Our starting point is that pre-service training can affect new teachers’ uptake of technology The evidence however shows that beginning teachers are often not prepared to use technology in their classrooms. This because of factors like ... There is no doubt that these factors contribute to technology integration but I’m sure you all agree that improving them is not enough to prepare beginning teachers successfully... [1’] How to improve ITT programs to prepare BT to integrate technology in education? insufficient access to technology (Russell et al., 2003) lack of time (Eifler, et al., 2001) lack of skills (Thompson et al., 2003 lack of experience (Starkey., 2010)
It’s clear that we also need to help them bridge the gap between technical skills and educational practice. This brings us to TPACK, the model introduced by Koehler and Mishra (2008) … [1’]
Info about the longitudinal approach…
Until now we have interviewed 7 BT that belong to the 3 teacher training institutes invovled in Study 1. The working experience of BT interviewed varied from 1 to 15 months All except one BT have access to tehcnology in their schools. The types of technologies they have access to and the palces where technology is located varies. Most teachers report having access to at least one computer in the classroom and 3 also report the existence of a computer class. 4 teachers have access to a digital board. Access to a beamer, CD and DVD player were also mentioned. All teachers (except the one who has no access to technology in the school) report to make use of tehcnology in their teaching practice
BT regard access to technology in the classroom as an important facilitating factor for integrating technology. This can be illustrated by the words of one teacher as follows: Conversely, classroom management was identified by most teachers as the main limitation for integrating tehcnology. One teacher reported:
All BT regarded the integration of technology as something important and necessary. When asked why they use technology, they identify two main reasons: (1) the affordances of technology for education and (2) The fact that technology is part of children’s daily experience
BT make use of a wide diversity of technology tools and applications that go from computers to the digital board, from Internet to specific educational software or e-books.
When looking at the types of uses BT make of technology we see that the most common use is still for demonstration activities, and/or for explaining and clarifying concepts. The second most common use is for Internet searches during lesson projects. The entertaining uses were mainly aimed at dealing with classroom management issues (for example, children will be using technology while the teacher goes over the list of names or when they finish a task earlier than the rest of the group). BT also reported the use of technology for the preparation of lessons and communication with parents. “ Sinds ik die beamer heb in de klas gebruik ik die eigenlijk dagelijks . Ook al is dat maar om, gewoon een figuurtje te tonen ter verduidelijking, of een powerpoint, voor ja, gewone kleine dingen” (BT2) “ In mijn klas zijn we nu bezig met een webpad op te lossen over ons zonnestelsel . Dan mogen ze op zoek gaan op internet en dan de vragen gaan oplossen. Eigenlijk vooral opzoekingswerk” (BT2) “ Inoefening, niet zozeer om nieuwe dingen aan te brengen, maar om kinderen die al klaar zijn met contract of met werkblaadjes ofzo, dat die dan kunnen extra oefenen” (BT7) “ Daar heb ik ook gebruik gemaakt van het digitaal bord, van de e-boeken, van wiskunde en taal. Ja, dat is wel voor de leerkracht ook gemakkelijker, dat je niet meer alle verbeteringen voorbeeld, als je klassikaal verbeterd, op het bord zelf moet schrijven, maar dat je dan kan laten verschijnen, en ook, andere voordelen. Je kunt dingen wegsteken, dingen laten verschijnen” (BT1)
BT feel well prepared to integrate technology in their teaching practices. They report that their pre-service training provided them with an overview of various types of technologies and their educational possibilities, as well as with concrete examples of how to use technology in the classroom. Furthermore, they believe that their pre-service training motivated them to use technology.
However, BT also felt that some things were missing in their pre-service training. Among them the opportunity to engage in “hands on activities” that is, the opportunity to experiment with technology. They also felt the need to engage in more authentic tasks wherein they could explore the possibilities of technology while designing concrete lessons. Finally, teachers also felt the need to further develop their technical skills, particularly with regard to the use of the whiteboard and with the ability to solve basic computer problems.
2012-03-15 Fisser TPACK VVOB
Preparando a futuros profesores para integrar tecnología Preparing future teachers to integrate technology in education Petra Fisser University of Twente The Netherlands Wim de Boer VVOB05/04/12 Title: to modify choose View then and Jo Tondeur, 1 Natalie Pareja & Joke Voogt Heater and footer
Marco Teórico (theoretical framework) Initial Teacher Training can affect beginning teachers’ adoption of technology (e.g. Drent & Meelissen, 2008) BUT: technology seems under-used by beginning teachers (e.g. Bullock, 2004) insufficient access to technology (Russell et al., 2003) lack of time (Eifler, et al., 2001) lack of skills (Thompson et al., 2003) lack of experience (Starkey, 2010)
Marco Teórico (theoretical framework) Mishra en Koehler (2006)
Technological (ICT) Knowledge •Skills necessary to operate particular technologies •The ability to learn and adapt to new technologies •A functional understanding of technologiesPedagogical knowledge Content or Subject matter•Students’ prior knowledge knowledge•How to use resources •Knowledge of central facts,•Classroom management concepts, theories &•Lesson plan development procedures & implementation •Explanatory frameworks•Student evaluation •Evidence for proof
Technological pedagogical Technological ContentKnowledge: Knowledge:How pedagogies change How subject matter changesbecause of ICT (or how ict can because of ICT (or how ictsupport pedagogy) can support subject matter!) Pedagogical Content Knowledge: How particular aspects of subject matter are organized, adapted and represented for instruction
Un pequeño juego... (a little game) Understanding TPACK Make groups of 4 to 5 people Lets play!
