In this section, we will be going to look into two
models of classroom discipline, and they are:
The Kounin’s Model of Discipline.
The Skinner’s Model of Discipline.
WITH-IT-NESS, ALERTING AND GROUP
The ripple effect: when you correct a student’s
behavior, it tends to change the behavior of
The teacher needs to be with it to know what is
going on everywhere in the room at all times.
Smooth transitions between activities and
maintaining momentum are key to effective
Optimal learning takes place when teachers
keep pupils alert and held accountable for
Boredom [satiation] can be avoided by providing variety to
lessons, classroom environment and by pupil’s awareness of
THE RIPPLE EFFECT
Teacher issues encouragement and at the same
time gives reprimands.
“Good, I see a lot of you are almost done with your
tasks, and I see a few people who may have to stay
after school to finish,”
Makes students aware of the consequences of
completing/not-completing their tasks.
Most powerful in childhood/primary levels.
Describes teachers’ knowing what was going on
in all areas of the classroom all the time.
Teachers need to assert this trait verbally, as
students are only convinced that teachers really
know what is going on if they give responses to
Handling the correct deviant on time is more
important than firmness, or clarity of desist –
students are less likely to misbehave.
Ability to attend to two issues at the same time.
Teacher must be able to handle one thing
without affecting the other, for example:
Students are playing while the rest are
doing tasks in small groups. Teacher
should have the small group continue
while addressing the deviants from a
distance, instead of stopping the small
group activity, handle the deviants and
reestablishing the small group work.
Smooth transition is important.
Teachers must be able to move smoothly from
one activity to the next and maintain momentum
within every activity – keeps students attention on
task on hand.
Very effective in preventive facet of discipline,
maintaining a good learning environment and
However, not effective (almost no help) in
corrective facet of discipline, wherein
misbehaviors must be dealt with and redirected
Behavior is shaped by its consequences – what
happens to the individual immediately afterward.
Systematic use of reinforcement (rewards) can
shape pupils’ behaviors in desired manner.
Behavior weakens if no reinforcement follow-up
Once learning achieved, best maintained
through intermittent reinforcement.
Can be easily modified with students of all ages
TYPES OF REINFORCERS
Words, gestures and facial expressions.
Numerals, checks, happy faces and special
In the form of activities that students prefer in school, e. g.
playing games, decorating classroom, free reading etc.
Real objects that students can earn as rewards for desired
EFFECTIVENESS OF NEO-
Powerful effect, as systematic attention and
reinforcing becomes natural parts of the teaching
However, there are concerns over free will of
students – Skinner rejected free will in principle, an
essential human trait.
Kaufman, M., et. al. (1993). Managing classroom
behavior: A reflective case-based approach.
Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon.
Marzano, R. J., et. al. (2005). A handbook for
classroom management that works. Virginia: