21st Century Skills & TPACK (English version)


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Tijdens een conferentie van de Poolse Centre for education development gaf Petra Fisser een keynote presentatie over competenties die leraren nodig hebben om hun leerlingen voor te bereiden op leren en werken in de 21e eeuw, waarbij een belangrijke rol is weggelegd voor de integratie van ict in het onderwijs. Daarbij werden 21st century skills gekoppeld aan het TPACK model.

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21st Century Skills & TPACK (English version)

  1. 1. Competences of teachers in the 21st century a challenging development! Petra Fisser University of Twente Curriculum Design & Educational Innovation 13 December 2010
  2. 2. Competences of teachers in the 21st century <ul><li>What are 21st century skills and why are they important? </li></ul><ul><li>From the past to the present to the future: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Past: schooling as we have known it for the last 150 years is a 19th century invention that must change to keep pace with the demands of the new economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present: schools, skills and learning that were designed to prepare students for work and life in the industrial economy need to be rethought and re-engineered to serve the needs of people in this century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future: learning must use the affordances of new technologies and employ better pedagogies based on recent research on how people learn </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. 21st century skills <ul><li>But.. Is this really important? </li></ul><ul><li>I think it is… </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_A-ZVCjfWf8&feature=player_embedded
  4. 4. 21st century skills <ul><li>Many organizations and authors have written about 21 st century skills, such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EnGauge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment and Teaching of 21st century skills (ATCS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological Literacy Framework for the 2012 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EU, OESO, UNESCO </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comparison of these ideas and models (Voogt & Pareja, 2010) </li></ul>
  5. 5. 21st century skills ?
  6. 6. 21st century skills Taking risks Metacognition Controlling / solving conflicts Initiative and entrepreneurism Interdisciplinary themes Core subjects: Art, economy, geography, history and social studies <ul><li>Learning to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Self steering </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Core subjects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Math </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language (own) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language (other) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul></ul>Creativity Critical thinking skills Problem solving skills Productivity Cooperation Communication ICT literacy Social and/or cultural skills In 1 model In 2 models In 4 models All models
  7. 7. 21st century skills, what about the teacher? <ul><li>Most studies are about students that have to develop 21 st century skills </li></ul><ul><li>But what does this mean for the teacher? </li></ul><ul><li>He/she has a key role in this! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs the same competences as the students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has to know about (student-centered) pedagogical approaches and ICT applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to be a lifelong learner: professional development is crucial </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Yes, what about the teacher? <ul><li>Teaching is a complicated practice </li></ul><ul><li>It requires integration of many kinds of specialized knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers practice in highly complex, dynamic classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Effective teaching depends on flexible access to rich, well-organized and integrated knowledge from different domains, including </li></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge of student thinking and learning, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge of subject matter, and increasingly, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge of technology </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. A possible starting point for professional development <ul><li>Teachers often have inadequate (or inappropriate) experience with using technology for teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Many teachers earned degrees at a time when educational technology was at a very different stage of development than it is today </li></ul><ul><li>They do not appreciate its value or relevance to teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>They do not consider themselves sufficiently prepared to use technology in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>They do not know how to combine technology with a more student-centered approach </li></ul>
  10. 10. A possible starting point for professional development <ul><li>But: acquiring a new knowledge base and skill set can be challenging, particularly if it is a time-intensive activity that must fit into a busy schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover, this knowledge is unlikely to be used unless teachers can use the technology so that it is consistent with their existing pedagogical beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers have often been provided with inadequate training for this task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many approaches to teachers’ professional development offer a one size-fits-all approach to technology integration when, in fact, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers operate in diverse contexts of teaching and learning </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. What to do? <ul><li>How can teachers integrate technology and a student-centered teaching approach into their daily teaching practice? </li></ul><ul><li>There is no “one best way” to integrate this into curriculum, but: </li></ul><ul><li>“ At the heart of good teaching with technology are three core components: content, pedagogy, and technology, plus the relationships among and between them.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Koehler & Mishra, 2006) </li></ul>
  12. 12. TPACK
  13. 13. <ul><li>Content or Subject matter knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of central facts, concepts, theories & procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Explanatory frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence for proof </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogical knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Students’ prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>How to use resources </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom management </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson plan development & implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Student evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Technological (ICT) Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Skills necessary to operate particular technologies </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to learn and adapt to new technologies </li></ul><ul><li>A functional understanding of technologies </li></ul>
  14. 14. Pedagogical Content Knowledge: How particular aspects of subject matter are organized, adapted and represented for instruction Technological Content Knowledge: How subject matter changes because of ICT (or how ict can support subject matter!) Technological pedagogical Knowledge: How pedagogies change because of ICT (or how ict can support pedagogy)
  15. 16. TPACK <ul><li>TPACK goes beyond all three “core” components of content, pedagogy, and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Technological pedagogical content knowledge is an understanding that emerges from interactions among content, pedagogy, and technology knowledge </li></ul>
  16. 17. Not an easy job.. <ul><li>There is no single technological solution that applies for every teacher, every course, or every view of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>There is no single (student-centered) pedagogical approach that applies for every student in every course </li></ul><ul><li>Important: the ability of a teacher to flexibly navigate the spaces defined by the three elements of content, pedagogy, and technology and the complex interactions among these elements in specific contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Ignoring the complexity inherent in each knowledge component or the complexities of the relationships among the components can lead to oversimplified solutions or failure! </li></ul>
  17. 18. Professional development is crucial <ul><li>Teachers need to develop fluency and cognitive flexibility not just in each of the key domains (T, P, and C), but also in the manner in which these domains and contextual parameters interrelate </li></ul><ul><li>Important: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introducing new educational technologies into the learning process changes more than the tools used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It has deep implications for the nature of content-area learning, as well as the pedagogical approaches among which teachers can select </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This is often an overlooked aspect in many projects that try to implement technology in education </li></ul>
  18. 19. We have to do something…
  19. 20. How can we use the TPACK model? <ul><li>As a guide and a reflection tool to make sure that there is always a careful selection of content, pedagogy and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Using the TPACK model to design courses may give some directions in how to design professional development programs </li></ul><ul><li>But how?? 2 examples.. </li></ul>
  20. 21. The TPACK model in Kuwait <ul><li>Study with 61 students from the science teacher preparation program </li></ul><ul><li>2 courses about ict, not integrated with other courses </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment: working in groups of 4 on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the design of science education with ict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with a more student-centered approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results pre-test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good score on pedagogical knowledge (PK) and content knowledge (CK) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very low score on technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK) and technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. The TPACK model in Kuwait <ul><li>Results post-test: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher scores on all domains, but especially in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technological Content Knowledge (TCK), </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>De students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where able to use ict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where able to make connections between technology, pedagogy and content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had better ict skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had a better attitude towards ict in education </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. The TPACK model in Kuwait <ul><li>Success factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An authentic assignment in a real context with a real problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working in groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working actively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try-out in own classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback from peers and experts (instructors) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. The TPACK model in Tanzania <ul><li>Study with 29 students from the science & mathematics teacher preparation program of the Dar es Salaam University College of Education in Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>Different interventions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microteaching (small lesson for peer students) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TPACK Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lesson design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lesson presentation in real classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer & instructor feedback </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. The TPACK model in Tanzania
  25. 26. The TPACK model in Tanzania <ul><li>Success factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The TPACK training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An authentic assignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working actively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try-out in own classroom </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Conclusion <ul><li>It can be done… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By integrating ict in the (pre-service) teacher training program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with attention for the interaction between and the integration of the different domains within TPACK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and letting students work actively on a real-life problem in practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(future) teachers develop TPACK </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Would this also be possible for in-service training?? (at this moment we are trying to develop professional development programs based on the experience in the pre-service programs) </li></ul><ul><li>But… be careful! </li></ul>
  27. 28. Be careful.. <ul><li>From a recent study by Jo Tondeur (Ghent University, Belgium): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher training institutes want to have TPACK in their curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But by focusing on certain aspects of the model and not on the integration of all domains this happened: </li></ul></ul>Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) Content Knowledge (CK) Technological Knowledge (TK) Technological Knowledge (TK) Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) Content Knowledge (CK) Technological Content Knowledge (TCK) Technological Knowledge (TK) Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) Content Knowledge (CK) Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK)
  28. 29. Want to know more? <ul><li>Literature study (in translation at the moment) </li></ul><ul><li>Development of TPACK interventions & instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Studies in the Netherlands, Belgium, Kuwait, Tanzania, Ghana, ….. and Poland???? </li></ul><ul><li>Please contact me! </li></ul><ul><li>Petra Fisser University of Twente [email_address] </li></ul>