...an international “shadow world” of military urban              research institutes and training centres that have been ...
Unexpected Source of                   but as the very medium that the                  and feed-back is considerably shor...
ARCTIC TERRAIN                                                                                                            ...
From Symetry to Asymetry. Manipulation of cultural difference                                                             ...
Hierarchical System withouth Lateral Connections         Fractal System where units         work independently together   ...
Panorama showing the Landscape and the people and animals who inhabit it                                                  ...
Panorama showing the Landscape and the people and animals who inhabit it                                                  ...
PLANNED MINING AREA                  NATIONAL PARKS                     DISTRICT 34 ABORASSA                              ...
Activities on the grazing fields                                                      čakča - Autumn                      ...
IMPACTS OF INTERVENTION OF MINING                                        CONTAMINATED AREA SINCE                          ...
THREATENED SPECIES AROUND BIEDJOVÁGGI                                         Larus canus              Gulo gulo          ...
FLEXIBILITY              “Når det gjelder spørsmålet om tilpasning, så er vi (og reinen) jo sågar nødt til                ...
What can Israeli military strategies teach us?          was instrumental in “letting people talk” and letting             ...
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Flexibility operational theory


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Flexibility operational theory

  1. 1. ...an international “shadow world” of military urban research institutes and training centres that have been established to rethink military operations in cities could be understood as somewhat similar to the international matrix of elite architectural academies. However, according to urban theorist Simon Marvin, the military-architectural “shadow world” is currently generating more intense and well-funded urban research programs than all these university programs put together... Eyal Wiezman, Lethal TheoryFlexibility
  2. 2. Unexpected Source of but as the very medium that the and feed-back is considerably shorter work so well even though there in Inspiration troops moved through fluently in a in this field than in any other form most cases are conflicts that should In the essay “Lethal Theory” by Eyal fractalized and irregular manner. of architectural practice where be recognized and accepted. The Weizmann we are introduced to the “results” can only be collected after idea of the small military unit that “This space that you look at, this room many years, if given any notice at operates as a part of a bigger network spatial military strategies of the IDF that you look at, is nothing but your all. This is regrettably something or swarm is also problematic in (Israeli Defence Force). By reading interpretation of it. Now, you can stretch architectural theory the strategist that has devastating implications terms of resolving the big issues. Big the boundaries of your interpretation, but gained a radical understanding of for the people affected by it, and investments and changes take time not in an unlimited fashion, after all, it space that was instrumental for must be bound by physics, as it contains causes sufferings that is difficult to and should do so. Where it could be them in their planning and that gave buildings and alleys. The question is, how imagine. The sudden intrusion by a inspirational is for all the stuff that them a strategic advantage over the do you interpret the alley? Do you interpret military force into the private domain needs to happen in between this. Palestinian forces that they were the alley as a place, like every architect and is extremely traumatizing and the How can we test out new ideas based every town planner does,to walk through, ultimate humiliation for the people on an understanding of space that fighting against. In the fights in or do you interpret the alley as a place who are victimized by it. This also is as open as what General Kokhavi Nabulus in 2002 a military strategy forbidden to walk through? challenges the belief that studies speaks about and that we can read was implemented that was based on - Brigadier General Aviv Kokhavi in philosophy and humanities has about in Doreen Massey’s texts? completely liberating oneself from the common conception of the basic a civilizing effect when one takes To introduce an operative unit that There is a “shadow world” of into account what this extremely could function just as fluently as elements of the city. The street, the military academies that deal with pragmatic reading of spatial theory the ideas that you are testing out. alley, the plaza and the buildings urban warfare that have a number has led to. This is probably not what And that could be as efficient in that constitutes them. The practice of traits in common with academic the author imagined, even though responding to the feed-back as it is in of “walking through walls” was institutions of architecture around Deleuze has said that it doesn’t matter implementing the change. introduced as a result of this, and the world that in many ways do more if you understand all of his texts. You the troops moved through the fabric well-funded research on urbanity could use parts of it as you yourself of the city through holes by blasting than all of the traditional institutions saw fit... with explosives or by knocking holes put together. One of these traits is with sledgehammers. No streets, the overlap of texts that are regarded If we for a moment choose not doors or public spaces were used. as essential for both (Deleuze, to focus on the negative sides of But the buildings that defined these Focault, Guattari, and Debord). The this example and rather look at elements were completely saturated biggest difference is that the military the effectiveness between theories, with the forces that moved through academies are more successful in practice and feed-back, one can be walls, floors and ceilings in an testing out and putting these theories inspired. To use the terms “enemy” irregular pattern. The strategy that into practice. This is because the and “allied” in a discussion regarding was used defined an understandingVideo stills of Israely military “Walking through Walls” Work by Gordon Matta-Clark challenging the conception of space distance between theory, practice planning and urbanity might not(Eyal Wiezmann,Lethal Theory) (From Gordon Matta-Clark by Corinne Diserens, Phaidon) of the city not as the site of war,
  4. 4. From Symetry to Asymetry. Manipulation of cultural difference “Relationships among the operating soldiers create what we Wa ha bi W “Formless” rival enteties dichotomizing conception and perception nar ch ists ale call “a community of practice”: Operative and tactical commanders on nA depend on one another and learn the problems through ar M r i From Network Cermic-Based Analysis to Cyrbernetic-Driven Synthesis Ve l ach ode at oc ine t -M R ity Pos as constructing the battle narrative. . . . Action becomes knowledge Vs e m Nomadic Terrorists .R st hy Sy th e m s hi zom and knowledge becomes action. . . . Without the possibility of a The DIalectics of Operational ProcessingFrom Locus to Globus: Imitation of War R Systemation of Operational Learning Logical determinants e Th Energy Injection Logic Disruption decisive result, the main benefit of operations is the very improve- Methodology - Content Between Objectivism Between Constitution and Symbolism Sources Extraction Between Difference and Repetition: ment of the system as a system” and Prostitution The DIalectics of “Walking on the Systemation on Structuring wild side” Operational Manouver and Structure Formative Implications “Theory is important for us in order to articulate the gap Networking Swarming p O between the existing paradigm and where we want to go. . . . Non-Contiguity le era ar ti ni on ng a Without theory, we could not make sense of different events that l th co happen around us and that would otherwise seem disconnected. . .” Hetrogenous Mileus Complex systems ro m For ug m ce- h an ion Ap D d tr uct n lea rnin plica is Sy co s Des - ructio Fractal Manouvers g M tion ur tem st ech as De con Strike-Driven Raids ani cs a se Shimon Naveh, retired brigadier general From Decition to Strike Relativization of Strategic Action and director of the Operational Theory Research Institute. Shimon Naveh’s PowerPoint slide marking “connection” between theoretical categories that inform his operational theory. Note most categories refer to work of Deleuze and Guattari. (from “Lethal Theory” by Eyal Wiezmann)
  5. 5. Hierarchical System withouth Lateral Connections Fractal System where units work independently together Rhizomatic System where all parts are equally importantTo the left: Video Stills from Vimeo showing a Swarm of Birds in Flight.(http://vimeo.com/18813015)
  6. 6. Panorama showing the Landscape and the people and animals who inhabit it Persons found on Facebook Animals that are shown are endangered species observed in that same area (source artskart.no)
  7. 7. Panorama showing the Landscape and the people and animals who inhabit it Persons found on Facebook Animals that are shown are endangered species observed in that same area (source artskart.no)
  9. 9. Activities on the grazing fields čakča - Autumn KARASJOK MUNICIPALITY TROMS COUNTY giđđa - Spring There are 12 “units” of herd- the Eira family, for three years in in Biedjovággi. During that time vággi area for calving. In addition ers that operate in Abborassa their trek through Finnmark. The the reindeers are captured into there ca. 3000 reindeer that mi- 1 of 1 (district 34) along with 20 other Eira family lives in Biedjovággi mills (“kverna”) and separated grate through whole district. herders that operate in a smaller area during the autumn and the either in group for slaughter or Around easter, most of the “units” scale. spring. calves to be vaccinated. gather for celebrate, where wed- The photographs above are taken dings are daily and competitions from the book, Boazojahki, Four Autumn Spring in sled race, ice-fishing or lasso- seasons with the reindeer people In the autumn season there a During the spring season there throwing are signified for the fes- N by the photographer Trym Ivar ca. 8000 reindeers (including the are ca 5500 reindeers in the dis- tive mood for the herders.0 Scale 1 : 250 000 1 2 3 4 5 Bergsmo. He lived and migrated calves) that migrate and graze in trict. Approximately 2500 of those Kilometer with unit of reindeer herders, the district, there of 2000 animals animals, use the land in Biedjo-
