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Recap
1© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
Recap
In the previous lesson you learnt to:
• Understand key financial vocabulary
• Prac...
Public Relations
For Aptech Centre Use Only
At the end of this lesson you will be able to:
• Explain the meaning of PR using appropriate vocabulary
• Design a PR camp...
• Public relations is concerned with communicating information about a company
or famous individual to the public via the ...
Speaking Skills
5© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
Discussion
• What do you understand by the term public relations? Do you have
...
All these word partnerships (collocations) relate to PR in some way. Match the two parts
of the collocation and then find ...
Answers
7© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
PR Collocations
Adverse publicity h. Negative attention
Insider trading
d. buying and ...
Listening Skills
• You will hear part of a lecture on Public relations.
• In this part of the lecture, the speaker explain...
Listening Skills
• What do you think are the main differences between advertising and PR?
• What do you understand by ‘Cor...
Listening Skills
Listen and answer the questions at the end by choosing a, b, c or d.
1. How does the speaker define PR?
a...
Listening Skills
Listen and answer the questions at the end by choosing a, b, c or d.
3. Why does the speaker use the exam...
Listening Skills
Listen and answer the questions at the end by choosing a, b, c or d.
5. Which one of the following compan...
Listening Skills
Listen and answer the questions at the end by choosing a, b, c or d.
6. Which of the following best summa...
Listening Skills
Answers
1. c
2. a
3. c
4. c
5. b
6. d
14© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
Exercise
For Aptech Centre Use Only
Grammar
15© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
Modals of Obligation
• Obligation means we have no choice about something. We must or...
Grammar
16© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
Modals of Obligation
• I must go to the bank today.
• You mustn’t disturb him while h...
Grammar
17© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
Modals of Obligation
‘Have to’ is more common when talking about an ‘external obligat...
Grammar
18© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
Exercise
Which do you think is more appropriate in each case?
1. I must/have to visit...
Grammar
19© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
Exercise
Answers
1. I must visit my aunt and uncle soon.
2. If you have a pet you mus...
Write 2 sentences of your own showing internal obligation and 2 showing
external obligation.
_____________________________...
Answers
_______________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________...
Grammar
22© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
Exercise
While the negative form of must (mustn’t) shows another type of obligation,
...
Which of the following pairs is correct?
1. Students mustn’t/don’t have to use their phones in class.
2. You mustn’t/don’t...
Answers
1. Students mustn’t use their phones in class.
2. You don’t have to eat the vegetables.
3. Jack doesn’t have to ge...
Grammar
25© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
Obligation
Must, being a modal verb, doesn’t change its form. That means there is no
...
Write four obligations you had during your childhood.
____________________________________________________________________...
Answers
_______________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________...
Grammar
28© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
Deduction
Must can be used for obligation and deduction.
In the present tense they ma...
Grammar
29© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
Deduction
Decide if these sentences are deduction or obligation. Write D or O.
1. My ...
Grammar
30© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
Deduction
Answers
1. My son enjoys Maths now. They must have changed the teacher.
___...
Make these sentences in the past form.
1. Students must study for five hours a day.
______________________________________...
Answers
1. Students must study for five hours a day.
_____________________________________________________________________...
Reading Skills
33© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
Reading: A‘how to’article
• Read the article on how to organise a PR campaign ...
Reading Skills
34© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
Analysing the Layout and Language of an Article
• What form are the underlined...
Reading Skills
35© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
Analysing the Layout and Language of an Article
• What form are the underlined...
The words in italics relate in some way to PR. Find words that means:
• Reduce the effect of
• Positive attitude
• Follow ...
Answers
• Reduce the effect of - mitigate the impact of
• Positive attitude - goodwill
• Follow the outcome - track the re...
Preparation Stage
• Work in small groups. Think of a company or celebrity you would like to create a
PR campaign for.
• Wh...
Circulate around the class and complete the following table with the ideas of
the other groups.
39© Aptech Training Ltd. F...
• As a class organise a vote to decide which group had the best ideas for the PR
campaign.
• Don’t forget to give them a p...
41© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
Test Your Knowledge
1. Identify the sentences which show obligation/lack of obligation.
Sr. n...
42© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
Test Your Knowledge
1. Answers
Sr. no. Statement
1 I may not attend the seminar as I have som...
43© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
Test Your Knowledge
2. Which of the following statements are NOT true about PR?
Sr. no. Sente...
44© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
Test Your Knowledge
2. Answers
Sr. no. Sentences
1
PR is the use of techniques for influencin...
45© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
In a Nutshell…
In this lesson you learnt to:
• Explain the meaning of PR using appropriate vo...
