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-Coaching and Motor Control     u3036692
Presentation Define the topic Brief background Previous research Findings Conclusion                      u3036692
Main Research Dr. Gabriele Wulf Schmidt & Wrisberg Stephan Swinnen                   u3036692
Background & Definition Large amount of interest since 20th  century Critical for learning motor skills Definition    ...
Feedback – Overview   Internal Feedback     Feedback from the sensory cortex      ○ Eg. sight or kinesthesis   External...
Knowledge                                                                      of Results                                 ...
Knowledge                                                                        of                                       ...
Feedback and Learning      literature   Thorndike’s line drawing test     1931 (foundation research)     Participants w...
Modern Research Place greater emphasis on extrinsic  feedback than previously Encourage learner to improve personal  err...
No Feedback - Evidence   Mostly nonhuman subjects (birds)     Bird songs specific to species     Birds raised in captiv...
Research by Dr. Wulf (2007)   Motivation linked to feedback when performer has    achieved positive results   Examined e...
Motivation and Feedback Goal setting enhanced motivation Coaches and teachers must encourage  goal achievement through f...
Reinforcement   Positive reinforcement     Response to increase likelihood      of repeated movement   Negative reinfor...
Weinberg et. al   Reinforcement     Quantify positive reinforcement effect on      endurance performance     Hypothesis...
Reinforcement Literature   Limited literature surrounding    reinforcement     Poses difficult experimental design probl...
Intermittent Reinforcement Reinforcement only provided occasionally Improves athletes error detection Improves self mot...
Practical Applications   Utilise intermittent reinforcement    and feedback   Use intrinsic feedback of the    athlete  ...
Practical Applications cont. Consider task  complexity      experience  feedback Empower athlete  decision making Enco...
Future Research Research ‘real-world’ sporting context Study outside of lab Create experiments that employ more  extern...
The End – Thank you   Please feel free to visit the wikiversity page    for Sport Coaching Pedagogy     http://en.wikive...
ReferencesBadami, R., VaezMousavi, M., Wulf, G., & Namazizadeh, M. (2007). Feedbackafter good trials enhances intrinsic mo...
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Feedback - By Paul Fellows

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Sport Coaching Pedagogy Assignment
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Feedback - By Paul Fellows

  1. 1. -Coaching and Motor Control u3036692
  2. 2. Presentation Define the topic Brief background Previous research Findings Conclusion u3036692
  3. 3. Main Research Dr. Gabriele Wulf Schmidt & Wrisberg Stephan Swinnen u3036692
  4. 4. Background & Definition Large amount of interest since 20th century Critical for learning motor skills Definition  Information produced from the various sensors within the body (Schmidt)  Knowledge of results of any behaviour considered as influencing further behaviour u3036692
  5. 5. Feedback – Overview Internal Feedback  Feedback from the sensory cortex ○ Eg. sight or kinesthesis External Feedback  Augmented information  External to the sensory cortex of the performer  Adds to the intrinsic information u3036692
  6. 6. Knowledge of Results (KR) •Extrinsic •Augmented •Success of movement with respect to the goal •Can be redundantFormer Collingwood Coach Mick Malthouse addressing his players at3qtr time of grand final.1 2011 u3036692
  7. 7. Knowledge of Performanc e (KP) •Extrinsic •Augmented •Assesses quality of movement rather than result •Supplements theA picture of dartfish software assessing a countermovement jump knowledge of the performer •Kinematic feedback • v, t, a, etc. u3036692
  8. 8. Feedback and Learning literature Thorndike’s line drawing test  1931 (foundation research)  Participants who did not receive feedback did not improve post test  Established mind set for further research  Thorndike’s study still confirmed u3036692
  9. 9. Modern Research Place greater emphasis on extrinsic feedback than previously Encourage learner to improve personal error detection abilities Prevent learner dependency on feedback u3036692
  10. 10. No Feedback - Evidence Mostly nonhuman subjects (birds)  Bird songs specific to species  Birds raised in captivity  Motor learning independent of feedback Limited studies on human subjects  Gymnasts  Great amount of redundant feedback  Frustrating to receive redundant feedback u3036692
  11. 11. Research by Dr. Wulf (2007) Motivation linked to feedback when performer has achieved positive results Examined effects of feedback on motivation Found that learners responded to feedback post positive results achieved Motivation is a function of feedback AIS high performance track cycling coach speaks to Anna u3036692 Meares ahead of the world championships Melbourne 2012
  12. 12. Motivation and Feedback Goal setting enhanced motivation Coaches and teachers must encourage goal achievement through feedback Learners try harder, are happier and practice for longer u3036692
  13. 13. Reinforcement Positive reinforcement  Response to increase likelihood of repeated movement Negative reinforcement  Response to remove aversive condition to increase likelihood of repeated movement Long time Russian national women’s volleyball coach Nikolai Karpol employing negative reinforcement to improve performance u3036692
  14. 14. Weinberg et. al Reinforcement  Quantify positive reinforcement effect on endurance performance  Hypothesised that positive reinforcement increase endurance performance  Results indicated no significant difference in either study  Positive reinforcement has not effect on endurance performance u3036692
  15. 15. Reinforcement Literature Limited literature surrounding reinforcement  Poses difficult experimental design problems  Researchers failed to sample groups to expose correct experimental behaviours  Nil feedback, all positive or all negative proved to challenging to implicate in studies  Experiments lacked internal validity u3036692
  16. 16. Intermittent Reinforcement Reinforcement only provided occasionally Improves athletes error detection Improves self motivation and reinforcement Great reinforcement effects once reinforcement has been removed Overexposure if reinforcement occurs after every trial Rugby League coach Wayne Bennet speaks u3036692 to his players at a training session
  17. 17. Practical Applications Utilise intermittent reinforcement and feedback Use intrinsic feedback of the athlete  Prompt discussion  Use questions Develop athletes error correction Do not overexpose performers to feedback (loses effect) u3036692
  18. 18. Practical Applications cont. Consider task complexity experience feedback Empower athlete decision making Encourage discussion regarding performance u3036692
  19. 19. Future Research Research ‘real-world’ sporting context Study outside of lab Create experiments that employ more externally valid concepts Greater research on intrinsic feedback rather than extrinsic Study more effective extrinsic feedback specific to the individual’s needs u3036692
  20. 20. The End – Thank you Please feel free to visit the wikiversity page for Sport Coaching Pedagogy  http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/SportCoachingPedago gy or visit my blog  http://paulfellowsspc12.blogspot.com.au/2012/02/s port-coaching-pedagogy-2012.html Or Follow me on Twitter  www.twitter.com/pfellows12 (#SCP12) u3036692
  21. 21. ReferencesBadami, R., VaezMousavi, M., Wulf, G., & Namazizadeh, M. (2007). Feedbackafter good trials enhances intrinsic motivation. Research Quarterly for Exerciseand Sport.Schimdt, R., and Wrisberg, C., (2008) Motor Learning and Performance HumanKinetics 286-299Schmidt , R., Zelaznik, H., Hawkins, B., and Spring (1980) Feedback influenceson reaction time Journal of Motor Behaviour 12:239-261Swinnen, S., and Zelaznik, H., (2002) Information Feedbck for Motor SkillLearning: A Review Advances in Motor Learning and Control 3:37-42Weinberg, R., Garland, H., Bruya, I., and Jackson, A., (1993) Effect of PositiveReinforcement on Endurance Performance Journal of Sport and ExercisePsychology 12:141-156 u3036692

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