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CORE: Aggregating and Enriching Content to Support Open Access

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CORE: Aggregating and Enriching Content to Support Open Access

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The last 10 years have seen a massive increase in the amounts of Open Access publications available in journals and institutional repositories. The existence of large volumes of free state-of-the-art knowledge online has the potential to provide huge savings and benefits in many fields. However, in order to fully leverage this knowledge, it is necessary to develop systems that (a) make it easy for users to access, discover and explore this knowledge, (b) that lower the barriers to the development of systems and services building on top of this knowledge and (c) that enable to freely analyse how this knowledge is organised and used. In this paper, we argue why these requirements should be fulfilled and show that current systems do not satisfy them. We also present CORE, a large-scale Open Access aggregation system, outline its functionality and architecture and demonstrate how it addresses the above mentioned needs and how it can be applied to benefit the whole ecosystem including institutional repositories, researchers, general public and government.

The last 10 years have seen a massive increase in the amounts of Open Access publications available in journals and institutional repositories. The existence of large volumes of free state-of-the-art knowledge online has the potential to provide huge savings and benefits in many fields. However, in order to fully leverage this knowledge, it is necessary to develop systems that (a) make it easy for users to access, discover and explore this knowledge, (b) that lower the barriers to the development of systems and services building on top of this knowledge and (c) that enable to freely analyse how this knowledge is organised and used. In this paper, we argue why these requirements should be fulfilled and show that current systems do not satisfy them. We also present CORE, a large-scale Open Access aggregation system, outline its functionality and architecture and demonstrate how it addresses the above mentioned needs and how it can be applied to benefit the whole ecosystem including institutional repositories, researchers, general public and government.

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CORE: Aggregating and Enriching Content to Support Open Access

