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Comparison between pico and wifi ap


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This is a comparison between picocell and Wifi APs if implemented as small cells in Hetnets. It may serve as preliminary information on the subject, much suited for beginners, not expert.

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Comparison between pico and wifi ap

  1. 1. HetNet with WLAN AP or PicoCell @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana
  2. 2. Outline1. HetNet Introduction2. Comparing WLAN AP & Pico Cell a. System Setup b. Performance Comparison c. Product Price3. EAP Authentication4. Home Agent11-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana Page 2
  3. 3. What is HetNet • Pico cell is a small BTS which is usually planted in building to extend coverage. The form is small and easily disguised as building accessory. Pico Cell • WLAN Access Point is the + device which broadcast WiFi signal • HetNet, short from Heterogeneous Network is a WLAN Access network which is a combination Point of macro BTS (the big tower transmitting 3G/LTE signal) and small BTSMacro BTS Small BTS11-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana Page 3
  4. 4. Comparing WLAN AP & PICO CELLSource : @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana
  5. 5. System Simulation SetupEach setup will consist of 1 or 4 small cells within 1 macro cellLTE Advanced Setup WiFi Setup• # of macro cells : 57 • Carrier frequency : 5.5 GHz – D3 (ISD : 1732 m, 700 MHz) – D1 (ISD : 500 m, 2.1 GHz) • Antenna Configuration• Antenna configuration : 2Tx/2Rx – AP : 2 Tx/ 2Rx• Antenna Gain: – Client : 1 Tx / 1 Rx – Macro : 14 dBi • Antenna Gain : 3 dBi – Pico : 5 dBi • Penetration loss : Fix 20 dB• Penetration Loss : fix 20 DB• Bandwidth : 10 Mhz • Bandwidth : 20 MHz• Traffic Model : Downlink full buffer • Traffic Model : Downlink full buffer• # of UE : 30 per macro (total : 1710) +12.5%• TX Power • TX Power: – Macro : 46 dBm – AP : 24 dBm – Pico : 30 dBm – Client : 18 dBm – UE : 23 dBm• Scheduler : Proportional fair • Scheduler : Round Robin• Pico Density per macro : Fixed : 0/1/4 • Maximum TxOP : 3 ms • Packet Size : 1500 bytes • RTS/CTS : None11-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana Page 5
  6. 6. Performance Metrics & DistributionMeasurement Metrics Load Distribution Setup• Cell Edge Throughput • Uniform Distribution – Defined as the lowest 5th – User end devices are percentile throughput evenly distributed in the – Displayed in multiplication small BTS coverage area factor (x times increased) • Hotspot Distribution• Median Throughput – Using 30 devices, 20 are in – Defined as the median coverage area of small BTS, value of the test sample and the other 10 are not in – Displayed in multiplication coverage factor (x times increased)11-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana Page 6
  7. 7. Performance Comparison - LowDensity AreaHotspot Distribution Uniform DistributionPico cells outperform Wifi AP by min of 1.1x Pico cells outperform Wifi AP by min of 0.1xto 6.9x higher throughput to 1.7x higher throughput 12 12 10.2 10 10 X times increasedX times increase 8 8 6 6 4.1 4 4 3.3 4 2.8 2.8 1.8 2.1 2 2 1.7 2 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2 1 0 0 Median Cell Edge Median Cell Edge Median Cell Edge Median Cell Edge 1 Small Cell 4 Small Cells 1 Small Cell 4 Small Cells Pico Wifi AP Pico Wifi AP11-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana Page 7
  8. 8. Performance Comparison – HighDensity AreaHotspot Distribution Uniform Distribution 4.5 4.2 4.5 4 4 3.5 3.5 3.5 3 X times increased X times increased 3 3 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.1 2 1.8 1.9 2 2 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.2 1.1 1 1 0.5 0.5 0 0 Median Cell Edge Median Cell Edge Median Cell Edge Median Cell Edge 1 Small Cell 4 Small Cells 1 Small Cell 4 Small Cells Pico Wifi AP Pico Wifi AP Pico cells outperform Wifi AP by min of 0.3x Pico cells outperform Wifi AP by min of 0.2x to 0.7x higher throughput to 0.8x higher throughput11-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana Page 8
  9. 9. Performance Comparison Summary This histogram shows the frequency of how many times Pico cell outperform Wifi AP by how many multiplication 9 120.00% 8 100.00% 7 6 80.00%Frequency 5 60.00% 4 3 40.00% 2 20.00% 1 0 0.00% 0.5 1 2 1.5 2.5 7 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 More Bin Frequency Cumulative % 11-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana Page 9