Un enfoque longitudinal (Longitudinal approach)2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 ITT: Year 1 ITT: Year 2 ITT: Year 3 In service: Year 1 In service: Year 2 Study 1 Study 2
Primer Estudio (Study 1) To identify approaches adopted by ITT to prepare Aim BT for technology integration Objetivos Method Case study in 3 ITT in Flanders Método Semi-structured interviews with head of department and ICT-coordinator ProcedureProcedimiento Focus groups with pre-service teachers and teacher educators
Resultados del Primer Estudio (Results Study 1) The vision of the three teacher education institutions is in transition: moving from ICT as a separate course (TK) towards a more integrated approach of embedding ICT within the courses (TPACK) Los tres institutos avanzan hacia un enfoque más integrado (TPACK)
ITT2: From TK to TCKITT1: From TK to… ITT3: From TK to TPK
Resultados del Primer Estudio (Results Study 1)“Fracasamos en utilizar con propóitos educativos el talento que estosestudiantes ya tienen sobre TIC”(“We fail to use the ICT talents these students already have in their dailylives, for educational matters”)[Teacher educator S2]“ Una comparación es: si tu sigues una clase en francés y después se tepide que des clases en francés. No funciona”(“A comparison is: you take one lesson in French and then you aresupposed to give lessons in French. It doesn’t work”)[ICT coordinator S2]
Un enfoque longitudinal (Longitudinal approach)2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012ITT: Year 1 ITT: Year 2 ITT: Year 3 In service: In service: Year 1 Year 2 Study 1 Study 2
Segundo Estudio (Study 2) To explore how BT from the same ITT integrate technology in their first years of teaching Aim To examine the factors that contributed and/or hinderedObjetivos technology integration To analyze the extent to which ITT influenced the ways in which BT integrate technology. Exploratory study : Phone InterviewsMethodMétodo Case studies: In-depth interviews + Autobiographies
Perfil de los profesores principiantes (beginning teachers’ profile) Use of Working Access to Influence ITT Grade Level technology experience technology of ITT for teachingBT1 ITT 2 1 month 6th grade Yes Yes Yes - Large 5th + 6th grade +BT2 ITT 2 15 months ICT coordinator Yes Yes Yes - Large 2nd + 4th grade +BT3 ITT 2 3 months special education Yes Yes Yes 5th garde +BT4 ITT 2 15 months language support Yes Yes Yes - LargeBT5 ITT 2 10 months 4th grade Yes Yes Yes - LargeBT6 ITT 1 15 months 3rd + 4th grade No No YesBT7 ITT 3 15 months 2nd grade Yes Yes No
Factores asociades con el uso de technología (factors associated with technology use) Facilitating factors: Hindering factors: Access to technology Classroom management in the classroom Time (to plan and to set up) Support (ICT coordinator) Technical problems School culture“If you already have a beamer or a “I always thought: I will integrate ICT intodigital board in your classroom, then my lessons as much as possible. But that isyou are stimulated to use it in any terribly difficult, because you need to findcase” (BT2) the right moments to apply it and to use it” (BT5)
Por qué los profesores principiantes usan tecnología?(why did the beginning teachers use technology?) It is easy to use / affords new (educational) possibilities“I do believe it has some extra value, yes. I think you can work moreefficiently, you loose less time” (BT1) It is part of children’s daily experience: Children are familiar with technology Children are motivated to use technology Children are expected to use technology“It is the trend of recent years, right? ICT is increasingly being used, orwill be increasingly used, in primary schools” (BT2)
Qué tecnologías usan los profesores principiantes?(What technologies did they use?) E-BOOKS AUDIO MATERIAL DIGITAL BOARD Films EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE INTERNET COMPUTERS GAMES PICTURES BEAMER
Para qué usan tecnologías los profesores principiantes?(Why did they use technologies?) To demonstrate, clarify, explain (digital board, e-books, beamer, pictures, photographs, power point, films, audio material) To search for information (Internet) To exercise / reinforce (educational software, games, audio material) To entertain (News for children, educational software, games) To develop (technical) skills (write a letter on Word, make presentations on PPT) To assist children with special needs (educational software, games) To give feedback (digital board)
Percepciones acerca de las contribuciones de laformación inicial (perceived contribution of the ITT) Overview of different types of technologies and its possibilities (e.g., audio material, pictures, interactive Excel, hot potatoes, digital board, etc.) “Many opportunities, many examples of which ICT you can use” (BT6) (Concrete) Examples of how to use technology “I believe that I am well prepared for the use of various types of ICT” (BT6) Motivation to use all sorts of media “Because the training we received, showed us that it [technology] is in the world and minds of the children themselves” (BT3)
Sugerencias para la formación inicial(Suggestionis for initial teacher training) “Hands-on” activities “But we have not really learned to work with it [technology]. Once [we had] a demonstration session, and that was all” (BT1) Authentic tasks “It [the training] was often directed at us. But not in a way that we could use it [technology] with students” (BT6) Technical skills “Maybe offer a little more technical support. Hence: how can we solve problems” (BT2) How and where to find (useful) educational resources
Conclusiones y desafíos (conclusions and challenges) Efforts to integrate technology in ITT have had a positive influence on BT (perceived) preparation. ITT provided an overview of different types of technologies and its possibilities. ITT motivated BT to use (diverse types of) technology However: How to provide future teachers with authentic tasks (TPACK)? How to help future teachers to make more innovative uses of technology? How to bridge the gap between what BT learned in ITT and the specific characteristics of the school context? How to strengthen the links between pre-service and in-service training?
Gracias! Thank you! Dank je wel!Our team:Jo Tondeur & Natalie Pareja Roblin(Ghent University, Flanders, Belgium)Petra Fisser & Joke Voogt(University of Twente, the Netherlands) Petra Fisser: firstname.lastname@example.org