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  1. 1. Pathfinder Global School, Pataudi Presentation on: Memory development in Kindergarten PRESENTATION BY: DIVYASHU SHARMA SCHOOL COUNSELLOR
  2. 2. MEMORY Memory is a process of retaining, storing, and recalling experiences. The main key to memory retention is moving information from short term memory to long term memory. Memory in childhood is qualitatively and quantitatively different from memories formed and retrieved in late adolescence and the adult years.
  3. 3. DUAL CODETHEORY Stimulus was• Recognition of a encoded • R:Includedthrough memory stimulus temporal • Target as previous lobe, hippocampu stimulus s F: peripheral • Target as memory region CM: recollection Recall and familiarity
  4. 4. TYPES OFMEMORYShort Term MemoryLong Term MemoryVerbal Memory
  5. 5. Brain Maturation ofKindergarten Develops faster than any other part; attains 90% of adult age 5. Hand-eye coordination areas myelinated by 4. Focused attention areas myelinated 5 to 12. Language and intelligence areas by 15. Vision Improves. Before age 6, eye muscles not developed; move eyes slowly and deliberately for reading. Reading readiness depends on maturation , interests and experiences of individual child, not on age.
  6. 6. Kindergarten. Extraordinary high. Researches show, at the age of 3 this is higher than at any other point in the lifespan. Motor skills :  Gross Motor skills improve dramatically.  Large body movements: Running, Jumping, Throwing.  Fine Motor skills more difficult to master.  Small body movements: pouring without spilling, using knife, fork, spoon,
  7. 7. Development of Motor skills inEarly Childhood Some major gross motor skills in early childhood:  Hopping, Skipping, Running, Throwing. Some major fine motor skills in early childhood:  Using utensils to eat, cutting things with scissors, Tying shoelaces, Drawing shapes, Solving small puzzles. (These require much more practice thanEarly Childhood Cognitive Development. gross motor skills). Children use symbolic thought, but no logical thought and show centration; focus on one aspect of a situation and ignore others. Memory formation
  8. 8. STAGE Able to use symbols: words, numbers, or images without their physical presence. Able to understand basics of cause and effect: ask “why?”, use “because” and “so”. Understand basic number concepts. Able to classify into categories. Gradually develop understanding of identities. Intuitive thought: Primitive reasoningCuriosity drives knowledge acquisition, unable to back up conclusions with reasons, Confidence with no logical basis. (leads them to think that they know all the answers but they have no logical thinking.) Functionally; actions, events and outcomes are related to one another in fixed pattern, pushing pedals moves tricycle faster, remote button changes channels on TV. Identity; clay stretch out in the same amount of clay
  9. 9. LIMITATIONS AT THE AGE Difficulty distinguishing fantasy and reality; not always sure that what they imagine is not real. Irreversibility: can’t mentally undo an operation. (worrying conditionally) Transductive reasoning: 1 situation is seen as the basis of another (not logical). Centration: focus on only one aspect. (come to illogical conclusions as they ignore other aspects, unable to understand conservation). Egocentrism: unable to see things from another’s perspective, self-centered understanding (form of
  10. 10. CONSERVATIONConservation Conservation Conservation Problems Problems Problems Number Length Weight Rearranging Altering Shape Altering Shape elements (Configuration) Volume Substance Area Altering Shape Altering Shape Rearranging (Clay) Figures (water in container)
  11. 11. MEMORY DEVELOPMENT Autobiographical memory not accurate until age 3, Memories fade quickly as language is not developed sufficiently for encoding, very open to suggestions from adults, short attention span, easily distracted, attend to only one dimension. Limited memory capacity, develop traces stronger by what they did not what they saw, stronger impressions of some incidents can also be encoded for <1 year. Memories for routines are scripted; tend to blur. Talking influences how well the child remembers (Natural conversations helps solidify memories.) Leading questions shape the child’s recall. They have weaker memories, vulnerable to adult expectations can be enhanced through.  Neutral questioning: no rewards for responses.
  12. 12. Developmental Landmarks B/W 2 ½ And 5Yrs.Physical Thinking and Expressing Awareness of Communicatio learning Feelings self and others nGaining strength Curiosity Affectionate Displays Asks why/what/and coordination independence who/ how comeIncrease control Cause & effect Developing a engages in pretend play Possesses aof hands & use experimentation sense of humor rapid expandingof figures vocabularyLaces and ties Recognizes Easily Displays selfshoes letters and encouraged/ control numbers discouragedButtons & zips Develops Demonstrates Shares and Engages inclothes awareness of intense feeling of takes turns complicated alike/ different fear, joy, anger, conversationsKicks/ bounces/ Develops love. Developcatches a ball awareness of friendships timeHammers nails Recognizes May show off Show respect for Matches letters colours, shapes and demand other things with those in and texture. attention own nameDresses self Develops
  13. 13. Developmental Landmarks B/W 2 ½ And 5Yrs.Physical Thinking and Expressing Awareness of Communicatio learning Feelings self and others nPaints and Hands-on Enjoys makingdraws learning up/ telling storiesCuts with Improvesscissors listening skillsThread beads Uses sentences with correct grammarJumps/hops/ Able to verballyskips resolve conflicts with other children.
  14. 14. POWERGet the details EstablishPlay memory routines games ImmediateSuggest recall strategies. Sleeping.Divide and Short term conquer. memoryPractice Long Term