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Predictors of Women Participation in Entrepreneurial Activities in North Cotabato

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Dr. Sindaolan D. Galla, GAD Director of University of Southern Mindanao, discussed their research findings on women entrepreneurial activities in North Cotabato

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Predictors of Women Participation in Entrepreneurial Activities in North Cotabato

  1. 1. Predictors of Women’s Participation in Entrepreneurial Activities in Selected Municipalities in North Cotabato Dr. Sindaolan D. Galla Univ. of Southern Mindanao Kabacan, Cotabato GAD University Focal Person Dr. Sharon R. Tabile Univ. of Southern Mindanao Kabacan, Cotabato GAD College Focal Person
  2. 2. Introduction • Women of today play a vital and active role in our society. Entrepreneurship offers an attractive alternative for many women. Aside from the economic motivation, prospects of social rewards and individual satisfaction as well as the ability to control or manage one’s work hours, it has encouraged more and more women to venture into entrepreneurship.
  3. 3. • It is in this light that this study focused on women who engage in entrepreneurial activities, their plight, and what pushes them to excel in their chosen field.
  4. 4. Objectives of the Study • The study aimed to determine the predictors of women’s participation in entrepreneurial activities as measured by qualitative and quantitative indicators.
  5. 5. • Specifically, the study intended to: 1. Describe the profile of the respondents in terms of personal and family related factors, namely: income, household size, civil status, access to credit, personal entrepreneurial characteristics (PECs), awareness and availment of support from Government, NGO’s or Community Programs, age, education, and consent of husband. 5
  6. 6. 2. Describe the extent of women’s entrepreneurial participation in terms of: –Qualitative measures such as passion for business –Quantitative measures such as capital investment and size of manpower.
  7. 7. 3. Analyze the significance of selected push / pull and personal and family factors as predictors of the extent of women’s participation in entrepreneurial activities.
  8. 8. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES • Respondents Profile categorized as: Push Factors – Income – Household Size – Civil Status Pull Factors – Access to Credit – Personal Entrepreneurial Characteristics (PECS) – Awareness & Availment of support from Government, NGO’s or community programs Personal and FamilyRelated Factors – Age – Education – Consent of Husband DEPENDENT VARIABLES Women’s Participation in Entrepreneurial Activities Qualitative Measure – Passion for Business Quantitative Measure – Capital Investment – Size of Manpower employed in business
  9. 9. Respondents of the Study • One hundred eighty (180) women entrepreneurs with thirty (30) respondents each coming from 1 city and five Municipalities in North Cotabato, namely: (1) Kidapawan City (2) Midsayap (3) Mlang (4) Makilala (5) Pres. Roxas, and (6) Aleosan. Sampling Procedure • Purposive-Quota Sampling Method.
  10. 10. Research Instrument • Part I - demographic characteristics • Part II - personal entrepreneurial characteristics (PECs) through a set of statements written in Filipino. These statements pertained to entrepreneurial beliefs, attitudes or behavior reflective of specific entrepreneurial characteristics. • Part III - respondents’ passion for entrepreneurial activity
  11. 11. CHARACTERISTICS Income P 500.00 - 8,999.00 9,000.00 - 17,499.00 17,500.00 – 25,500.00 26,000.00 – 34,499.00 34,500.00 – 42,999.00 43,000.00 – 51,499.00 51,500.00 – 60,000.00 FREQUENCY 130 31 10 6 1 1 1 Figure 1 . Respondents according to income. PERCENT 72.2 17.2 5.6 3.3 0.6 0.6 0.6
  12. 12. CHARACTERISTICS Household Size 3 – below 4–6 7–9 10 – 12 FREQUENCY 97 76 6 1 Figure 2 . Respondents according to Household Size. PERCENT 53.9 42.2 3.3 0.6 12
  13. 13. CHARACTERISTICS Civil Status Single Widowed Married FREQUENCY PERCENT 19 20 141 10.6 11.1 78.3 Figure 3 . Respondents according to Civil Status.
  14. 14. CHARACTERISTICS FREQUENCY Access to credit No Access With Access 49 131 27% 73% No Access With Access Figure 4. Respondents according to Access to Credit. PERCENT 27.2 72.8
  15. 15. CHARACTERISTICS PECs A ( score 14 - 26 ) B ( score 28 - 42 ) FREQUENCY PERCENT 9 171 5.0 95.0
  16. 16. CHARACTERISTICS FREQUENCY Awareness & Availment of Support from Gov’t, NGO or Community Programs Yes 55 No 125 69.4 70 60 50 40 30 30.6 20 10 0 Yes No Figure 6. Respondents according to Awareness and Availment of Support. PERCENT 30.6 69.4    
  17. 17. CHARACTERISTICS Age FREQUENCY PERCENT 20 74 66 17 3 11.1 41.1 36.7 9.4 1.7 17 - 30 yr 31 – 44 45 – 58 59 – 72 73 – above 73 - above 1.7 59 - 72 9.4 45 - 58 36.7 31 - 44 41.1 17 - 30 11.1 0 10 20 30 40 Figure 7 . Respondents according to Age. 50
  18. 18. CHARACTERISTICS FREQUENCY Educational Attainment Some Elementary Elementary Graduate Some High School High School Graduate Vocational Technical College Undergraduate College Graduate 27.8 4 25 24 47 1 29 50 2.2 13.9 13.3 16.1 0.6 Some Elementary Some High School Vocational Technical College Graduate 26.1 Elementary Graduate High School Graduate College Undergrauate Figure 8 . Respondents according to Educational Attainment. PERCENT 2.2 13.9 13.3 26.1 0.6 16.1 27.8
