleshooting RIP update issues </li></ul><ul><li>BHM(config)# debug ip rip </li></ul><ul><li>Other commands to troubleshoot RIP: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>show ip rip database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>show ip protocols {summary} </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>show ip route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>debug ip rip {events} </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>show ip interface brief </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Preventing routing updates through an interface </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Integrating static routes with RIP </li></ul><ul><li>GAD(config-router)# redistribute static </li></ul>
  21. 21. I nterior G ateway R outing P rotocol
  22. 22. <ul><li>IGRP </li></ul>Metrics: - bandwidth - delay
  23. 23. <ul><li>IGRP : Show ip route </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Configuring IGRP </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>IGRP : Timers </li></ul><ul><li>Update timer : 90 s </li></ul><ul><li>Invalid timer : 270 s </li></ul><ul><li>Holddown timer : 280 s </li></ul><ul><li>Flush timer : 630 s </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Verifying IGRP configuration </li></ul><ul><li>show ip route </li></ul><ul><li>show interface interface </li></ul><ul><li>show running-config </li></ul><ul><li>show running-config interface interface </li></ul><ul><li>show ip protocols </li></ul><ul><li>debug ip igrp events </li></ul><ul><li>debug ip igrp transactions </li></ul>