  10. 10. IMPACTS OF INTERVENTION OF MINING CONTAMINATED AREA SINCE PREVIOUS MINING ACTIVITY DEVELOPMENT-AREA FOR ARCTIC GOLD AS WITH The reindeer herders in district When it comes to the municipality unique in that task, namely to exemplifies that the resources 34 have experienced that min- of Kautokeino, they didn’t´make protect the pristine land. We get can be used up in short period of ing activities in the area, leave any premises for the mining com- little help from local authorities, time. It is unfortunately also bad large damages (roads, quarries, panies when they left in the past. even though that they are positive news for us that the government mud ponds) in the landscape and Back then there weren’t´any na- to such activities. has granted 100 million NOK for grazing soil is permanently lost. ture conservation act or miner- It has unfortunately also experi- mapping mineral resources in The mining activities have also als act, but according to Nils Isak enced. The plan for the gold min- northern Norway, especially in had impact on animals and plants Sara, district-manager in Abbo- ing in Biedjovággi, that stretches Finnmark then. KAUTOKEINO TOWN in the area. In the past the min- rassa, those acts do not protect over 19 km, can create 100 new ing didn’t´take any responsibil- the grazing land if the authori- jobs, but for how long is uncer- Interview with Nils Isak Sara, ity to re-vegetate or clean up the ties don´t have the will to follow tain. There have been 2 periods manager for District 34 N fields after the mining activity was these acts. So, reindeer herding, of mining industry before, from Scale 1 : 100 0000 1 2 3 4 5 closed. as such a small industry, is quite 1970-1975 and 1985-1991 that Kilometer
  11. 11. THREATENED SPECIES AROUND BIEDJOVÁGGI Larus canus Gulo gulo Anas strepera Canis lupus Carex tenuiflora Carex cespitosa Lemna trisulca Botrychium boreale N0 1 Scale 1 : 100 000 2 3 4 5 Arctophila fulva Salix hastata Coenagrion lunulatum Alauda arvensis Kilometer
  12. 12. FLEXIBILITY “Når det gjelder spørsmålet om tilpasning, så er vi (og reinen) jo sågar nødt til ,,...to think ecologically is to think about fluent, adaptive systems that incorpo- å tilpasse oss, vi har ikke noe annet valg. Det er jo mange som sier at reinen kan rate feedback and change.“ tilpasse seg allslags utbygginger, men hva annet valg har reinen? Et annet moment er jo at gruveselskapene har en tendens til å utvide undersøkels- ,,It means that your thinking has to be every bit as fluent and adaptive as the kind es/driftsområdene, så gir man dem “lillefingeren, så tar dem hele hånda”. det har of systems that you are talking about. In other words you can not apply rigid or vi dessverre også erfart.” dogmatic principals to systems that are themselves fluent, adaptable, changing and always incorporating feedback.“ “When it comes to the question of adaptation, then we (and reindeer) the even have to adapt, we have no choice. There’s many who say that the deer can adapt to all kinds of developments, but what other choice have reindeer? Another factor is that mining companies tend to expand the investigation / operation areas, you give them “the little finger, then take ,,...a way of thinking that mirrors the dynamism of ecological systems them- them all the hand”, it has unfortunately also experienced.” selves.“ Nils Isak Sara, Gregory Bateson, Steps to an Ecology of Mind reindeer herder and manager of district 34 AbborassaAbandoned Mining Area In Biedjovággi in 1991 Mining Area In Biedjovággi in 1975
  13. 13. What can Israeli military strategies teach us? was instrumental in “letting people talk” and letting the participants meet on equal terms. This was also The openness of the organization of the military mentioned by Svein Harald Holmen as important unit that Eyal speaks of is inspirational for me and in his work in Vardø in when he arranged meetings something that I hope could be implemented into with representatives of authority and locals. He also a more peaceful situation. The proximity between emphasizes the importance of dealing with tasks of where the theories are developed, where decisions a manageable size and that small communities need are made and effects are assessed is also something to address incremental changes in order to tackle that should be strived for. The smartness of the them. The big plans collecting dust in some drawer at system is based on an understanding of the different the office of the local municipality only made people units being able to self-govern themselves within a depressed because it reminded them that “nothing framework of an understanding of a common goal. ever happens here”. The Operational Theory Institute in this context is thus the lavvu meeting and this is Who defines the unit? In an area like Kautokeino where ideas could be developed, implementation and Biedjovaggi that is faced with challenges that planned and where the effects should be assessed. are proportionally out of scale compared to the The example of the IDF shows us that an open size of the community new strategies should be understanding of space is essential to achieving a developed. The picture of Kautokeino describes discussion that takes into account all possibilities. just a fragment of the complexity of the society it constitutes and should be kept in mind. The point here is not to oppose change and to say that mining for instance is always wrong, but that the problem arises when a flexible system like the reindeer herding business meets a less flexible system like open-cast mining. The lavvu meeting is good image of the kind of interaction that needs to take place.T he Operational T heor y Institute Ande Somby emphasized the role of the lavvu in times of crisis and how the architecture of the lavvu