Disseminating Moldovan Identity:
Moldovan W!ters and "eir Au#ences du!ng Stalin%m
Petru Negură, Dr.
The audience(s) of the Moldovan Soviet
Literature during Stalinism
(1928-1940 / 1940-1953)
The target audience: the worker...
Main (hypo)thesis
These two audiences reflect the binary
structure of the Moldovan literary
milieu and the contents of the ...
1924-1940 - the
Moldovan
Autonomous Soviet
Socialist Republic
(MASSR)
1940-1941, from 1944 -
the Moldovan Soviet
Socialist...
The consulted sources
The Party CC and the Moldovan Writers'
Union's Archives
Interviews with writers and villagers (born ...
The Moldovan "workers"
as "target audience"
An object of the Bolshevik official discourse: to be
"emancipated," transformed...
The writers and kolkhoz
workers: a missed meeting
The literacy rate in the MASSR:
1926: 63% - illiterates
1937 - 85% - lit...
The literary meetings in
kolkhozes in MASSR
The "literary soiree" in Ternauca village, in
october 1929: a failed meeting
T...
An unpopular "popular"
literature
1935, in the Kotovski distrikt, only 4 % from the planned amount of
books were sold
1935...
The ambiguous status of
the "real audience"
Young teachers, students, komsomol members,
selkors, and rabkors, actively inv...
Tinerimea, the young writers' group (within MWU), 1930
The literary audience in Soviet
Moldavia after '44: further stratification
From the late 1940s, young educated people claim...
Instead of conclusion:
The stratification of the literary audience reflects the double
aim (and logic of action) of the Mold...
Epilogue
The "real audience" as mediator between
writers and the "target audience"
The Moldovan literature became a "mass
...
Disseminating Moldovan Identity: Moldovan Writers and Their Audiences during Stalinism
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Disseminating Moldovan Identity: Moldovan Writers and Their Audiences during Stalinism

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Disseminating Moldovan Identity: Moldovan Writers and Their Audiences during Stalinism

  1. 1. Disseminating Moldovan Identity: Moldovan W!ters and "eir Au#ences du!ng Stalin%m Petru Negură, Dr.
  2. 2. The audience(s) of the Moldovan Soviet Literature during Stalinism (1928-1940 / 1940-1953) The target audience: the workers (urban and rural) The real audience: the educated readers (teachers, students, komsomol members, etc.)
  3. 3. Main (hypo)thesis These two audiences reflect the binary structure of the Moldovan literary milieu and the contents of the literary output during Stalinism.They also explain the evolution of that milieu.
  4. 4. 1924-1940 - the Moldovan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (MASSR) 1940-1941, from 1944 - the Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic (MSSR) 1918-1940 - Bessarabia - a Romanian province
  5. 5. The consulted sources The Party CC and the Moldovan Writers' Union's Archives Interviews with writers and villagers (born in the late 1920s) A body of 150 literary texts (100 poems and 50 in prose)
  6. 6. The Moldovan "workers" as "target audience" An object of the Bolshevik official discourse: to be "emancipated," transformed, educated... Enlightenment, Marxist, and narodnik ideals of the "New Man" (and masses as history makers) "National-cultural building,""cultural revolution,"and the "engineers of the human soul" The Soviet (Moldovan) literature: narodnost' and partiinost' The kolkhozy and kolkhoz workers as literary themes and characters
  7. 7. The writers and kolkhoz workers: a missed meeting The literacy rate in the MASSR: 1926: 63% - illiterates 1937 - 85% - literate, including 20% half-literates The rural, elderly, female population: the less educated 1924-1940 - 4 linguistic reforms in MASSR Literacy campaigns and literary soirees in factories and kolkhozes In Bessarabia, in 1941, more than 50% - illiterates
  8. 8. The literary meetings in kolkhozes in MASSR The "literary soiree" in Ternauca village, in october 1929: a failed meeting To elevate the "working people" to the level of the literature or to adapt the literature to the educational level of the "people"? In the 1930s - the writers' visits in kolkhozes - a current practice, then a routine
  9. 9. An unpopular "popular" literature 1935, in the Kotovski distrikt, only 4 % from the planned amount of books were sold 1935, in the Ghedirim village, from 1300 books in the village library, 463 in Moldovan - 40 books (in Moldovan) were borrowed for reading (30 by pupils, 6 by kolkhoz workers) 1935, in the Rîbnița district, in the city school library - only 9 books in "Moldovan", no books in "Moldovan" in the kolkhoz libraries and the Rîbnița sugar factory; in the whole district - only 6 subscriptions to the Octombrie review 1935, in Tiraspol, 1695 volumes of Octombrie review and 1010 of Scînteia leninistă were to be "recycled."
  10. 10. The ambiguous status of the "real audience" Young teachers, students, komsomol members, selkors, and rabkors, actively involved in literary activities (literary circles, literary meetings / soirees, reading houses, correspondence with the Writers' Union and Octombrie review, writing literature, criticizing the "professional" literature etc.) A pool of new recruits for journalism and the Moldovan Writers' Union
  11. 11. Tinerimea, the young writers' group (within MWU), 1930
  12. 12. The literary audience in Soviet Moldavia after '44: further stratification From the late 1940s, young educated people claim progressively a literature designed for their interests, reference universe, "horizons d'attente" From early 1950s, the first stories in prose written for young professionals, teachers, journalists - self- referentiality The "peasant" prose reinvented (Ion Druță) The literature for children
  13. 13. Instead of conclusion: The stratification of the literary audience reflects the double aim (and logic of action) of the Moldovan literary milieu: The "social demand" (to educate and to trasform the "working people") The aesthetic vocation / function (to instill an aesthetic feeling) The sub-field of large-scale production vs. the sub-field of small-scale production (P. Bourdieu): The existence of a "real" audience: a premise for literary autonomisation
  14. 14. Epilogue The "real audience" as mediator between writers and the "target audience" The Moldovan literature became a "mass literature" starting from the 1950s, due to its "real audience" (esp. teachers) who spread it through schooling.

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