46
Thank You
© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE
For Aptech Centre Use Only
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  1. 1. Recap 1© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Recap In the previous lesson you learnt to: • Understand key financial vocabulary • Practise reading for gist • Practise listening for detail • Further practise report writing For Aptech Centre Use Only
  2. 2. Public Relations For Aptech Centre Use Only
  3. 3. At the end of this lesson you will be able to: • Explain the meaning of PR using appropriate vocabulary • Design a PR campaign for a business or celebrity • Use modal verbs of obligation in the present and past • Listen and understand the key points of a lecture on PR 3© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Learning Objectives For Aptech Centre Use Only
  4. 4. • Public relations is concerned with communicating information about a company or famous individual to the public via the media. • Its aim is to improve the image of the company or person through a variety of methods, including press releases, stories and campaigns aimed at helping the community. 4© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Introduction to Public Relations (PR) For Aptech Centre Use Only
  5. 5. Speaking Skills 5© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Discussion • What do you understand by the term public relations? Do you have anything to add to the brief definition? • Why is it important for companies and celebrities? • Can you think of any examples of successful or not so successful PR campaigns? For Aptech Centre Use Only
  6. 6. All these word partnerships (collocations) relate to PR in some way. Match the two parts of the collocation and then find the meaning. One has been done for you as an example. 6© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE PR Collocations Adverse trading a. injury or damage caused at work Insider awareness b. knowledge and understanding of the people in general Industrial release c. official information given to the media by an organisation Hostile groups d. buying and selling of a public company's stock by individuals with access to non-public information about the company Public statement e. organised groups that try to change government policy on a particular issue Press takeover f. acquiring a company in an uncooperative way Pressure accident g. a formal summary of the aims and values of a company, organization, or individual Mission publicity - h h. Negative attentionFor Aptech Centre Use Only
  7. 7. Answers 7© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE PR Collocations Adverse publicity h. Negative attention Insider trading d. buying and selling of a public company's stock by individuals with access to non-public information about the company Industrial accident a. injury or damage caused at work Hostile takeover f. acquiring a company in an uncooperative way Public awareness b. knowledge and understanding of the people in general Press release c. official information given to the media by an organisation Pressure groups e. organised groups that try to change government policy on a particular issue Mission statement g. a formal summary of the aims and values of a company, organization, or individualFor Aptech Centre Use Only
  8. 8. Listening Skills • You will hear part of a lecture on Public relations. • In this part of the lecture, the speaker explains the difference between PR and advertising and goes on to give two examples of successful PR campaigns. 8© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Listening For Aptech Centre Use Only
  9. 9. Listening Skills • What do you think are the main differences between advertising and PR? • What do you understand by ‘Corporate Social Responsibility’? If you have never heard the term before, try to work out what it means from the meanings of the three words. 9© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Pre-Listening For Aptech Centre Use Only
  10. 10. Listening Skills Listen and answer the questions at the end by choosing a, b, c or d. 1. How does the speaker define PR? a. As the practice of communication with advertisers to promote publicity b. As the promotion of products or services with the aim of encouraging people to buy c. As the practice of managing the spread of information from a company to the public d. As a form of marketing communication intended to sell a particular product 2. What is the point the speaker makes about communication technology? a. It increases the importance of effective PR b. It cannot be used to influence or manipulate audiences c. Its development has not greatly influenced PR over the last 30 years d. It is an art that can make a brand or business newsworthy. 10© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Exercise For Aptech Centre Use Only
  11. 11. Listening Skills Listen and answer the questions at the end by choosing a, b, c or d. 3. Why does the speaker use the example of Jonny Cohen of Highland Park, Illinois? a. To trigger interest in the Pepsi Refresh Project. b. To show how good his project of making school buses more efficient is. c. To illustrate how successful PR has a positive impact on communities. d. To emphasize that Cohen received less money than others. 4. Why was the Stand Up To Cancer PR campaign successful? a. Because it was financially beneficial and it won an award. b. Because its name was short and its slogan was catchy. c. Because it was simple, clear and bringing benefits to the charity that launched it. d. Because it was in a good cause, it engaged people and cured cancer. 11© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Exercise For Aptech Centre Use Only
  12. 12. Listening Skills Listen and answer the questions at the end by choosing a, b, c or d. 5. Which one of the following companies or organizations is NOT mentioned by the speaker? a. Pepsi b. Coca Cola c. Body Shop d. GreenShields 12© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Exercise For Aptech Centre Use Only
