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How is information literacy
related to social competences
in the workplace?
Anne-Sophie Collard
University of Namur
Center in Information, Law and Society
Thierry De Smedt, Pierre Fastrez,
Valèria Ligurgo, and Thibault Philippette
Université catholique de Louvain: Knowledge Mediation Research Group
ECIL 2016 Information Literacy in the Inclusive Society
Context
Office work environment and activities are changing, mostly in terms of flexibility.
In this context, Media and Information Literacy (MIL) can be seen as:
• A factor of (e-)inclusion
• A factor of well-being
• A set of competences required to work in an efficient and meaningful way
NWOW environments
As noted by Ajzen, Doni and Taskin (2012), the “New Ways of Working” (NWOW)
policy observed in office work environments is characterized by:
• A more collaborative work organization
• A more participative management
• A more spatio-temporal flexibility
Permitted by the use of new information and communication technologies and
services.
The LITME@WORK project
Media and Information Literacy in team and distance work environments
MACRO
The social and discursive construction of “new work competences”
MESO
Work organization, workplace design and structural
conditions for competence utilization and learning
MICRO
The relationship between
media uses and competences
Information Literacy in the workplace
With the development of those multimedia networked technologies, the
information literacy requirement in the workplace has evolved:
● From text-based contents to a variety of sources
● Beyond information access, management or transmission, to include
content creation skills
In this context, the information literate user can be defined as capable of:
● adapting oneself to its changing information environment
● adapting the information landscape to its professional activity
MIL as competences and practices
Media and information literacy is not limited to operational skills. We define it as a
set of competences related to socially situated media and information practices.
Rey et al. (2012) identified four inherent properties of the concept of competence:
1. Adaptability
2. Singularity
3. Non-observable
4. Mobilization
Media and
information
practices
Competences
informational technical social
MIL as individual and
collective accomplishment
Information literacy is social:
1. it relies on social relationships and
organization as resources for its expression
and development,
2. it shapes social relationships and social
organization,
3. it is (at least in part) a collective
accomplishment.
The LITME@WORK project
Media and Information Literacy in team and distance work environments
MACRO
The social and discursive construction of “new work competences”
MESO
Work organization, workplace design and structural
conditions for competence utilization and learning
MICRO
The relationship between
media uses and competences
Information Literacy
=
[social↔informational]
competences
Goals
Defining the competences of ICT-
supported distant teamwork practices
• from the perspective of workers,
• based on their discourse
and on workplace observation
Highlighting how informational
work practices are valuable in
relation to the social organization
they contribute to elaborate
[social↔informational]
distant teamwork
practices
observation
Method
Data collection is underway.
A “connective ethnography” (Leander 2008) of everyday work:
• Interviews with workers
• complementary workplace observation
10 case studies: Belgian organizations involved in NWOW projects
• In each organization: two teams N = 20
• In each team: one team manager and two team members N = 60
Main instrument: interview guide
• involving a guided tour of the informant’s personal workspace
• structured around 11 work activities related to distant teamwork
• identified in the Computer-Supported Cooperative Work literature
• involving
• social interaction between team members,
• the mediation of technological apparatus
Working hypothesis:
the observed teams will vary in terms of the relative importance and complexity of these activities
Method: activities and dimensions
Activities:
1. Authoring a document collectively;
2. Sharing a collection of documents;
3. Managing outgoing information;
4. Managing incoming information;
5. Using others to find information;
6. Making collective decisions regarding task
distribution, team governance and roles,
and overall team functioning;
7. Managing one's tasks in relation with
others;
8. Planning a meeting;
9. Planning the team's activity;
10.Working synchronously in the distance
with other team members;
11.Organizing one's workspaces for
collaboration.
… broken down into dimensions
Task management
Time management
Space and distance management
Information management
Awareness
Collective decision making
Reflexive tool use
Comprehension of “sociomatics”
x
Method: activities and dimensions
Example: the collective authoring of a document
Dimensions
Oliver: team leader
Vocational guidance center
John: project coordinator
Research unit
Task mgmt sequential: individual authoring → notification → individual authoring...
Time mgmt typically asynchronous
Space & distance mgmt
collective synchronous editing
on one computer
shared distant storage (network drive | cloud) supports asynchronous editing
Information mgmt
network drive, equally accessible to all,
collective rules for naming and sorting
cloud-based storage, access defined by
creator, within rules defined by IT
Awareness (of necessity
of contributions)
receiving email (with link to document),
or face-to-face requests
receiving email / phone calls; checking
the cloud’s notification system for edits
Collective decision
making
team agreement on the final version;
intended cleanup of working versions
validation of final version by one person
Reflective tool use
revision mode / versioning; shared
drive organized by trial-and-error
Comprehension of
sociomatics
open access to shared drive
coworker support in re-finding
documents = reminder to cleanup
limiting who has access to what
Opportunities for collective
Information Literacy development
Conclusions
What: Drawing a map of the intensity, frequency and complexity with which the
individual and team act upon the technical affordances of media to achieve the
socio-informational functions that allow a due performance of their activities.
How: Theoretical grid (11 activities x 8 dimensions) ⇒ observations and
interviews
Media and Information Literacy:
• Beyond retrieving, evaluating and producing information
• Using workplace affordances and constraints to process information
• to enable efficient collective activity,
• to contribute to the constitution, maintenance and evolution of the organization, and to the
fulfillment of its missions.
Information literacy contributes to social inclusion: it empowers the worker to fully
participate to the existence of the organization.
Perspectives: rethinking the concept of information
“Informational” exchanges are communicative acts with pragmatic incidences
• Expressions of support, divergence, feelings, complicity or irony are present
in the uses of media and technology, but cannot be accounted for by the
concept of information.
• How can such competences of social regulation between the members of a
team fit within a model of media and information literacy?
Any information is information for someone
• i.e. for a community of people for whom it has a meaning/a purpose, who
secure its existence and accessibility, through shared memory or shared
media.
• Information ≠ [predicate ↔ object]
• Information = [predicate ←for whom→ object]
Thank you
for your attention
Questions? Comments?
Thibault Philippette Pierre Fastrez
thibault.philippette@uclouvain.be pierre.fastrez@uclouvain.be

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How is Information Literacy related to Social Competences in the Workplace

  • 1. How is information literacy related to social competences in the workplace? Anne-Sophie Collard University of Namur Center in Information, Law and Society Thierry De Smedt, Pierre Fastrez, Valèria Ligurgo, and Thibault Philippette Université catholique de Louvain: Knowledge Mediation Research Group ECIL 2016 Information Literacy in the Inclusive Society
  • 2. Context Office work environment and activities are changing, mostly in terms of flexibility. In this context, Media and Information Literacy (MIL) can be seen as: • A factor of (e-)inclusion • A factor of well-being • A set of competences required to work in an efficient and meaningful way
  • 3. NWOW environments As noted by Ajzen, Doni and Taskin (2012), the “New Ways of Working” (NWOW) policy observed in office work environments is characterized by: • A more collaborative work organization • A more participative management • A more spatio-temporal flexibility Permitted by the use of new information and communication technologies and services.
  • 4. The LITME@WORK project Media and Information Literacy in team and distance work environments MACRO The social and discursive construction of “new work competences” MESO Work organization, workplace design and structural conditions for competence utilization and learning MICRO The relationship between media uses and competences
  • 5. Information Literacy in the workplace With the development of those multimedia networked technologies, the information literacy requirement in the workplace has evolved: ● From text-based contents to a variety of sources ● Beyond information access, management or transmission, to include content creation skills In this context, the information literate user can be defined as capable of: ● adapting oneself to its changing information environment ● adapting the information landscape to its professional activity
  • 6. MIL as competences and practices Media and information literacy is not limited to operational skills. We define it as a set of competences related to socially situated media and information practices. Rey et al. (2012) identified four inherent properties of the concept of competence: 1. Adaptability 2. Singularity 3. Non-observable 4. Mobilization Media and information practices Competences informational technical social
  • 7. MIL as individual and collective accomplishment Information literacy is social: 1. it relies on social relationships and organization as resources for its expression and development, 2. it shapes social relationships and social organization, 3. it is (at least in part) a collective accomplishment.
  • 8. The LITME@WORK project Media and Information Literacy in team and distance work environments MACRO The social and discursive construction of “new work competences” MESO Work organization, workplace design and structural conditions for competence utilization and learning MICRO The relationship between media uses and competences
  • 9. Information Literacy = [social↔informational] competences Goals Defining the competences of ICT- supported distant teamwork practices • from the perspective of workers, • based on their discourse and on workplace observation Highlighting how informational work practices are valuable in relation to the social organization they contribute to elaborate [social↔informational] distant teamwork practices observation
  • 10. Method Data collection is underway. A “connective ethnography” (Leander 2008) of everyday work: • Interviews with workers • complementary workplace observation 10 case studies: Belgian organizations involved in NWOW projects • In each organization: two teams N = 20 • In each team: one team manager and two team members N = 60 Main instrument: interview guide • involving a guided tour of the informant’s personal workspace • structured around 11 work activities related to distant teamwork • identified in the Computer-Supported Cooperative Work literature • involving • social interaction between team members, • the mediation of technological apparatus
  • 11. Working hypothesis: the observed teams will vary in terms of the relative importance and complexity of these activities Method: activities and dimensions Activities: 1. Authoring a document collectively; 2. Sharing a collection of documents; 3. Managing outgoing information; 4. Managing incoming information; 5. Using others to find information; 6. Making collective decisions regarding task distribution, team governance and roles, and overall team functioning; 7. Managing one's tasks in relation with others; 8. Planning a meeting; 9. Planning the team's activity; 10.Working synchronously in the distance with other team members; 11.Organizing one's workspaces for collaboration. … broken down into dimensions Task management Time management Space and distance management Information management Awareness Collective decision making Reflexive tool use Comprehension of “sociomatics” x
  • 13. Example: the collective authoring of a document Dimensions Oliver: team leader Vocational guidance center John: project coordinator Research unit Task mgmt sequential: individual authoring → notification → individual authoring... Time mgmt typically asynchronous Space & distance mgmt collective synchronous editing on one computer shared distant storage (network drive | cloud) supports asynchronous editing Information mgmt network drive, equally accessible to all, collective rules for naming and sorting cloud-based storage, access defined by creator, within rules defined by IT Awareness (of necessity of contributions) receiving email (with link to document), or face-to-face requests receiving email / phone calls; checking the cloud’s notification system for edits Collective decision making team agreement on the final version; intended cleanup of working versions validation of final version by one person Reflective tool use revision mode / versioning; shared drive organized by trial-and-error Comprehension of sociomatics open access to shared drive coworker support in re-finding documents = reminder to cleanup limiting who has access to what Opportunities for collective Information Literacy development
  • 14. Conclusions What: Drawing a map of the intensity, frequency and complexity with which the individual and team act upon the technical affordances of media to achieve the socio-informational functions that allow a due performance of their activities. How: Theoretical grid (11 activities x 8 dimensions) ⇒ observations and interviews Media and Information Literacy: • Beyond retrieving, evaluating and producing information • Using workplace affordances and constraints to process information • to enable efficient collective activity, • to contribute to the constitution, maintenance and evolution of the organization, and to the fulfillment of its missions. Information literacy contributes to social inclusion: it empowers the worker to fully participate to the existence of the organization.
  • 15. Perspectives: rethinking the concept of information “Informational” exchanges are communicative acts with pragmatic incidences • Expressions of support, divergence, feelings, complicity or irony are present in the uses of media and technology, but cannot be accounted for by the concept of information. • How can such competences of social regulation between the members of a team fit within a model of media and information literacy? Any information is information for someone • i.e. for a community of people for whom it has a meaning/a purpose, who secure its existence and accessibility, through shared memory or shared media. • Information ≠ [predicate ↔ object] • Information = [predicate ←for whom→ object]
  • 16. Thank you for your attention Questions? Comments? Thibault Philippette Pierre Fastrez thibault.philippette@uclouvain.be pierre.fastrez@uclouvain.be

Editor's Notes

  1. ECIL2016 - STRUCTURE DE LA PRESENTATION (vs. ARTICLE) CONTEXTE du digital turn et effet sur les organisations de travail oui (1 slide) INFORMATION LITERACY Historic —> non In the business field —> oui (evolution) (1 slide) MIL as competences and practices —> oui (1 slide) Individual and collective accomplishment (1 slide) NWOW environment —> oui (1 slide) LITME@WORK project Description (1 slide) Dimension collective des compétences MIL (1 slide) Goals (1 slide) Methods (1 slide) Framework: activities and dimensions (1 slide) Illustration (1 slide) Conclusion (1 slide) Perspective: rethinking ‘information’ (1 slide)
  2. FACTOR OF E-INCLUSION: organisations are physical AND online FACTOR OF WELL-BEING: lack of information and media skills can generate stress and frustration A SET OF COMPETENCES: to make sense to what and how we do work activities
  3. Thibault
  4. This communication is based on one aspect (micro level) of a biggest research funded by the Federal Research Policy in Belgium about, with 3 research teams
  5. READ THE SLIDE
  6. Adaptability: ability to manage unexpected situations Singularity: a competence is connected to the personality and history of the person. People can perform a same task with different means. Non-observable: we can only observe the effects of a competence through an activity or a performance Mobilization: it exceeds simple knowledge and know-hows to selectively call upon them in relevant ways
  7. Take into account the collective side of information literacy E.G. search something in prevision to share it or produce something collectively
  8. So, as Thibault said, we are working at the micro level of analysis within our project
  9. Pierre We consider information literacy as an integrated set of informational, technical and social competences [18, 19] that underpins workers’ collective activities. This theoretical stance is complemented by a methodological position that leads us to unveil the (individual and collective) information literacy of workers by studying their distant teamwork practices, which we view as a set of socially constructed and situated collective practices that make their competences apparent. Our research aims at highlighting how our informants’ informational work practices are not valuable in themselves but only in relation to the social organization they contribute to elaborate. We consider information literacy to be social in at least three ways: (1) it relies on social relationships and organization as resources for its expression and development, (2) it shapes social relationships and social organization, and (3) it is (at least in part) a collective accomplishment. Specifically, we intend to examine the interdependencies between information literacy (considered as sets of individual and collective competences) and the functioning of the team in distant (technologically mediated) teamwork practices; and between the informational and the social dimensions of the practices (and hence the competences). The objective pursued in the LITME@WORK project is the very definition of the competences called for and developed by ICT-supported teamwork and distance work practices from the perspective of workers, based on field observation. We interview office workers about their practices and make observations in their work environments [20–22]. We have selected ten case studies of Belgian organizations involved in projects changing the way employees work in team and at a distance. Forty workers and twenty team managers will have been interviewed at the end of the study. The next section presents the structure of our main observation instrument: our interview guide. We will subsequently use data from preliminary interviews to illustrate how this instrument allows us to pursue our research goals.
  10. Pierre We interview office workers about their practices and make observations in their work environments [20–22]. We have selected ten case studies of Belgian organizations involved in projects changing the way employees work in team and at a distance. Forty workers and twenty team managers will have been interviewed at the end of the study. The next section presents the structure of our main observation instrument: our interview guide. We will subsequently use data from preliminary interviews to illustrate how this instrument allows us to pursue our research goals. Our interview guide is structured around a set of work activities related to distant teamwork. These activities were identified by reviewing the computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) literature [23–26], which provides abundant observational research on collaborative work practices, aimed at designing novel (or redesigning existing) tools to better assist said users in these practices. Each of these technology-supported collaborative activities involves both social interaction between team members, and the mediation of technological apparatus, and is a potential venue for the expression of information literacy competences. We hypothesize the observed teams will vary in terms of the relative importance and complexity of these activities, thereby determining how information literacy can affect teamwork practices and work completion (and vice versa). The selected activities are:
  11. Pierre 1. Task management. At the team level, it consists in the technologically-mediated management of the distribution of work activities among team members and their articulation [27]. At the individual level, it involves the use of technology to adjust one’s task execution to the others’ activities. 2. Time management touches upon how team members make use of technology to manage the time allocation, frequency, scheduling, and synchronicity of both the team’s activity and the individual’s activity in relationship to the team [31]. It includes the management of interruptions [32]: both when one interrupts others, and the when one is accessible and can be interrupted by others [33]. 3. Space and distance management is the management of the spatial properties of one’s work environment at different scales. It affects the spatial layout of one’s local digital workspace [37], the proxemics of one’s work place (e.g. who is working closest to whom), and the separation between work sites in teleworking [38]. 4. Information management includes collective digital information production, as well as individual information authoring for the team, and information sharing (including the timing of sharing, the organization of shared resources, and the management of accesses to shared information). While the individual management of personal information has been extensively studied [21, 22, 28, 29], the individual management of shared information has garnered less attention [30]. 5. Awareness is the understanding of the activities of others, which provides a context for your own activity [34]. Schmidt [35] highlighted how awareness was as a (too) broad concept that spans from a general awareness of the respective knowledge, expertise and social standing among team members, and of their respective location and availability (or social awareness [36]), to a more specific awareness pertaining to tightly coordinated team activities, namely the practice and ability to coordinate by monitoring others as well as making one’s own activity visible to others. 6. Collective decision making corresponds to the processes through which collective decisions are made with the support of information technology [39]. 7. Reflexive tool use is one of two “meta” dimensions that involve the individual’s ability to not only use information technology, but also reflect on the way information technology affects their work. It includes identifying one’s technological needs, knowing how the affordances of different technologies meet them, selecting tools accordingly, appropriating them [40], and assessing their efficiency. 8. Comprehension of “sociomatics” is the second “meta” dimension. Contemporary information technology goes beyond the automatic processing of information (informatics), to encompass the automatic processing of social interactions (sociomatics). The comprehension of sociomatics is the understanding the individual has of the social entailments of technology use. Examples include understanding how the choice of one tool for sharing information impacts access to information for each team member; or understanding how one’s activity is visible to different people and how others can negotiate access to one’s time through the use of a given tool [41].
  12. Pierre 1. Task management. At the team level, it consists in the technologically-mediated management of the distribution of work activities among team members and their articulation [27]. At the individual level, it involves the use of technology to adjust one’s task execution to the others’ activities. 2. Time management touches upon how team members make use of technology to manage the time allocation, frequency, scheduling, and synchronicity of both the team’s activity and the individual’s activity in relationship to the team [31]. It includes the management of interruptions [32]: both when one interrupts others, and the when one is accessible and can be interrupted by others [33]. 3. Space and distance management is the management of the spatial properties of one’s work environment at different scales. It affects the spatial layout of one’s local digital workspace [37], the proxemics of one’s work place (e.g. who is working closest to whom), and the separation between work sites in teleworking [38]. 4. Information management includes collective digital information production, as well as individual information authoring for the team, and information sharing (including the timing of sharing, the organization of shared resources, and the management of accesses to shared information). While the individual management of personal information has been extensively studied [21, 22, 28, 29], the individual management of shared information has garnered less attention [30]. 5. Awareness is the understanding of the activities of others, which provides a context for your own activity [34]. Schmidt [35] highlighted how awareness was as a (too) broad concept that spans from a general awareness of the respective knowledge, expertise and social standing among team members, and of their respective location and availability (or social awareness [36]), to a more specific awareness pertaining to tightly coordinated team activities, namely the practice and ability to coordinate by monitoring others as well as making one’s own activity visible to others. 6. Collective decision making corresponds to the processes through which collective decisions are made with the support of information technology [39]. 7. Reflexive tool use is one of two “meta” dimensions that involve the individual’s ability to not only use information technology, but also reflect on the way information technology affects their work. It includes identifying one’s technological needs, knowing how the affordances of different technologies meet them, selecting tools accordingly, appropriating them [40], and assessing their efficiency. 8. Comprehension of “sociomatics” is the second “meta” dimension. Contemporary information technology goes beyond the automatic processing of information (informatics), to encompass the automatic processing of social interactions (sociomatics). The comprehension of sociomatics is the understanding the individual has of the social entailments of technology use. Examples include understanding how the choice of one tool for sharing information impacts access to information for each team member; or understanding how one’s activity is visible to different people and how others can negotiate access to one’s time through the use of a given tool [41].
  13. Pierre As it is not possible to provide a detailed description of each dimension for each activity within the scope of this article, we will illustrate these dimensions for one activity: the collective authoring of a document (activity #1), with examples taken from two interviews from the exploratory phase of our data collection. These data are too scarce and anecdotal at this point to yield any result regarding the definition of media and information literacy in distant teamwork and its relationship to team functioning. Yet they allow us to showcase how our interview guide points to the (potential) role of information literacy in distant teamwork. Our first informant, whom we will call Oliver, coordinates a team of advisors in a vocational guidance center. Our second informant, whom we will call John, is a project coordinator within a research unit. As far as task management is concerned, both teams manage the task of collective authoring sequentially. Collectively authored documents are created by one team member, who places it either on a shared network drive (Oliver), or a cloud-based storage volume (John), and works on it individually, before notifying another team member that they can contribute. Hence, from the perspective of time management, collective authoring only happens asynchronously. Regarding space and distance management, the socio-technical arrangements of both teams exclude the possibility of synchronous distant collaborative authoring: if team members need to co-author a document synchronously, they just work together on the same computer. On the other hand, asynchronous co-authoring is made possible by the shared distant storage of documents, irrespective of the distance at which team members work. Information management differs between the teams. On Oliver’s team, the network drive that hosts the shared documents is equally accessible to the team members. The location of the document on the drive, its name and possible shortcuts, all follow rules that were decided collectively by the team. On John’s team, the visibility and accessibility of each sub-folder and document is managed by the document or folder creator, depending on rights that were defined by their IT department. Regarding awareness, Oliver’s team members are notified they can work on the collective document by email or by face-to-face communication. They typically send a link to the document on the shared drive (instead of sending attachments that could overload their mail server). John’s team uses either emails or phone calls for such notifications, but to a lesser extent, as they expect coworkers to check whether the document has been edited (and by whom) on the cloud service’s notification system. As far as collective decision making goes, when collective authoring comes to an end in Oliver’s team, the co-workers expect the team to agree on the final version, and to subsequently archive or delete the old versions files, but the cleanup is not always completed. In John’s team, for each document, the final decision is the responsibility of one person (usually the project manager) who validates the final version. The team members’ reflexive tool use does not always appear clearly. When they contribute to a collective document, Oliver’s team members either use Microsoft Word’s revision mode, or create successive versions of the file with different names. From the data we have, it is unclear whether the respective uses of revision mode and file versioning is the result of a collective decision (with a preliminary reflection on the respective merits of these two affordances), of the sum of individual habits and competences, or of random contextual factors. Each of these situations would correspond to a different level of collective or individual literacy (from the highest to the lowest level). Future interviews will investigate this issue in further details. By contrast, the way their shared drive is organized was adopted as a result of collective trial-and-error practices, through which the team seems to have increased its collective information literacy. Finally, the comprehension of sociomatics concerns the team’s ability to balance the access to a maximum of shared resources and the ability to find previously produced documents. While John’s team practices limits who has access to what, Oliver’s team members, who have access to the whole shared drive, rely on their coworkers’ support when they fail to find documents. Such occasions of failed document retrieval remind the team members that their shared server needs to be “cleaned” from old useless versions of finalized documents.
  14. Pierre Media and information literacy: beyond producing, retrieving and evaluating information Processing information according to the workplace affordances and constraints, to enable efficient collective activity, and to contribute, through their informational practices, to the constitution, maintenance and evolution of the organization, as well as to the fulfillment of its missions. Information literacy contributes to social inclusion: it empowers the worker to fully participate to the existence of the organization. studying MIL in 2 steps: theoretical grid (11 activities x 8 dimensions) ⇒ observations and interviews Based on the results of , our goal is to draw a map of the intensity, frequency and complexity with which the individual and team act upon the technical affordances of media available to them to achieve the socio-informational functions (at large) that allow a due performance of their activities. Beyond a quantified inventory of the skills of workers: new theoretical insights regarding the concept of information. “informational” exchanges between workers are communicative acts with pragmatic incidences. What is the standing of the competences related to the practices of social regulation between the members of a team within a model of media and information literacy? How can one analyze in terms of competences the expressions of support, divergence, feelings, complicity or irony that are present in the uses of media and technology, but cannot be accounted for by the concept of information? Any information is information for someone, or for a community of people who regard it as having a meaning, a purpose - albeit potential - and who dedicate themselves to secure its existence and accessibility, through shared memory or shared media. Information does not only define the combination of a predicate to a subject (two-dimensional concept). It combines a predicate to an object by specifying for whom (three-dimensional concept).
  15. Pierre Media and information literacy: beyond producing, retrieving and evaluating information Processing information according to the workplace affordances and constraints, to enable efficient collective activity, and to contribute, through their informational practices, to the constitution, maintenance and evolution of the organization, as well as to the fulfillment of its missions. Information literacy contributes to social inclusion: it empowers the worker to fully participate to the existence of the organization. studying MIL in 2 steps: theoretical grid (11 activities x 8 dimensions) ⇒ observations and interviews Based on the results of , our goal is to draw a map of the intensity, frequency and complexity with which the individual and team act upon the technical affordances of media available to them to achieve the socio-informational functions (at large) that allow a due performance of their activities. Beyond a quantified inventory of the skills of workers: new theoretical insights regarding the concept of information. “informational” exchanges between workers are communicative acts with pragmatic incidences. What is the standing of the competences related to the practices of social regulation between the members of a team within a model of media and information literacy? How can one analyze in terms of competences the expressions of support, divergence, feelings, complicity or irony that are present in the uses of media and technology, but cannot be accounted for by the concept of information? Any information is information for someone, or for a community of people who regard it as having a meaning, a purpose - albeit potential - and who dedicate themselves to secure its existence and accessibility, through shared memory or shared media. Information does not only define the combination of a predicate to a subject (two-dimensional concept). It combines a predicate to an object by specifying for whom (three-dimensional concept).