  10. 10. Mobility ComparisonPicocell Wifi AP+ Well defined handover + Using Home Agent and Dual procedures as part of 3GPP Stack Mobile IP will allow standard handover from 3GPP network to another non secure RAT - May interfere with other Wifi networks - WAN does not aware of Wifi networks, thus require UE to perform network discovery - Wifi does not guarantee connectivity to the strongest AP, it will only switch to other AP when the connection becomes too weak11-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana 10
  11. 11. Quality of Service ComparisonPicocell Wifi AP+ Integrated QoS functionality to - Four QoS classes (Best Effort, the macro cell Video, Voice and Background)+ Can use range expansion and which is not integrated with 3GPP resource partitioning to enable - Wifi operates in unlicensed equitability in distributing air link spectrum and rather difficult to resources ensure no interfering other Wifi networks which can harm QoS11-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana 11
  12. 12. Security ComparisonPicocell Wifi AP+ Using same standard as macro cell - Require username and password (no issue) which can negatively impact User Experience (this may be resolved using EAP-AKA/SIM which requires Wifi UE to support EAP- SIM/AKA authentication)11-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana 12
  13. 13. SON (Self Organizing Network)Picocell Wifi AP+ All SON features is fully - Does not available for inter RAT supported, i.e. – Mobility Load Balancing – Automatic Neighbor Relation – Mobility Robustness Optimization11-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana 13
  14. 14. Product Pricing Carrier Grade WLAN Pico Cell Access Point • Price Range : USD 3 – 7 times • Approximate Price : 7,500.00 – USD USD 2,000.00 15,000.00 • End User 3G Chipset : 6 times • End User Wifi Chipset USD 30.00 : USD 5.0011-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana Page 14
  15. 15. EAP-AKA/SIM Authentication used in i-WLAN11-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana Page 15
  16. 16. EAP-AKA/SIM IntroductionExtensible Authentication Protocol – Authentication and Key Agreement 2G EAP-SIM 3G EAP-AKA Based on challenge mechanism and symmetric cryptography The USIM: • Verifies that AUTN is correct and hereby authenticates the network • If AUTN is correct, the USIM computes RES, IK, CK and provides those values to the terminal • If AUTN is incorrect, the terminal rejects the authentication. • If the sequence number is out of synchronization, terminal initiates a synchronization procedure The terminal • Derives new required keying material from CK and IK • Decrypts the new temporary identifier and saves it to be used on next authentication • Sends EAP Response/AKA-challenge containing RES to WLAN11-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana Page 16
  17. 17. EAP-SIM Full Authentication Based on RFC-4186 PEER AUTHENTICATOR EAP SERVER AuC(mobile client) (WLAN-AP) (RADIUS Server) EAP-Request/Identity EAP-Response/Identity EAP-Request/SIM/Start (AT_VERSION_LIST) EAP-Response/SIM/Start (AT_NONCE_MT, AT_SELECTED_VERSION) Obtain GSM EAP-Request/SIM/Challenge (AT_RAND, AT_MAC) TripletsRuns GSM algorithms, verifiesAT_MAC and derives session keys EAP-Response/SIM/Challenge (AT_MAC) EAP-Success 11-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana 17
  18. 18. Attributes ExplanationGenerated by Peer Generated by Server1. AT_IDENTITY (IMSI for GSM 1. AT_VERSION_LIST, contains Subscribers and NAI for AAA version numbers supported by the Protocols) EAP-SIM server (currently there is – NAI Format: only version 1 for EAP-SIM) • Permanent Username • Pseudonym Username • Fast-ReAuth ID2. AT_NONCE_MT, 2 reserved bytes 2. AT_RAND, contains 2 reserved (all 0) followed by a random number bytes (all 0) followed by n GSM freshly generated by the peer RANDs (generated by HSS/AuC)3. AT_MAC, calculated from HMAC- 3. AT_MAC, short from Message SHA1-128(K_aut,EAP packet| Authentication Code, calculated n*SRES) from HMAC-SHA1-128(K_aut, EAP packet| NONCE_MT)Note: MasterKey = SHA1(Identity|n*Kc| NONCE_MT| Version List| Selected Version)11-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana 18
  19. 19. Home Agent and Dual Mobile IP Stack11-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana 19
  20. 20. Home Agent DefinitionBased on TS 24-304, Home Agent is a mobile IPv4 router on a UE’s home network which tunnels datagrams for delivery to the UE while it is registered on a visited network as described in IETF RFC 5944. @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana
  21. 21. DMIPSv6 Definition• Definition : Mobility protocol specified in IETF that provides IP address preservation for IPv4 and IPv6 sessions, allowing the user to roam independently in IPv4 and IPv611-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana Page 21
  22. 22. Handover from GE/UTRAN to I-WLAN1. UE perform I-WLAN automatic network selection procedure2. UE perform automatic PLMN selection after receiving PLMN list from WLAN3. UE initiate tunnel establishment towards PDG4. Perform Home Link detection – If UE is still on home link : send Binding Update with lifetime set to 0 to remove binding in Home Agent – If UE is on not on home link : • Perform Home Agent Discovery • H1 PDN attach to Home Agent • Send Binding Update to Home Agent of its Care-of-Address (UE is still in GERAN or UTRAN during handover)5. Start detach procedure of GE/UTRAN11-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana 22
  23. 23. Handover from I-WLAN toGE/UTRAN1. Start attach procedure – SGSN will use APN sent by UE to determine the GGSN allocated to the UE2. Start PDP context activation or GPRS attach – UE will receive PDP address (Care-of-Address)3. Start Home Link detection – If UE is not on home link : • Initiate Home Agent discovery • H1 PDN attach (after GPRS attach) or perform Binding Update if already attached – If UE is on home link : • Send Binding Update message to Home Agent with lifetime set to 0 to remove binding4. Start disconnect tunnel procedure11-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana Page 23
  24. 24. H1 PDN Attach1. Discovery of the Home Agent address in IPv6 and IPv4, this is why the DSMIP is required2. Security association establishment, using IPsec if UE is not in the home link. IKEv2 is used to establish the IPsec3. IPv6 home network prefix assignment and home link detection4. IPv4 home address assignment5. Initial binding registration11-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana Page 24
  25. 25. Glossary11-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana Page 25
  26. 26. Glossary1. Home Link : In 3GPP environment, an UE is considered to be in the home link if the UE is connected to one of 3GPP Access Network, for example, GERAN, UTRAN or E- UTRAN. EPS should allow operator to configure which access network is considered as home link for certain UE2. H1 : Reference point for signaling and user data transfer between UE and Home Agent3. ISD (Inter Site Distance) : distance from one macro site (BTS) to another. Usually, ISD is less than the diameter of a site to provide an overlapping area to handover4. SON (Self Organizing Network) : it is a feature in LTE by which LTE network can adjust its parameters based on certain observation made by itself5. ANR (Automatic Neighbor Relation) : feature of SON by which it can automatically find adjacent neighbors6. MLB (Mobility Load Balancing) : feature to automatically reselect or handover UE in the edge cells to cope with unequal traffic load7. MRO (Mobility Robustness Optimizations) : feature to automatically adjust thresholds related to cell reselection and handover in order to eliminate unnecessary handover and to provide appropriate handover timing8. 2Tx/2Rx : A condition where there are 2 transmitters in the BTS and 2 receivers in UE to accelerate performance9. Penetration Loss : Reduce of power when the signal transmitted is blocked by concrete wall @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana
  27. 27. Glossary - 21. TxOP (Transmit Opportunity) : a bounded time interval during which a station can send as many frames as possible2. RTS/CTS (Request to Send/Clear to Send) : An additional method to avoid collision caused by hidden node problem in CSMA/CA3. UE : User Equipment, any user device used to communicate in the network4. I-WLAN : short from Interworking WLAN, when user roams from 3G access to non 3G access such as WLAN/WiFi5. PLMN : short from Public Land Mobile Network, any network which exist and known publicly6. PDG : PDN Gateway, the gateway (router) used to communicate with outside network7. GE/UTRAN : technical naming for GPRS/3G8. Care-of-Address (CoA) : temporary IP address for a mobile device. This allows a home agent to forward messages to the mobile device. A separate address is required because the IP address of the device that is used as host identification is topologically incorrect. The CoA splits the dual nature of an IP address, that is, its use is to identify the host and the location within the global IP network9. PDP context : session when a UE attach to GPRS network @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana
  28. 28. References11-Feb-13 @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana Page 28
  29. 29. References• 21.pdf• research-a-comparison-of-lte-advanced-hetnets-and-wifi.pdf•• aka.html• s/PDF/S3-020650.pdf••• offload.pdf••• @pfesto /yuvi-syamsiana