  13. 13. Listening Skills Listen and answer the questions at the end by choosing a, b, c or d. 6. Which of the following best summarises Part I of the lecture: a. PR is an art that includes the following elements: supporting good causes, encouraging people to vote and having a clever name. A solid PR campaign makes your brand newsworthy. b. PR is not only an ad campaign with a catchy tune and a clever slogan but also a socially responsible practice. It needs to show Corporate Social Responsibility like the Body Shop. c. PR is a practice very closely related to advertising but needs to be distinguished from it as one that is not forced upon people and involving ethical responsibility. d. PR is an important communication strategy intended to influence audiences. If not done properly, it can do a lot of damage to an individual or organization, but is also very rewarding, if carried out responsibly and if it gives back to society. 13© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Exercise For Aptech Centre Use Only
  14. 14. Listening Skills Answers 1. c 2. a 3. c 4. c 5. b 6. d 14© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Exercise For Aptech Centre Use Only
  15. 15. Grammar 15© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Modals of Obligation • Obligation means we have no choice about something. We must or have to do it. • Both must and mustn’t are used for obligation: positive and negative. • Negative obligation is also known as prohibition. For Aptech Centre Use Only
  16. 16. Grammar 16© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Modals of Obligation • I must go to the bank today. • You mustn’t disturb him while he’s working. ‘Have to’ although technically not a modal verb has a similar meaning to ‘must’. However, there are some differences in form and meaning. ‘Must’ is more often used for ‘internal obligation’, that is something that the speaker feels he/she or the listener needs to do. • I must tidy my room. • You must come and visit me soon For Aptech Centre Use Only
  17. 17. Grammar 17© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Modals of Obligation ‘Have to’ is more common when talking about an ‘external obligation’, that is a rule or law. • Children aged between 5 and 16 have to go to school. • You have to stop at zebra crossings in the UK. (These are laws) For Aptech Centre Use Only
  18. 18. Grammar 18© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Exercise Which do you think is more appropriate in each case? 1. I must/have to visit my aunt and uncle soon. 2. If you have a pet you must/have to look after it well. 3. Boys in China must/have to do military service. 4. Pregnant women must/have to eat plenty of fruit and vegetables. 5. To drive on the road you must/have to be insured. For Aptech Centre Use Only
  19. 19. Grammar 19© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Exercise Answers 1. I must visit my aunt and uncle soon. 2. If you have a pet you must look after it well. 3. Boys in China have to do military service. 4. Pregnant women must eat plenty of fruit and vegetables. 5. To drive on the road you have to be insured. For Aptech Centre Use Only
  20. 20. Write 2 sentences of your own showing internal obligation and 2 showing external obligation. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 20© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Exercise For Aptech Centre Use Only
  21. 21. Answers _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 21© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Exercise Internal: I must leave by 8pm; Children mustn’t bite their nails. External: You have to pay tax on all your income; Soldiers have to be prepared to kill and die for their country. For Aptech Centre Use Only
  22. 22. Grammar 22© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Exercise While the negative form of must (mustn’t) shows another type of obligation, the negative form of ‘have to’ (‘don’t have to’) is different. It means you do have a choice. You can do it or not do it. • I must leave now. (obligation) • You mustn’t cheat. (obligation/prohibition) • You have to pay the fees now. (obligation) • You don’t have to pay today. (lack of obligation) For Aptech Centre Use Only
  23. 23. Which of the following pairs is correct? 1. Students mustn’t/don’t have to use their phones in class. 2. You mustn’t/don’t have to eat the vegetables. 3. Jack mustn’t/doesn’t have to get to work by 9.00. 23© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Exercise For Aptech Centre Use Only
  24. 24. Answers 1. Students mustn’t use their phones in class. 2. You don’t have to eat the vegetables. 3. Jack doesn’t have to get to work by 9.00. 24© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Exercise For Aptech Centre Use Only
  25. 25. Grammar 25© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Obligation Must, being a modal verb, doesn’t change its form. That means there is no past form of must. To talk about obligation in the past we use ‘have to’ whether the obligation was internal or external. • I had to go to the bank. • We had to stop at the traffic lights. For Aptech Centre Use Only
  26. 26. Write four obligations you had during your childhood. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 26© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Obligation For Aptech Centre Use Only
  27. 27. Answers _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 27© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Obligation 1. I had to help my mother at home. 2. I had to go to school. 3. I had to share my toys with my sister. 4. I had to obey my parents. For Aptech Centre Use Only
  28. 28. Grammar 28© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Deduction Must can be used for obligation and deduction. In the present tense they may look the same. • Anna must be angry (deduction) • Children must be quiet in class (obligation) In the past they look quite different. • Anna must have been angry. • Children had to be quiet in class. For Aptech Centre Use Only
  29. 29. Grammar 29© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Deduction Decide if these sentences are deduction or obligation. Write D or O. 1. My son enjoys Maths now. They must have changed the teacher. _____________ 2. I had to do two hours Maths homework last night. _____________ 3. I must go home. It’s late. _____________ 4. It’s the school holidays soon. The kids must be happy. _____________ For Aptech Centre Use Only
  30. 30. Grammar 30© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Deduction Answers 1. My son enjoys Maths now. They must have changed the teacher. _____________ 2. I had to do two hours Maths homework last night. _____________ 3. I must go home. It’s late. _____________ 4. It’s the school holidays soon. The kids must be happy. _____________ Deduction (D) Deduction (D) Obligation (O) Obligation (O) For Aptech Centre Use Only
