History of linguistics_class-1

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History of linguistics_class-1

  1. 1. LINGÜÍSTICA – LINGUISTICS – LINGUISTIQUE – 语言学 – בלשנות - 言語学 – भाषा वैज्ञान - علم اللغة - LINGÜÍSTICA A BRIEF HISTORY Scope of Linguistics, Babylonia, India
  2. 2. TOWARDS A DEFINITION OF LINGUISTICS
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>It is hard to imagine spending one waking moment without language. Whether we are alone or among other people, whether we dream or daydream, whether we write poetry, follow a recipe, cheer for the home team, speak or sing, language is involved </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. FACTS <ul><ul><li>All normal children acquire a native language, no matter where they are born, what the language is or what their home life is like. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People who are deaf have language; so do those who are blind, mute, completely paralyzed, mentally retarded or emotionally disturbed. Language can be disrupted by injury or disease, processed by machines, altered for special occasions and exploited for ulterior motives. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Despite this extraordinary presence, versatility and variability, every human language, whether Old English or Modern Japanese, shares universal features. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistics is the discipline that studies such matters concerning language. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>( College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Linguistics, Ohio, at: http://www2.oakland.edu/catalog/undergrad/linguistics.pdf ) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Inquiries involved: Language (abstract and particular languages) “El lenguaje y la lengua” <ul><ul><li>What´s language (abstract sense)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A social Phenomenon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The main means of communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What´s language (as spoken)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particular manifestation of the above </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English Language, Spanish, Hindi, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Linguistics? <ul><ul><li>Systematic (or, scientific) treatment of the structure of language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The search for an explanation of aspects of language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistics is the study of language rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you learn the rules of English, it would help you improve English. Example: morpheme able vs. unable, acquainted vs. unacquainted When “un-” is attached to an adjective, the meaning becomes the opposite of the original meaning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You do not have to memorize each word. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. ¿Qué es la Lingüística? <ul><ul><li>“ La Lingüística es la disciplina que estudia el lenguaje natural humano como parte universal y considerado como fundamento de la propia esencia del hombre. Por tanto, el lenguaje es nuestro objeto de estudio. Sin embargo, puesto que la capacidad de comunicación que constituye el lenguaje se concreta en las lenguas particulares, debemos añadir que la Lingüística estudia además las lenguas” (J.L. Jiménez, 2001: 45) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE <ul><ul><li>Do animals have languages? Animal communication - one for warnings of predators, one for claims to territory, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE <ul><ul><li>Animals could give warnings of predators Does it mean animals have a languages? No, they are finite number of signs. You can make infinite number of sentences. Ex. 1. It was unexpectedly cold. 2. John wrote that it was unexpected cold. 3. Mary said that John wrote that it was unexpected cold. 4. I heard that Mary said that that John wrote that it was unexpected cold. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE <ul><ul><li>Chimpanzees share 98% of genes with human beings. Can they learn a human language? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some psychologists taught English to chimpanzees. A chimp responded to some speeches such as “Kiss me” and “Bring me the dog.” However, the chimp did not respond to “Kiss the dog.” </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE <ul><ul><li>A language must have grammar. (The difference between “kiss me” and “kiss the dog”) Animals may have signs that are equivalent to words, but they do not have grammar. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal communications do not have structures. (no grammar) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. History of Linguistics <ul><ul><li>It is not possible to understand developments in linguistics without taking into account their historical and cultural contexts. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. History of Linguistics <ul><ul><li>J.C. Zamora: Linguistics must have started in the moment in which the first reflections upon language are produced, it coincides with the creation of the different writing systems. This is because all forms of graphic representation imply a given type of analysis of linguistic issues. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Antiquity - Babylonia <ul><ul><li>Old-Babylonian tradition, when the first linguistic texts were composed, Sumerian, which was the language of religious and legal texts, was being replaced by Akkadian [4.000 bc. Aprox.] </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Mesopotamian World
  17. 17. Antiquity - Babylonia <ul><ul><li>Importance of writing: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to convey insights and to allow cumulative development of science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to provide food for thought on the relationship between sounds and letters (fonology) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the mind seems to have a better grasp on written material than on the fleeting words of spoken language </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Antiquity - Babylonia
  19. 19. Antiquity - India <ul><ul><li>This grammatical tradition emerged, by about 1900 BC and lasted 2,500 years, so that Sumerian could be learned and these texts could continue to be read. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the texts were administrative lists: inventories, receipts, and rosters. Some early texts for use in the scribal school were inventories (lists) of Sumerian nouns and their Akkadian equivalents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From this, grammatical analysis evolved in the sixth and fifth centuries BC; different forms of the same word, especially of verbs, were listed in a way that represented grammatical paradigms and matched them between the two languages (Gragg 1995, Hovdhaugen 1982). </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Antiquity - India <ul><ul><li>In several cases, the roots of linguistics lies in the wish to maintain sacred texts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most notably in the preservation of the Vedas. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Vedas: the oldest of the Sanskrit memorized religious texts, date from ca. 1200 BC. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Context: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sanskrit, the sacred language, was changing, but ritual required exact verbal performance. Rules of grammar were set out for learning and understanding the archaic language. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Antiquity - India
  22. 22. Antiquity - India <ul><ul><li>“ Para los antiguos hindúes, en la época védica, Vak “la palabra hablada”, era la madre de la palabra y madre de los Vedas, ella representaba el lenguaje y las fuerzas de la naturaleza.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rodríguez at: http://www.monografias.com/trabajos11/histling/histling.shtml </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Antiquity - India <ul><li>Pāini's (500 BC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The best known grammarian from the Hindu tradition is Panini, whose grammar covered phonetics (isolation and connected speech) and morphology (word-structure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Panini‘s grammar was expressed largely in the forms of word formation sometimes of a high degree of abstraction. (first descriptive grammar) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Hindu tradition of linguistis far surpassed anything done in Europe for a very long time. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Homework <ul><ul><li>Importance of Phoenician Alphabet – Acuña - Vega </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic ideas in antiquity: Greek Tradition (Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, nature-convention) – Canales - Ibieta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic ideas in antiquity: Roman Tradition (Donatus, Priscian) – Quezada - Sanhueza </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic ideas in antiquity: Arabic and Hebrew Traditions (Qur'ān, al-Khalīl , morphologic tradition) – Garcés – Muñoz - Veloso </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic ideas in the Middle Ages (Bacon, Modistae, Bible, Saint Jerome, universal notion of grammar) – Ivaca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic ideas in the Renaissance (Descartes, Comparative Method ) – Valenzuela - Martinez </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Get Information from: <ul><ul><li>http://www.scribd.com/doc/7983954/The-Handbook-of-Linguisticspdf (Chapter 4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.monografias.com/trabajos11/histling/histling.shtml (doc. in Spanish) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://mcgregor.continuumbooks.net/media/1/history_outline.pdf </li></ul></ul>

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