Chapter 9MEETING STANDARDS THROUGH LEARNER- CENTERED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
Characteristics of learner-centered instruction Students are at the center of the learning process Teachers encourage them to be responsible for their own learning. Teachers guide student learning and intervene only when necessary, so that they do not develop misconceptions. Teachers emphasize a deep understanding of both the content and the processes involved. Understanding involves explaining, finding evidence, justifying thinking, providing additional examples.
Strategies to use with the Student-Centered Approach Cooperative Learning: A general term to designate a collection of teaching strategies that foster interaction among students. In this type of strategy, there are no “winners or losers,” instead, students are encouraged to work as a team and help each other learn a common goal. Group goals, individual accountability and development of social skills. Group work Think-pair-share Jigsaw
Helpful interactions during Cooperative Learning Listening and questioning. Encouraging other students to verbalize their understanding and listening to others. Checking for understanding. Asking for elaboration when answers are incomplete. Staying on task. Making sure the discussions remain focused and time limits are met. Emotional support. Offering supportive comments for incorrect answers. (e.g. That is ok, why don’t you try again. )
Classroom Discussions Classroom discussions are instructional strategies that use teacher-centered and student-centered interactions as the primary vehicle for higher-level learning goals. Characterized by a high interaction among students.
Goals for classroom discussions To understand the connections and relationships between ideas. To become an active listener. To develop leadership skills. To summarize group opinions. To develop self-directed learning skills. To develop analysis, synthesis, and evaluative skills. To arrive at a consensus. To handle controversy and different opinions.
Planning for a class discussion It is critical that teachers organize their thoughts before this activity. Many teachers allow the discussion to disintegrate into chaos. Consider a goal. What do you want your students to understand as a result of this discussion? Should this activity be implemented in large group or in a small-group setting? To make this decision consider your goals. Consider background and experience of students. The discussion should elicit a product: list, summary, series of conclusions, or something concrete can be shared with the class. Consider the time allotted for the activity.
Implementing Example on p. 272 In your groups, practice organizing classroom discussions. Pick a topic from the following list and consider the time frame, concrete outcomes of the discussion and lesson goal. Global warming Weapons of mass destruction Privacy issues Renewable energy Juvenile crime Capital punishment
Problem-Based Instruction Problem-based, as its name implies, uses a problem as a focal point for student investigation and inquiry. Lessons begin with a problem or a question. Students assume primary responsibility for investigating problems, and pursuing questions. Teacher’s role in this process is primarily facilitative. Problem-based instruction has three major goals: To develop students’ ability to systematically investigate a question or a problem. To develop self-directed learning. To understand the content.
Problem-Based instruction Much of the content students learn in problem-based is implicit and incidental in the sense that the teacher does not know exactly when the investigation will proceed. Because of this, problem-based strategies can be less effective for teaching content than more teacher- centered strategies. However, there is evidence that information learned in this way is retained longer and transfers better.
Inquiry Learning Inquiry is the process for answering questions and solving problems based on the logical examination of facts and observations. Example on p. 275-278. While you read, try to identify the following: Identification of the problem. Form of hypothesis Gathering of data Analyzing data for conclusion
Implementation of problem solving Select the strategyIndentify the Represent the problem problem Inquiry Learning Topic Hypothesis Classroom Discussion Carry out the strategy Evaluate Results Collect data Conclusions Analyze data