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Knowledge Exchange:
Adding Value to Value Chains
Pier Paolo Ficarelli
December, 2013
The Problem
Large-scale adoption of good
agricultural technologies remains an
on-going challenge
June 2014 Review 2
The problem of adoption is a puzzle far from being
solved.
June 2014 Review 2013 Pier Paolo Ficarelli | 3
Good agricultural technologies exist, but they are not
universally adopted.
Up to 50% of recent yield growth comes from im...
[AgDev Strategy Refresh Memo I, 2011]
Yield gaps show the immediate opportunity for farmers to
increase productivity using...
Sources: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTAGISOU/Resources/Module3_Web.pdf;
http://vibeghana.com/2012/03/28/governmen...
“[Impacts] vary widely – many programs have been highly effective,
while others have not.” (Anderson & Feder 2007)
“[Rigor...
Knowledge Exchange Focus
Explore, evaluate, and disseminate
cost- effective models of extension
June 2014 Review 2013 Pier...
KE contributions to sustained productivity
Knowledge dissemination
− Science-based, practical, farmer know-how or their
co...
In first 8 months, adoption of
improved practices increased the
incomes of farmers by an average
of $242 (50%)..
[From Dig...
Alternatives to public extension service are necessary
to increase smallholder farmer reach.
June 2014 Review 2013 Pier Pa...
Cost –effectiveness, farmer coverage and adoption are
extension transformation priorities.
Knowledge Exchange priority int...
New seed variety New Extension Models
“Slogging”
Technology&Research
Exploration
Evaluation
Scaled Impact
innovation; diag...
Model research
Which models work best and under what conditions?
How cost-effective and scalable are they?
Scaling
How to ...
Extension in Ag Value Chains
How Knowledge Exchange can
Increase Impact of Value Chains?
June 2014, Review 2013 Pier Paolo...
Direct investments
• Expanding range and scaling of ICT- enabled extension models
Develop sustainable Ag. content manageme...
Pier Paolo Ficarelli | 17
Investments made
in agricultural
knowledge /
technology
Farmer adapts
knowledge, and
provide
fee...
Summary
Pier Paolo Ficarelli | 18
The Problem: Large-scale adoption of good agricultural technologies
remains an on-going ...
Thank you!
Pier Paolo Ficarelli 19
Pier Paolo Ficarelli | 20
Rogers,1964
Diffusion of innovation theory
20%?
Time!
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Knowledge Exchange Strategies BMGF reviewed (upload)

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A strategic approach towards the developement of new Extension Sytems in support to Agricultural Value Chains

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Knowledge Exchange Strategies BMGF reviewed (upload)