  19. 19. CHARACTERISTICS FREQUENCY PERCENT Consent of Husband None 52 28.9 With Consent 128 71.1 28.9 71.1 Without With Consent Figure 9. Respondents according to Consent of Husband.
  20. 20. Passion for Business Table 1: Extent of Women’s Entrepreneurial Participation in terms of Qualitative Measure such as Passion for Business in North Cotabato, January 2007. PASSION FOR BUSINESS 1. Kapag abala ako sa aking gawain,kaya ko ipagpaliban kumain ng almusal, tanghalian at hapunan. 2. Kung ako ay may problema, hinaharap ko ito at hindi ko ito tinatalikuran 3. Hindi baling puyat ako basta’t matapos lang ang aking gawain. 4. Saganang akin, hindi balakid ang pagkakasakit upang matapos ang gawain. 5. Pinagpapaliban ko ang paglilibang upang maasikaso ko ang aking negosyo. OVERALL MEAN   Mean: 1.00 – 1.49 1.50 – 2.49 2.50 – 3.49 3.50 – 4.00 = = = = Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree MEAN VERBAL DESCRIPTION 2.09 Disagree 3.22 Agree 2.83 Agree 2.55 Agree 2.99 Agree 2.74   Agree  
  21. 21. Capital Investment 61,000.00 - 80,000.00 3.4 2.2 41,100.00 - 60,000.00 21,100.00 - 40,000.00 4.4 1,100.00 - 20,000.00 68.9 21.1 P 1,000.00 & below 0 10 20 30 40 50 Figure 10 . Respondents according to Capital Investment. 60 70 80
  22. 22. Size of Manpower QUANTITATIVE MEASURES PERCEN FREQUENCY T Capital Investment P 1,000.00 & below 1,100.00 - 20,000.00 21,100.00 – 40,000.00 41,100.00 – 60,000.00 61,000.00 - 80,000.00 81,000.00 – above 38 124 8 4 3 3 21.1 68.9 4.4 2.2 1.7 1.7 Size of Manpower 1–2 3–4 5–6 7–8 140 34 5 1 77.8 18.9 2.8 0.6
  23. 23. Nature of Business Table 2. Nature of Business Participated in by Women  in North Cotabato, N = 180 NATURE OF BUSINESS PERCENT 1. Vending (livestock) 2. Street food vending 3. Dressmaking/Tailoring 4. Buy and Sell (dry goods) 5. Food Processing 6. Catering 7. Beauty Parlor/barber shop 15 17 10 10 0 2 3 8.3 9.4 5.6 5.6 0.0 1.1 1.7 8. Computer/internet 9. Sari-sari store 10. Fruit Stand 11. Fish 12. Carenderia/Restaurant 13. Refreshment/Snack House 14. Vegetables 15. Native delicacies 16. Beauty products 17. Bakery 18. Textile 19. Shoes 20. School Supplies 21. Animal feeds 22. Rice (buy and sell) 23. Dried fish 24. motor parts 25. E-load   FREQUENCY 3 39 7 12 14 4 16 6 4 2 4 3 1 2 1 3 1 1   1.7 21.7 3.9 6.7 7.8 2.2 8.9 3.3 2.2 1.1 2.2 1.7 0.6 1.1 0.6 1.7 0.6 0.6  
  24. 24. CONCLUSIONS Based on the results, a Filipino woman entrepreneur is married, 44 years old and has a high school education. She has a family size of four (4) members. She belongs to a low-income group, shown by a mean monthly income of Php 7,900.00
  25. 25. Her business is mainly associated with daily needs, particularly sari-sari store, her starting investment is Php 11,000.00, she employs the services of one paid and one unpaid laborers in their businesses.
  26. 26. The results of the regression analysis to determine the significance of the hypothesized predictors against quantitative measures of extent revealed that: 1. Women entrepreneurs generally possessed high personal entrepreneurial characteristics.
  27. 27. 2. In the push factors studied, household size solely predicted the passion for business; combined contribution of income, household size and civil status predicted the capital investment; combined contribution of income, household size and civil status predicted the size of manpower employed in their business.
  28. 28. Among the pull factors studied, access to credit predicted both the passion for business and size of manpower employed in their business. 4. In the personal and family related factors studied, education predicted the capital investment; consent of husband and education predicted the size of manpower employed in their business. 3.
  29. 29. None of the entrepreneurial characteristics predicted the extent of women‘s participation in entrepreneurial activities. 6. Awareness and availment of support from the government, NGO’s and Community Programs did not influence the extent of women’s participation in entrepreneurial activities. 5.
  30. 30. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. The positive effect of elementary and secondary education to entrepreneurial participation of women (as measured by starting capital of women entrepreneurs) denotes the importance of female education. It is highly recommended therefore that curriculum for both elementary and secondary education be enhanced.
  31. 31. For those whose with entrepreneurial strategies to prepare not only women but men, youth and children for entrepreneurial endeavors even without finishing their college education. 2.
  32. 32. 3. The number of manpower employed in the business being predicted by family income demonstrates that the more access women have on more resources, the more progressive her entrepreneurial activities will be. It is thus recommended that existence of support from Government and NGO’s and Community Programs be widely made known and more available to women entrepreneurs.
  33. 33. 4. For women to be more active partners of men in community development efforts, Gender and Development programs should be integrated in the curriculum as early as the pre-school levels of education to the high school level not only to become a gender-fair society but to become a well developed progressive country.
  34. 34. end

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