  31. 31. Make these sentences in the past form. 1. Students must study for five hours a day. _______________________________________________________________________ 2. Charles must be tired after his run. ______________________________________________________________________ 3. Jim has to pay a £500 fine. ________________________________________________________________________ 31© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Exercise For Aptech Centre Use Only
  32. 32. Answers 1. Students must study for five hours a day. _______________________________________________________________________ 2. Charles must be tired after his run. ______________________________________________________________________ 3. Jim has to pay a £500 fine. ________________________________________________________________________ 32© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Exercise Students had to study for five hours a day. Charles must have been tired after his run. Jim had to pay a £500 fine. For Aptech Centre Use Only
  33. 33. Reading Skills 33© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Reading: A‘how to’article • Read the article on how to organise a PR campaign and answer the questions in the exercises. For Aptech Centre Use Only
  34. 34. Reading Skills 34© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Analysing the Layout and Language of an Article • What form are the underlined verbs in? Why? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ • There are many questions in this short article? What is their purpose? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ For Aptech Centre Use Only
  35. 35. Reading Skills 35© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Analysing the Layout and Language of an Article • What form are the underlined verbs in? Why? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ • There are many questions in this short article? What is their purpose? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ The Imperative is used because the text gives advice/instructions. Questions encourage the reader to think through their goals and ideas for designing their PR campaign. Answers For Aptech Centre Use Only
  36. 36. The words in italics relate in some way to PR. Find words that means: • Reduce the effect of • Positive attitude • Follow the outcome • Serious problems in a business • Ways of getting messages across • Interaction of different elements to create a better result • Ways of seeing • Main thing you want to say 36© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Vocabulary from the Text For Aptech Centre Use Only
  37. 37. Answers • Reduce the effect of - mitigate the impact of • Positive attitude - goodwill • Follow the outcome - track the results • Serious problems in a business - corporate crisis • Ways of getting messages across - communication vehicles • Interaction of different elements to create a better result - synergy • Ways of seeing - perceptions • Main thing you want to say - key message 37© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Vocabulary from the Text For Aptech Centre Use Only
  38. 38. Preparation Stage • Work in small groups. Think of a company or celebrity you would like to create a PR campaign for. • Why is this campaign necessary? (See Step 1 above for ideas) • What methods are you going to use? (See Step 5 above for ideas) • Work together to create a list of points in answer to the above questions. 38© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Communicative Activity For Aptech Centre Use Only
  39. 39. Circulate around the class and complete the following table with the ideas of the other groups. 39© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Ideas Sharing Mingle Group No or name Company or celebrity name PR Campaign ideas For Aptech Centre Use Only
  40. 40. • As a class organise a vote to decide which group had the best ideas for the PR campaign. • Don’t forget to give them a prize! 40© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Vote For Aptech Centre Use Only
  41. 41. 41© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Test Your Knowledge 1. Identify the sentences which show obligation/lack of obligation. Sr. no. Statement 1 I may not attend the seminar as I have some work. 2 We must convince the local distributor to emphasise our brand colour. 3 You have to pay for the food before you eat. 4 We don’t have to take responsibility for the goods’ condition after exporting them. 5 You must be happy with the result. For Aptech Centre Use Only
  42. 42. 42© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Test Your Knowledge 1. Answers Sr. no. Statement 1 I may not attend the seminar as I have some work. 2 We must convince the local distributor to emphasise our brand colour. 3 You have to pay for the food before you eat. 4 We don’t have to take responsibility for the goods’ condition after exporting them. 5 You must be happy with the result. For Aptech Centre Use Only
  43. 43. 43© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Test Your Knowledge 2. Which of the following statements are NOT true about PR? Sr. no. Sentences 1 PR is the use of techniques for influencing people to buy products they don’t need. 2 The ultimate goal of PR is giving information to the public. 3 PR is only used by celebrities. 4 PR is usually aimed at specific target audiences. For Aptech Centre Use Only
  44. 44. 44© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE Test Your Knowledge 2. Answers Sr. no. Sentences 1 PR is the use of techniques for influencing people to buy products they don’t need. – NOT TRUE 2 The ultimate goal of PR is giving information to the public. 3 PR is only used by celebrities. – NOT TRUE 4 PR is usually aimed at specific target audiences. For Aptech Centre Use Only
  45. 45. 45© Aptech Training Ltd. FZE In a Nutshell… In this lesson you learnt to: • Explain the meaning of PR using appropriate vocabulary • Design a PR campaign for a business or celebrity • Use modal verbs of obligation in the present and past • Listen and understand the key points of a lecture on PR For Aptech Centre Use Only
  46. 46. 46 Thank You © Aptech Training Ltd. FZE For Aptech Centre Use Only

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