  1. 1. CORE: Aggregating and Enriching Content to Support Open Access Petr Knoth The Open University 1/52
  2. 2. Outline 1. Aggregating Open Access (OA) publications – why, how, what for? 2. The CORE system 3. Supporting research in mining databases of scientific publications (DiggiCORE) 2/52
  3. 3. Outline 1. Aggregating Open Access (OA) publications – why, how, what for? 2. The CORE system 3. Supporting research in mining databases of scientific publications (DiggiCORE) 3/52
  4. 4. Growth of items in Open Access repositories 4/52
  5. 5. Growth of Open Access repositories 5/52
  6. 6. Growth of articles in OA journals 6/52
  7. 7. Growth of OA journals 7/52
  8. 8. Green Open Access - statistics 8/52
  9. 9. Why we need aggregations? “Each individual repository is of limited value for research: the real power of Open Access lies in the possibility of connecting and tying together repositories, which is why we need interoperability. In order to create a seamless layer of content through connected repositories from around the world, Open Access relies on interoperability, the ability for systems to communicate with each other and pass information back and forth in a usable format. Interoperability allows us to exploit today's computational power so that we can aggregate, data mine, create new tools and services, and generate new knowledge from repository content.’’ [COAR manifesto] 9/52
  10. 10. Access to information according to the level of abstraction Metadata Transfer Interoperability Metadata OLTP Analytical Semantic Enrichment Repository information access Interfaces Aggregation Transaction Repository information access Content OLAP Raw data access Repository 10/52
  11. 11. Who should be supported by aggregations? The following users groups (divided according to the level of abstraction of information they need): • Raw data access. • Transaction information access. • Analytical information access. 11/52
  12. 12. Who should be supported by aggregations? • The following users groups (divided according to the level of abstraction of information they need): • Raw data access. Developers, DLs, DL researchers, companies … • Transaction information access. Researchers, students, life-long learners … • Analytical information access. Funders, government, bussiness intelligence … 12/52
  13. 13. Layers of an aggregation system Interfaces OLTP OLAP Enrichment Metadata Content Metadata Transfer Interoperability 13/52
  14. 14. Layers of an aggregation system APIs (REST, SOAP, XML-RPC), UIs, Dashboards Statistics Interfaces OLTP OLAP Enrichment Catalog records Metadata Content Metadata Transfer Interoperability Annotations OAI-PMH, OAI-ORE … Dublin Core, XML, RDF … PDF, Word … 14/52
  15. 15. Access to information according to the level of abstraction Metadata Transfer Interoperability Metadata OLTP Repository Analytical information access Interfaces Enrichment Transaction Repository information access Content OLAP Raw data access Repository 15/52
  16. 16. Related systems 16/52
  17. 17. Aggregation projects – BASE Metadata Transfer Interoperability Metadata OLTP Repository Analytical information access Interfaces Enrichment Transaction Repository information access Content OLAP Raw data access Repository 17/52
  18. 18. Aggregation projects – OAISter/WorldCAT Metadata Transfer Interoperability Metadata OLTP Repository Analytical information access Interfaces Enrichment Transaction Repository information access Content OLAP Raw data access Repository 18/52
  19. 19. Aggregation projects – RepUK Metadata Transfer Interoperability Metadata OLTP Repository Analytical information access Interfaces Enrichment Transaction Repository information access Content OLAP Raw data access Repository 19/52
  20. 20. Aggregations need access to content, not just metadata! • Certain metadata types can be created only at the level of the aggregation • Certain metadata can be changing in time • Ensuring content: • accessibility • availability • validity • quality • … 20/52
  21. 21. Aggregation projects – CiteSeerX Metadata Transfer Interoperability Metadata OLTP Repository Analytical information access Interfaces Enrichment Transaction Repository information access Content OLAP Raw data access Repository 21/52
  22. 22. Should an aggregation system support all three user types? Can be realised by more than one system providing that the dataset is the same! 22/52
  23. 23. Outline 1. Aggregating Open Access (OA) publications – why, how, what for? 2. The CORE system 3. Supporting research in mining databases of scientific publications (DiggiCORE) 23/52
  24. 24. CORE objectives • CORE aims to provide a comprehensive technical infrastructure for Open Access scholarly publications that will support access and reuse of scholarly materials at different levels of abstraction. • A nation-wide aggregation system that will improve the discovery of publications stored in British Open Access Repositories (OARs). 24/52
  25. 25. What does CORE provide at different aggregation levels? Metadata Transfer Interoperability Metadata OLTP Repository Analytical information access Interfaces Enrichment Transaction Repository information access Content OLAP Raw data access Repository 25/52
  26. 26. CORE functionality 26/52
  27. 27. CORE functionality Step 1: Metadata and full-text harvesting Content harvesting, processing 27/52
  28. 28. What does CORE provide at different aggregation levels? Semantic similarity, Citation extraction, classsification, … Metadata Transfer Interoperability Metadata OLTP Repository Analytical information access Interfaces Enrichment Transaction Repository information access Content OLAP Raw data access Repository 28/52
  29. 29. CORE functionality Step 2: Semantic enrichment Semantic enrichment 29/52
  30. 30. What does CORE provide at different aggregation levels? Metadata Transfer Interoperability Metadata OLTP Repository Analytical information access Interfaces Enrichment Transaction Repository information access Content OLAP Raw data access Repository 30/52
  31. 31. CORE functionality Step 3: Providing a set of services on top of the aggregation Providing services 31/52
  32. 32. CORE applications • CORE Portal • CORE Mobile • CORE Plugin • CORE API • Repository Analytics 32/52
  33. 33. What does CORE provide at different aggregation levels? Metadata Transfer Interoperability Metadata OLTP Repository Analytical information access Interfaces Enrichment Transaction Repository information access Content OLAP Raw data access Repository 33/52
  34. 34. CORE Applications CORE Portal – Allows searching and navigating scientific publications aggregated from Open Access repositories 34/52
  35. 35. CORE Applications CORE Mobile – Allows searching and navigating scientific publications aggregated from Open Access repositories 35/52
  36. 36. CORE Applications CORE Plugin – A plugin to system that recommendations for related items. 36/52
  37. 37. What does CORE provide at different aggregation levels? Metadata Transfer Interoperability Metadata OLTP Repository Analytical information access Interfaces Enrichment Transaction Repository information access Content OLAP Raw data access Repository 37/52
  38. 38. CORE Applications CORE API – Enables external systems and services to interact with the CORE repository. 38/52
  39. 39. What does CORE provide at different aggregation levels? Metadata Transfer Interoperability Metadata OLTP Repository Analytical information access Interfaces Enrichment Transaction Repository information access Content OLAP Raw data access Repository 39/52
  40. 40. CORE Applications Repository Analytics – is an analytical tool supporting providers of open access content (in particular repository managers). 40/52
  41. 41. What does CORE provide at different aggregation levels? Repository Analytics Metadata Transfer Interoperability Metadata OLTP Repository Analytical information access Interfaces Enrichment CORE Portal, CORE Mobile, CORE Plugin Transaction Repository information access Content OLAP CORE API Raw data access Repository 41/52
  42. 42. CORE statistics • Content • 5.4M records • 192 repositories • 402k full-texts • Started: February 2011 • Budget: 140k£ 42/52
  43. 43. Outline 1. Aggregating Open Access (OA) publications – why, how, what for? 2. The CORE system 3. Supporting research in mining databases of scientific publications ( ) 43/52
  44. 44. Partners Advisory Board 44/52
  45. 45. Objective Software for exploration and analysis of very large and fast-growing amounts of research publications stored across Open Access Repositories (OAR). 45/52
  46. 46. DiggiCORE networks Three networks: (a) semantically related papers, (b) citation network, (c) author citation network 46/52
  47. 47. DiggiCORE objectives Allow researchers to use this platform to analyse publications. Why? • To identifying patterns in the behaviour of research communities • To detect trends in research disciplines • To gain new insights into the citation behaviour of researchers • To discover features that distinguish papers with high impact 47/52
  48. 48. Questions the system can help answering? • What are the attributes of impact publications? • Do these attributes differ in the humanities, social sciences and computer sciences? • What are the features of research groups within disciplines and how do these features relate to contributions generated by the group? • What are the attributes of high-impact authors and what is their role within the group? • What are the dynamics of successful research groups? 48/52
  49. 49. Questions the system can help answering? • What is the mechanism of cross-fertilisation within disciplines, especially between the humanities and the sciences? • Who are the authors whose work is worth monitoring because they contribute to the achievements of their own discipline and also inspire other disciplines? • How should the novice in the discipline get acquainted with key achievements in the discipline? • How should he/she search for the most important publications? 49/52
  50. 50. Summary • The rapid growth of OA content provides both an opportunity as well as a challenge. • Aggregations should serve the needs of different user groups. • Aggregations need to aggregate content, not just metadata. • We can have many services that are part of the infrastructure, but should work with the same data. 50/52
  51. 51. Thank you! Yes we can! 51/52
  52. 52. 52/52

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