  1. 1. Knowledge Exchange: Adding Value to Value Chains Pier Paolo Ficarelli December, 2013
  2. 2. The Problem Large-scale adoption of good agricultural technologies remains an on-going challenge June 2014 Review 2
  3. 3. The problem of adoption is a puzzle far from being solved. June 2014 Review 2013 Pier Paolo Ficarelli | 3
  4. 4. Good agricultural technologies exist, but they are not universally adopted. Up to 50% of recent yield growth comes from improved varieties. The remaining 50% is from other sources: irrigation, transport infrastructure, policy reform, human health and Agricultural EXTENSION. Source: ATAI presentation 3/2012; World Bank (2008) World Development Report, Agriculture for Development [data from http://stats.fao.org] Western Europe and North America East Asia and Pacific Latin America South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa
  5. 5. [AgDev Strategy Refresh Memo I, 2011] Yield gaps show the immediate opportunity for farmers to increase productivity using improved technologies. June 2014 Review 2013 Pier Paolo Ficarelli | 5
  6. 6. Sources: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTAGISOU/Resources/Module3_Web.pdf; http://vibeghana.com/2012/03/28/government-asked-to-privatize-extension-services/; http://www.worldwide-extension.org; (*) Some numbers are extrapolated estimates. National extension services are chronically underfunded, inefficient and unresponsive. 60% without access to information 7% Extension worker 10% input dealers 16% fellow farmers
  7. 7. “[Impacts] vary widely – many programs have been highly effective, while others have not.” (Anderson & Feder 2007) “[Rigorous] impact evaluations of agricultural extension interventions are less common.” (Waddington et al. 2010) Unknowns, with questions specific to Value Chains: What are the most cost-effective ways to increase adoption? Are incentive mechanisms required for adoption? For whom? Is there a critical mass of adoption that leads to scale? How do adoption patterns differ by geography, farmer typology and VC? Do Self- help groups or CBOs facilitate wide-spread adoption? Does adoption necessarily lead to yield and income change outcomes? There are many “known unknowns”. 2013 Pier Paolo Ficarelli | 7
  8. 8. Knowledge Exchange Focus Explore, evaluate, and disseminate cost- effective models of extension June 2014 Review 2013 Pier Paolo Ficarelli | 8
  9. 9. KE contributions to sustained productivity Knowledge dissemination − Science-based, practical, farmer know-how or their combination to overcome “information failure” Trust in the source of knowledge − Difficult without human intermediation Repeat Engagement − Farmers often require repeated engagement before adopting, or continuing to adopt. [Learnings from grantees: CKW, Farm Radio, DG, ATAI.] Interactive Radio Digital Green Localized Video-enabled extension Change agent-mediated Broadcasting Knowledge (reach) Narrowcasting Knowledge (behavioral change) Knowledge Exchange is more than Broadcasting Information. Mobile (m-Agri) Farmer Helplines ModelContinuum 2013 Pier Paolo Ficarelli | 9 Agri-inputs bundled
  10. 10. In first 8 months, adoption of improved practices increased the incomes of farmers by an average of $242 (50%).. [From Digital Green presentation (2011)] ICT-enabled models can have big impact. June 2014 Review 2013 Pier Paolo Ficarelli | 10
  11. 11. Alternatives to public extension service are necessary to increase smallholder farmer reach. June 2014 Review 2013 Pier Paolo Ficarelli | 11 Source: Ferroni and Zhou (2011) Birner and Anderson (2007), adapted from Anderson and Feder (2004), Birner et al. (2006), and Rivera (1996)
  12. 12. Cost –effectiveness, farmer coverage and adoption are extension transformation priorities. Knowledge Exchange priority interventions:  Strategic support to National Extension Systems to manage different extension approaches for high and low potential areas Creating incentives for private sector extension delivery in high potential areas Engaging farmer-based organizations and NGOs as extension providers in low- potential areas Learning on success and failure factors for envisioning new extension systems  Leveraging national level partnerships to pre-scale cost – effective extension models Scaling specific ICT – enabled models with consistent track records of low cost per adoption Continued experimentation and innovation with video, radio and mobile models Partnerships with private for-profit and non-profit actors for extension provision June 2014 Review 2013 Pier Paolo Ficarelli | 12
  13. 13. New seed variety New Extension Models “Slogging” Technology&Research Exploration Evaluation Scaled Impact innovation; diagnosis; literature review; pilot projects; segmentation; etc. Experimental trials; impact assessment; modeling; cost- effectiveness analysis; etc. Piloting new models together with National Ag Extension Systems Capacity building of Ag National systems Scaled engagement with farmers; Knowledge Exchange operates in analogy to Value Chains. Catalytic Investments
  14. 14. Model research Which models work best and under what conditions? How cost-effective and scalable are they? Scaling How to scale out models in a given country? How to scale up models through National partnerships? Adoption research What are the settings for ICT substitution of face- to – face interactions What are the incentives influencing adoption of Ag. technologies? Scaling What are the factors accelerating/inhibiting widespread adoption? What are proxy indicators for future wide-spread adoption? Generating evidence through data-driven experimentation and pilot implementation of innovative extension models. ValueAddedtoValueChains 2013 Pier Paolo Ficarelli | 14June 2014 Review
  15. 15. Extension in Ag Value Chains How Knowledge Exchange can Increase Impact of Value Chains? June 2014, Review 2013 Pier Paolo Ficarelli | 15
  16. 16. Direct investments • Expanding range and scaling of ICT- enabled extension models Develop sustainable Ag. content management platforms capturing farmer feedback • Implement research on: − entrepreneurial models of extension linked to input provision and marketing services − incentives approaches for improving public extension delivery − information dissemination and farmer innovation “frictions” Collaborative investments • Establishing national learning fora for the transformation of extension • Embedding new extension models in crop and livestock value chains • Explorations of Value Chain-specific extension approaches for specific crops, livestock, IPM, new seed varieties dissemination • Integration of family health and nutrition content for women farmers Two way support to Integrated Value Chains. June 2014 Review 2013 Pier Paolo Ficarelli | 16
  17. 17. Pier Paolo Ficarelli | 17 Investments made in agricultural knowledge / technology Farmer adapts knowledge, and provide feedback Productivity of farm increases Farmer household income and nutrition levels improve Knowledge Exchange strengthens this critical link Effective KE incorporates farmer feedback and improves farmer incomes Research indicates potential for ~60% yield increases with access to effective KE by smallholders1 Smallholder food crop yields With access to relevant, timely extension services Without extension (baseline = 100%) 160% Romani, Mattia 2003, “Impact of extension services in times of crisis: Cote d’Ivoire (1997-2000)”, CSAE WPS/2003-07 Good KE gets farmer feedback “for free” to VCs.
  18. 18. Summary Pier Paolo Ficarelli | 18 The Problem: Large-scale adoption of good agricultural technologies remains an on-going challenge in the developing world Knowledge Exchange Focus: Explore, evaluate, and disseminate good extension models KE for VCs: • Work across VCs to strengthen KE and improve adoption • Explore and evaluate VC-specific KE approaches • Partner in focus geographies to increase VC adoption beyond VC grants.
  19. 19. Thank you! Pier Paolo Ficarelli 19
  20. 20. Pier Paolo Ficarelli | 20 Rogers,1964 Diffusion of innovation theory 20%? Time!

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