Marine Ecosystems

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Marine Ecosystems

  1. 1. Marine Ecology
  2. 2. Ocean zones
  3. 3. <ul><li>Benthic (living on the bottom – crawling, burrowing or sessile) </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Pelagic (living in the water – swimming or drifting) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plankton (cannot swim against ocean currents) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nekton (can swim against currents) </li></ul></ul>Marine organisms
  4. 4. <ul><li>Organisms that cannot swim against currents </li></ul><ul><li>Some are photosynthetic (phytoplankton) </li></ul><ul><li>Some eat other organisms (zooplankton) </li></ul><ul><li>Some do both! </li></ul>Plankton
  5. 5. <ul><li>Photosynthetic… create most of Earth’s oxygen! </li></ul><ul><li>Must stay in photic zone to survive </li></ul><ul><li>Common name: algae </li></ul><ul><li>Several types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diatoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dinoflagellates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyanobacteria </li></ul></ul>Phytoplankton
  6. 6. Diatoms Have intricate glass shells Form chains to increase surface area
  7. 7. Dinoflagellates Have 2 flagella – one wraps around the middle, the other is at the tip Cause red tide!
  8. 8. Cyanobacteria Stromatolites (clumps of cyanobacteria) … some several million years old! 
  9. 9. <ul><li>Eat other organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Can be very tiny or quite large </li></ul><ul><li>Includes many phyla, from jellyfish to crustaceans </li></ul><ul><li>Also includes larvae of some benthic organisms </li></ul>Zooplankton
  10. 10. Copepods Very small – most around 1mm
  11. 11. krill
  12. 12. Ctenophores (comb jellies)
  13. 13. Jellyfish
  14. 14. Larvae of benthic organisms Crab Sea Cucumber Sea urchin Snail Worm Starfish
  15. 15. Other zooplankton
  16. 16. Nekton
  17. 17. Watch Seasonal Seas Playlist
  18. 18. <ul><li>Rocky intertidal </li></ul><ul><li>Estuary </li></ul><ul><li>Coral reef </li></ul><ul><li>Open ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Deep sea </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrothermal vent </li></ul>Marine ecosystems
  19. 19. <ul><li>A very challenging environment! </li></ul><ul><li>Fluctuates between being underwater and being exposed to the sun and wind </li></ul><ul><li>Highly variable temperatures and salinity </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly battered by waves </li></ul>Rocky intertidal ecosystem
  20. 20. <ul><li>How do organisms survive? </li></ul><ul><li>Seal in moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Adhere to rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Have the ability to pull the body into a protective covering </li></ul>Rocky intertidal survival
  21. 21. Rocky intertidal organisms
  22. 22. Estuary ecosystem <ul><li>Where rivers meet the sea! </li></ul><ul><li>Mixing of ocean and fresh water… highly variable salinity </li></ul><ul><li>Tidal variation </li></ul><ul><li>High nutrient levels </li></ul><ul><li>and sediment load… </li></ul><ul><li>create very fertile </li></ul><ul><li>farmland! </li></ul>
  23. 23. Estuary ecosystem
  24. 24. <ul><li>Usually includes either: </li></ul><ul><li>Salt marsh (temperate </li></ul><ul><li>zones) </li></ul><ul><li>Mangrove forest </li></ul><ul><li>(tropics) </li></ul>Estuary ecosystem
  25. 25. <ul><li>Located in warm, clear shallow water </li></ul><ul><li>Very abundant life </li></ul><ul><li>Many brightly colored organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple phyla represented (sponges, cnidarians, molluscs, arthropods, echinoderms, vertebrates – fish) </li></ul>Coral reef ecosystem
  26. 26. Coral reef organisms
  27. 27. <ul><li>Same phylum as anemones and jellyfish </li></ul><ul><li>Deposit calcium carbonate skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies of clones </li></ul><ul><li>Contain photosynthetic algae - zooxanthellae </li></ul>What IS coral?
  28. 28. What IS coral?
  29. 29. <ul><li>Unicellular photosynthetic organisms live inside corals </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis provides sugar for coral </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic pigments give corals their color </li></ul>Zooxanthellae
  30. 30. <ul><li>Zooxanthellae abandon corals when temperatures get too high… even only 1 ° </li></ul>Coral bleaching
  31. 31. Watch Coral Seas Playlist
  32. 32. <ul><li>Very deep photic zone – not much sediment suspended in water, not much plankton </li></ul><ul><li>Average depth 3800m </li></ul><ul><li>Largest ecosystem on the planet! </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated by fish, sharks and whales </li></ul>Open ocean
  33. 33. Open ocean organisms
  34. 34. Watch Open Ocean Playlist
  35. 35. <ul><li>Below the photic zone (1000m in open ocean) </li></ul><ul><li>Constant darkness </li></ul><ul><li>Cold (usually around 1-2 °C) </li></ul><ul><li>Very high pressure! (see cups) </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms are few and far between </li></ul>Deep ocean
  36. 36. <ul><li>Red, black or clear bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Bioluminescence to see in the darkness or attract prey </li></ul><ul><li>Huge mouths to eat food in any available form </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent mating arrangements… </li></ul>Deep ocean adaptations
  37. 37. Deep ocean organisms Show Blue Planet: “The Deep” chapters 1-10
  38. 38. Watch The Deep Playlist
  39. 39. Marine Ecology show The Deep
  40. 40. <ul><li>Deep ocean “springs” associated with cracks in Earth’s crust </li></ul><ul><li>Whole communities based on sulfides, not sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered in 1977 </li></ul>Hydrothermal vents
  41. 41. How do hydrothermal vents work?
  42. 42. <ul><li>Hot, mineral-rich water steams out of Earth’s crust </li></ul><ul><li>Special chemosynthetic bacteria metabolize hydrogen sulfide into sugars the same way photosynthetic organisms use sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>Vent tube worms have these chemosynthetic bacteria living inside them (like zooxanthellae in coral) </li></ul>How life works at hydrothermal vents
  43. 43. Hydrothermal vent organisms Show chapters 11-12 of Blue Planet: “The Deep”
  44. 44. Other ocean ecosystems Seagrass beds Polar ice communities

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